1st Istanbul International Geography Congress Proceedings Book
Vegetation in the vicinity of uzungöl, TurkeySena İnkaya, Meral Avcı
The Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey attracts widespread attention owing to its rugged topography and rich vegetation because of high rainfall. This region merges with the Caucasus Mountains in the east and is separated from the Central Black Sea region by the Melet River. The eastern part of the Melet River comprises the Colchic flora regions defined within the Euxine Sea region. This region is located in the Eastern Black Sea coastal mountains and defined as an Important Plant Area because of its floristic richness and high levels of endemism; it also provides a habitat for plants with high economic value. The humid forests in the vicinity of Uzungöl are dominated by broad-leaved trees [such as eastern beech (Fagus orientalis), hornbeam (Carpinus betulus), alder (Alnus glutinosa subsp. barbata), Anatolian chestnut (Cestanea sativa), elm (Ulmus glabra), maples (Acer trautvetteri and A. cappadocicum), and aspen (Populus tremula)] in elevated regions of 800–1000 m; these trees are mostly deciduous in winter. As the elevation increases, these trees are replaced by evergreen coniferous forests, which predominantly comprise oriental spruce (Picea orientalis) and Eastern Black Sea fir (Abies nordmanniana subsp. nordmanniana). Finally, the upper limit of forest elevation varies between 2200 and 2250 m. In such elevated regions, birch species (Betula litwinowii and B. pendula) form pure communities in some areas. Woody species such as Rhododendron are specific to the Colchic flora region and extend to the alpine region. Some aquatic plant species such as water horsetail (Equisetum fluviatile), cattail (Typha shuttleworthii), soft rush (Juncus effusus), purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), and simplestem bur-reed (Sparganium erectum subsp. neglectum) have been identified in regions located in the vicinity of Uzungöl. Increasing numbers of tourism-related buildings have been constructed around the Uzungöl lake since the 1980s, and an increase in the number of tourists has also conferred great pressure on the natural vegetation. The most common invasive plant in the study region is oneseed bur-cucumber (Sicyos angulatus), which is native to eastern North America.