1st Istanbul International Geography Congress Proceedings Book
Regional distribution of female labor force in TurkeyEmine Akman
The wage participation of women in the labor force was realized in the wake of the industrial revolution. Industrial development paved the way for women to sell their labor for wages. The most common problems facing the female labor force are low-wage employment in labor-intensive jobs and the lack of social security in the informal sector. In addition, gender discrimination by employers continues to be a problem. There is high participation of women in the labor force in the developed regions of Turkey but lower participation in developing regions. Therefore, there is uneven distribution of the female workforce at the regional level. Opportunities for women in education have been limited because of their identity as women in return for their labor in working life and their participation in social activities. Unfortunately, traditional attitudes continue to prevail. However, the social changes that have been brought about through the process of industrialization and urbanization mean that women have assumed new roles. Thus, women have attempted to gain economic freedom by entering the workforce. In this study, the regional distribution of the female labor force is analyzed according to the Statistical Region Units Classification (NUTS) Level 1. The primary objective of this study is to explore the regional distribution of the female labor force in Turkey, establish the causes of this, and present results in line with the basic principles of geography. Data used in this study were obtained from the Turkey Statistical Institute (TUIK) official website. Female employment, female labor force participation rates (LFPR), and factors affecting female labor force participation at the regional level are discussed. NUTS (Level 1) is taken as the basis of the regional classification because of the country’s regional separation along provincial borders. In other classifications, because of geographical region separation, healthy data could not be provided as not all provinces are located in the same region.