DOI :10.26650/PB/PS12.2019.002.068   IUP :10.26650/PB/PS12.2019.002.068    Full Text (PDF)

The global distribution characteristics of botanic gardens and their importance for biodiversity and climate change

Meral AvcıSedat Avcı

Despite conservation efforts since the 1990s, biodiversity losses continue to accelerate. The apparent impact of humanity on ecosystems and the resulting changes due to human activities have led to a new era: the Anthropocene. In this era, biodiversity conservation efforts are even more challenging because of both human impact and the consequences of climate change processes. To preserve biodiversity, botanic gardens are becoming increasingly significant, playing a crucial role in investigations on the adaptation to changing climates and habitats, migration probabilities, observations of phenological changes, and the maintenance of plant diversity in urban areas. According to data from Botanic Garden Conservation International, there are more than 3,500 botanic gardens, arboretums, parks, and/or seed banks across the world. These gardens contain one third of the living samples of all known plant species. Most botanic gardens also have herbariums and seed banks. Seed banks act as insurance against plant extinction and support research. When climate change processes are taken into consideration, the value and responsibilities of botanic gardens become paramount. This study investigated the distribution of botanic gardens from a geographical perspective. To examine the relationship between botanic gardens and major ecosystems, mega-diverse countries, hot spots, population, gross domestic product, urbanization, and cities, ArcGIS 10.2 software was used to create maps. These maps indicate the coordinates of botanic gardens and were used to investigate the effects of their distribution on the aforementioned parameters. The temporal development of the botanic gardens and their current global distribution with respect to climate change were examined.


  • Avcı, M. (2018). Ekosistem Coğrafyası, İstanbul Üniversitesi Açık ve Uzaktan Eğitim Fakültesi yayını, İstanbul. google scholar
  • BG. (2019). (erişim 01.09.2019). google scholar
  • BGCI (2019a). Mission and strategy, Botanic Garden Conservation International. <>, 14/05/2019. google scholar
  • BGCI. (2019b). (erişim 01.09.2019). google scholar
  • Balding, M. ve Williams, K.J. (2016). Plant blindness and the implications for plant conservation. Conservation Biology, 30(6), 1192-1199. google scholar
  • Cannon, C.H. ve Kua, C.S. (2017). Botanic gardens should lead the way to create a “Garden Earth” in the Anthropocene. Plant Diversity, 39, 331-337. google scholar
  • Chen, D. ve H. W. Chen (2013). Using the Köppen classification to quantify climate variation and change: An example for 1901–2010. Environmental Development, 6, 69-79. google scholar
  • Ekim, T. (2013). NGBB’de bir kitabın hazırlanma serüveni- Türkiye bitkileri listesi (damarlı bitkiler). Bağbahçe, 45, 3-5. google scholar
  • Heywood, V.H. (2011). The role of botanic gardens as resource and introduction centres in the face of global change. Biodiversity and Conservation,20 (2), 221–239. google scholar
  • Heywood, V.H. (2017). Plant conservation in the Anthropocene- Challenges and future prospects. Plant Diversity, 39, 314-330. google scholar
  • Heywood, V.H. (2018). The cultural heritage of Mediterranean botanic gardens. Flora Mediterranea, 28, 207-218. google scholar
  • Heywood, V.H. (2019). Conserving plants within and beyond protected areas-still problematic and future uncertain. Plant Diversity, 41, 36-49. google scholar
  • Heywood, V. ve Brunel, S. (2011). Code of Conduct on Horticulture and Invasive Plants. Nature and Environment, 162. Council of Europe Publishing,Wasselonne, France. google scholar
  • Hill, W.A. (1915). The history and functions of botanic gardens. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 2 (1/2), 185-240., 17/08/2019. google scholar
  • Krishnan, S., Moreau, T., Kuehny, J., Novy, A., Greene, S.L. ve Khoury, C.K. (2019). Resetting the table for people and plants: Botanic gardens and research organizations collaborate to address food and agricultural plant blindness. Plants, People, Planet, 1, 157-163. google scholar
  • Krosnick, S.E., Baker, J.C. ve Moore, K.R. (2018). The pet plant project: Treating plant blindness by making plants personal. The American Biology Teacher, 80 (5), 339-345. google scholar
  • Lugo, A.E. (2015). Forestry in the Anthropocene. Science, 349 (6250), 771. google scholar
  • Miller, A.J., Novy, A., Glover, J., Kellogg, E.A., Maul, J.E., Raven, P. ve Wyse Jackson, P. (2015). Expanding the role of botanical gardens in the future of food. Nature Plants. doi: 10.1038/NPLANTS.2015.78. google scholar
  • Myers, N. (2001). Hotspots. Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, 3, 371-381. Academic Press. google scholar
  • Poon, L. (2018). “Mapping the ‘conflict zones’ between sprawl and biodiversity”. Atlas for the End of the World. google scholar
  • Prance, G.T. (2010). A brief history of conservation at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Kew Bulletin, 65, 501-508. google scholar
  • RBG Kew (2016). The State of the World’s Plants Report-2016. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. google scholar
  • Rubel, F. ve Kottek, M. (2010). Observed and projected climate shifts 1901-2100 depicted by world maps of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification.Meteorologische Zeitschrift, 19 (2), 135-141. google scholar
  • Seddon, A.W.R., Fauria, M.M., Long, P.R., Benz, D. ve Willis, K.J. (2016). Sensitivity of global terrestrial ecosystems to climate variability. Nature,531 (7593), 229-232. google scholar
  • UNESCO (2019). (erişim 01.09.2019). google scholar
  • Volis, S. (2017). Conservation utility of botanic garden living collections: Setting a strategy and appropriate methodology. Plant Diversity, 39, 365-372. google scholar
  • Willis, K.J. (ed.) (2017). State of the World’s Plants 2017. Report. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. google scholar
  • Weller, R.J., Hoch, C. ve Huang, C. (2017). “Hotspots Cities”, Atlas for the End of the World., 16.06.2019 google scholar
  • World Bank (2019). The Word by Income and Region. 17/08/2019, 17/08/2019. google scholar


Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.