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DOI :10.26650/BS/AA14.2021.001-1.11   IUP :10.26650/BS/AA14.2021.001-1.11    Full Text (PDF)

Bilingualism in Tatarstan After The 1990s: Will Tatar Survive in the City?

Alina Minsafina

The national policy of the Soviet government has strengthened the Russian language over the whole territory of the USSR. Until 1990, Russian was the only language of interethnic communication. Tatar had a restricted sphere of usage and a low level of social prestige. As a result of implementing a non-ethnic monolingual society strategy in the USSR, bilingualism in the territory of modern Tatarstan and especially in cities was very asymmetric. From 1992 on, with recognition of Russian and Tatar as equal state languages in the Republic of Tatarstan, one of the main goals of the language policy in the republic has been to expand the social and cultural function of the Tatar language, raising its role and increasing the number of speakers. According to the current situation, Tatar-Russian bilingualism with Tatar being the dominant language is widespread in rural areas. In cities, especially large ones, the main medium of communication is Russian. Though almost all rural Tatars consider the Tatar language to be their native language, internal migration from village to city favors the expansion of Russian language usage and localization of the usage of Tatar. Urbanization contributes to the wide use of Russian and leads to the Russification of the significant part of the urban population. Russian monolingualism in cities is especially obvious in science, education, and technologies. Today the entire population of the republic speaks Russian, while only 86% of Tatars and only 7.5% of Russians can speak Tatar. With the process of urbanization, these numbers may change soon, not giving a chance for Tatar to become an equal city language.


DOI :10.26650/BS/AA14.2021.001-1.11   IUP :10.26650/BS/AA14.2021.001-1.11    Full Text (PDF)

1990’lı Yıllardan Sonra Tataristan’da İki-Dillilik: Tatarca Şehirde Yaşayacak Mı?

Alina Minsafina

Sovyet hükûmetinin ulusal politikaları tüm SSCB topraklarında Rus dilinin kullanımını yaygınlaştırmıştır. 1990 yılına kadar Rusça, farklı etnik grupların başvurdukları tek iletişim diliydi. Tatarca sınırlı alanlarda kullanılıp düşük sosyal prestij seviyesine sahipti. 1992 yılından itibaren Tataristan Cumhuriyeti’nde Rusça ve Tatarcanın eşit devlet dilleri olarak tanımlanmasıyla birlikte, Tataristan’da uygulanan dil politikasının ana hedeflerinden biri, Tatarcanın sosyal ve kültürel işlevini genişletmek ve konuşur sayısını arttırmak olmuştur. Günümüzde Tatarcanın egemen olduğu Rusça-Tatarca iki-dillilik, kırsal bölgelerde yaygındır. Şehirlerde, özellikle büyük olanlarda, temel iletişim aracı Rusçadır. Neredeyse tüm kırsal nüfus ana dil olarak Tatarcayı kullansa da köyden şehre göçler, Rusçanın kullanımını yaygınlaştırıp Tatarcayı ikinci planda bırakmıştır. Kentleşme, Rusçanın geniş kullanımına katkıda bulunup kentsel nüfusun önemli kısmının Ruslaşmasına yol açmıştır. Şehirlerdeki Rusça tek-dillilik özellikle bilim, eğitim ve teknoloji alanlarında yaygındır. Bugün ülkenin tüm nüfusu Rusça konuşurken, Tatarların %86’sı ve Rusların %7.5’i Tatarcayı bilmektedir. Kentleşme süreci ile birlikte bu rakamlar daha da düşecektir. Bu nedenle Tatarca bir şehir dili olma şansını kaybetmektedir.



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