CHAPTER


DOI :10.26650/B/SS10.2024.013.005   IUP :10.26650/B/SS10.2024.013.005    Full Text (PDF)

Women Empowerment Through Compulsory Schooling Reform: the Case of Türki̇ye

Emine Kübra Usta Abdul Hakem Mahmoud OkourElif Satılmış Erbay

This study investigates the causal impacts of the 1997 compulsory schooling reform on women’s empowerment in Türkiye. The reform extended the compulsory education duration from 5 years to 8 years. The policy had an impact on individuals born in 1987 onwards, whereas those born in earlier years were unaffected. This allows us to employ a regression discontinuity design (RDD) and reveal the causal impact of the reform on women’s educational outcomes, their status in the family, and their perceptions and attitudes towards gender roles in relation to the Fifth Sustainable Development Goal. We examined the 2008, 2013, and 2018 waves of the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS), which is a nationally representative micro dataset. Results show that this large-scale reform has led to significant improvements in women’s educational outcomes. The policy has led to increases in the years of education, and completion of grade 8 and grade 11 for women, as well as a decrease in educational disparities between spouses. However, when we check other empowerment-related outcomes within the family, results show that the extent of empowerment is quite limited. Only one outcome in each set of variables (perception of gender roles, perception of physical violence, financial independence) shows empowerment. This suggests that higher educational attainment and improved educational status compared to the husband are not reflected in daily lives and the perceptions of women. All in all, stronger educational outcomes for women resulting from the policy have minor empowering effects.



References

  • Aydemir, A., & Kirdar, M. G. (2017). Low wage returns to schooling in a developing country: Evidence from a major policy reform in Turkey. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 79(6), 1046-1086. https://doi. org/10.1111/obes.12174 google scholar
  • Brunello, G., Fort, M., Schneeweis, N., &Winter-Ebmer, R. (2015). The Causal Effect of Education on Health: What is the Role of Health Behaviors?. HealthEconomics, 25(3), 314-336, https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.3141 google scholar
  • Cesur, R., & Mocan, N. (2018). Education, religion, and voter preference in a Muslim country. Journal of Po-pulation Economics, 31(1), 1-44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00148-017-0650-3 google scholar
  • Cinar, K., & Ugur-Cinar, M. (2018). What the city has to offer: Urbanization and women’s empowerment in Turkey. Politics & Gender, 14(2), 235-263. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743923X18000028 google scholar
  • Cygan-Rehm, K. & Maeder, M. (2013). The effect of education on fertility: Evidence from a compulsory scho-oling reform. Labour Economics. 25, 35-48. google scholar
  • Dinçer, M. A., Kaushal, N., & Grossman, M. (2014). Women’s education: Harbinger of another spring? Evi-dence from a natural experiment in Turkey. World Development, 64, 243-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. worlddev.2014.06.010 google scholar
  • Duflo, E. (2012). Women empowerment and economic development. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(4), 1051-1079. google scholar
  • Dursun, B., & Cesur, R. (2016). Transforming lives: The impact of compulsory schooling on hope and happiness. Journal of Population Economics, 29(3), 911-956. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00148-016-0592-1 google scholar
  • Dursun, B., Cesur, R., & Mocan, N. (2018). The impact of education on health outcomes and behaviors in a middle-income, low-education country. Economics & Human Biology, 31, 94-114. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. ehb.2018.07.004 google scholar
  • Erten, B., & Keskin, P. (2018). For better or for worse?: Education and the prevalence of domestic violen-ce in Turkey. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, 10(1), 64-105. https://doi.org/10.1257/ app.20160278 google scholar
  • Goal 5: Gender equality - The Global Goals. (2023, April 18). Retrieved from https://www.globalgoals.org/ goals/5gender-equality/ google scholar
  • Gulesci, S., & Meyersson, E. (2013). ‘For the love of the republic’ education, secularism, and empowerment. google scholar
  • Working Papers 490, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University. google scholar
  • Gulesci, S., Meyersson, E., & Trommlerova, S. K. (2020). The effect of compulsory schooling expansion on mothers’ attitudes toward domestic violence in Turkey. The World Bank Economic Review, 34(2), 464-484. https://doi.org/10.1093/wber/lhy021 google scholar
  • Güneş, P. M. (2015). The role of maternal education in child health: Evidence from a compulsory schooling law. Economics of Education Review, 47, 1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.econedurev.2015.02.008 google scholar
  • Ilkkaracan, I. (2012). Why so few women in the labor market in Turkey. Feminist Economics, 18(1), 1-37. google scholar
  • ILO. (2020). Measuring the gender wage gap Turkey case. Retrieved April 29, 2023, from https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---europe/---ro-geneva/---ilo ankara/documents/publication/wcms_756660.pdf google scholar
  • Imbens, G., & Kalyanaraman, K. (2012). Optimal bandwidth choice for the regression discontinuity estimator. The Review of Economic Studies, 79(3), 933-959. google scholar
  • Kabeer, N. (1999). Resources, agency, achievements: Reflections on the measurement of women’s empower-ment. Development and Change, 30(3), 435-464. google scholar
  • Kabeer, N. (2005). Gender equality and women’s empowerment: A critical analysis of the third millennium development goal 1. Gender & Development, 13(1), 13-24, DOI: 10.1080/13552070512331332273 google scholar
  • Kagitçbasi, Ç. (1986). Status of women in Turkey: Cross-cultural perspectives. International Journal of Middle East Studies, 18(04), 485-499. google scholar
  • Kırdar, M. G., Dayıoğlu, M., & Koç, İ. (2018). The effects of compulsory-schooling laws on teenage marriage and births in Turkey. Journal of Human Capital, 12(4), 640-668. https://doi.org/10.1086/700076 google scholar
  • Kırdar, M. G., Dayıoğlu, M., & Koç, İ. (2016). Does longer compulsory education equalize schooling by gender and rural/urban residence? World Bank Economic Review, 30(3), 549-579. https://doi.org/10.1093/wber/ lhv035 google scholar
  • Monstad, K., Propper, C., & Salvanes, K. G. (2008). Education and Fertility: Evidence from a Natural Expe-riment. The Scandinavian Journal ofEconomics, 110(4), 827-852. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25195376 google scholar
  • OECD. (2021). LFS by sex and age—Indicators. Retrieved April 29, 2023, from https://stats.oecd.org/Index. aspx?DataSetCode=lfs_sexage_i_r google scholar
  • Özer, M., Fidrmuc, J., & Eryurt, M. A. (2018). Maternal education and childhood immunization in Turkey. Health Economics, 27(8), 1218-1229. https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.3770 google scholar
  • Tansel, A., & Karaoglan, D. (2016). The causal effect of education on health behaviors: Evidence from Turkey. Koç University-TUSIAD Economic Research Forum Working Papers, Article 1606. https://ideas.repec. org//p/koc/wpaper/1606.html google scholar
  • TURKSTAT. (2022). İstatistiklerle Kadın, 2022. Retrieved April 29, 2023, from https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/ Index?p=Istatistiklerle-Kadin-2022-49668 google scholar
  • TURKSTAT. (2021a). İşgücü İstatistikleri, Aralık 2019. Retrieved April 29, 2023, from https://data.tuik.gov.tr/Bulten/Index?p=Isgucu-Istatistikleri-Aralik-2021-45642 google scholar
  • TURKSTAT. (2021b). Gender Statistics, 2021. Retrieved April 29, 2023, from https://www.tuik.gov.tr/media/ announcements/toplumsal_cinsiyet_istatistikleri_2021.pdf google scholar
  • UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). (2005). Arab Human Development Report 2004: Towards freedom in the Arab World. google scholar
  • UNDP (United Nations Development Programme).(2020a). Gender Equality: Why It Matters. Retrieved May 21, 2023, from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/5_Why-It-Mat-ters-2020.pdf google scholar
  • UNDP (United Nations Development Programme).(2020b). Turkey is in the top human development category for the second time in Human Development Index. Retrieved August 25, 2023, from https://www.undp.org/ turkiye/news/turkey-top-human-development-category-second-time-human-development-index google scholar
  • UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). (2022a). Turkey’s Gender Equality Performance from 2000 to 2019. google scholar
  • UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). (2022b). Development Report 2021-2022 Uncertain Times, Unsettled Lives: Shaping Our Future in a Transforming World. google scholar
  • Usta, E. K. (2020). Effects of maternal education on early nonmonetary investments in child development. Journal ofHuman Capital, 14(4), 535-583. https://doi.org/10.1086/711761 google scholar
  • Yenilmez, M. İ. (2017). Measuring and analysing women’s empowerment in Turkey. Yönetim ve Ekonomi Araştırmaları Dergisi, 15(1), 171-193. https://doi.org/10.11611/yead.306816 google scholar


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.