CHAPTER


DOI :10.26650/B/AA09.2021.007.06   IUP :10.26650/B/AA09.2021.007.06    Full Text (PDF)

The Final Period in the Cycle: Evaluating the Works of Greek-Orthodox Music Theorists of the 19th Century Ottoman Music Scene as a Cultural Media for Constructing Or Preserving National Identity

Nevin ŞahinCenk Güray

This chapter compares music-related treatises of Greek-Orthodox theorists to elucidate the effects of the dominant 19th century nationalist ideologies on music theory. The shift in the Greek-Orthodox community in the Ottoman Empire from ethno-religious identification to a national identity paralleled the political developments of the era. Subsequently, this transferal played a role in shaping a Greek national music within the Ottoman Empire, utilizing ecclesiastical and folk music traditions. The influence of these developments on music theory was, however, directed toward geographical and transcultural connections rather than toward efforts to establish a national music theory congruent with the music traditions in question. The chapter examines the ideas generated by 19th-century Greek-Orthodox music theorists Apostolos Konstas, Konstantinos Protopsaltis, and Panagiotis Kiltzanidis against the work of their 18th-century counterparts, Panagiotis Chalatzoglou and Kyrillos Marmarinos. It especially scrutinizes connections to the multicultural work of Tanburî Küçük Artin and contemplates the influence of the 18th century theorist Dimitrie Cantemir. These analyses reveal the emergence of a line of Greek-Orthodox theory that also nourished the theoretical conventions of Ottoman music, distinguishing the Istanbul musical tradition from Arabic and Persian music practices. The study also ascertains the transculturality of forming a music theory influenced by Turkish-Muslim, GreekOrthodox, Armenian, and other multicultural perspectives.



References

  • Anagnostopulu, A. (2011). Tanzimat ve Rum Milletinin Kurumsal Çerçevesi [Tanzimat and the Institutional Framework of the Rum Millet]. In Pinelopi Stathis, ed. 19. Yüzyıl İstanbul’unda Gayrimüslimler [Non-Muslims in the 19th Century Istanbul] ( pp. 1-38). İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları.. google scholar
  • Apostolopoulos, T. K. (2002). Apostolos Konstas of Chios and his Contribution to the Theory of Music (O AnooTokovKcovoto.g' O XtoaKaı H Su^po^n Tou Sın ®8Mpıa TyaMouaiKn^ Tsxvno). Athens: Stathes. google scholar
  • Arel, H. S. (1969). Türk Musikisi Kimindir [Whom Does Turkish Music Belong To]. İstanbul: Millî Eğitim Basımevi. google scholar
  • Behar, C. (1994). Türk Musikisinin Tarihi Kaynaklarından Karamanlıca Yayınlar [Karamanli Publications from Historical Sources of Turkish Music], Müteferrika, 2: 39. google scholar
  • Clogg, R. (1982). The Greek Millet in the Ottoman Empire. In Benjamin Braude and Bernard Lewis (Eds.). Christians and Jews in the Ottoman Empire: The Functioning of a Plural Society (vol. 1, pp. 185-207). New York and London: Holmes and Meier Publishers.. google scholar
  • Erol, M. (2014). Musicological Debates between Greeks and Turks in the Late Ottoman Empire: Dialogue and the Creation of the ‘Other.’ In Suraiya Faroqhi & Arzu Öztürkmen (Eds.), Celebration, Entertainment and Theatre in the Ottoman World (pp. 359-376). London, New York, Calcutta: Seagull Books.. google scholar
  • Erol, M. (2015). Greek Orthodox Music in Ottoman Istanbul: Nation and Community in the Era ofReform. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press. google scholar
  • Feyzi, A. (2016). XIX. Yüzyıl Bizans Müziği Kuramsal Yapı İfadesinde Geleneksel Türk Müziği Etkileri [Effects of Traditional Turkish Music on the Expression of Theoretical Structure in 19th Century Byzantine Music], Zeitschrift für die Welt der Türken, 8 (2): 199-215. google scholar
  • Güray, C. (2017 [2012]). Bin Yılın Mirası: Makamı Var Eden Döngü: Edvar Geleneği [Heritage of a Thousand Years: The Cycle Creating Makam: Edvar Tradition]. İstanbul: Pan Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Güray, C. & Aydın, A. F. (2009). The Heritage of Byzantine in the Memory of Ottoman: Greek Orthodox Theorists and Their Effect in the Transmission of the Makam Theory. Paper presented at the 2nd International Conference of Byzantine Music and Hymnology, Athens. google scholar
  • İhsanoğlu, E., ed. (2003). Osmanlı Musikî Literatürü Tarihi [History of Ottoman Music Literature]. Istanbul, Turkey: IRCICA. google scholar
  • Jeffery, P. (2001). Oktöechos, GrooveMusic Online. https://doi.org/10.1093/gmo/9781561592630.article.50097. [Accessed 18 August 2020] google scholar
  • Kılıçarslan, M. (2013). Karamanlıca Bir Musikî Mecmuası: Mecmua-yı Makamat [A Music Treatise in Karamanli: Mecmua-yı Makamat], International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 8 (1): 373-400. google scholar
  • Ortaylı, İ. (2018). Osmanlı Barışı [Ottoman Peace]. 10th ed. Istanbul: Timaş Yayınları. google scholar
  • Pappas, M. (1997). Kiltzanidis’in Kitabı [Kiltzanidis’s Book]. (Master’s Thesis, Istanbul Technical University). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/ google scholar
  • Pappas, M. (2007). Apostolos Konstas’ın Nazariyat Kitabı [Apostolos Konstas’s Theory Book]. (Doctoral Dissertation, Istanbul Technical University). Retrieved from https://tez.yok.gov.tr/UlusalTezMerkezi/ google scholar
  • Pappas, M. & Beşiroğlu, Ş. Ş. (2007). Apostolos Konstas’ın Nazariyat Kitabı’na İlişkin Bir İnceleme [An Analysis of Apostolos Konstas’s Theory Book], İTÜ Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi, 4 (2): 33-42. google scholar
  • Popescu-Judetz, E. (1999). Prince Dimitrie Cantemir: Theorist and Composer of Turkish Music. Istanbul: Pan Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Popescu-Judetz, E. (2002). Tanburî Küçük Artin: A Musical Treatise of the Eighteenth Century. Istanbul: Pan Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Popescu-Judetz, E. (2010). A Summary Catalogue of the Turkish Makams. Istanbul, Turkey : Pan Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Popescu-Judetz, E. & Sirli, A. A. (2000). Sources of 18th Century Music: Panayiotes Chalatzoglou and Kyrillos Marmarinos’ Comparative Treatises on Secular Music. Istanbul, Turkey: Pan Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Romanou, K. (1990). A New Approach to the Work of Chrysanthos of Madytos: The New Method of Musical Notation in Greek Church and the MsYa 0s®pnTiKÖv xqç MouaiK^ç. In Wellesz, E. ed. Studies in Eastern Chant, vol. 5. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pp. 1-13. google scholar
  • Şahin, N., Güray, C. & Aydın, A. F. (2018). Cross-Cultural Influences in Makam Theory: The Case of Greek Orthodox Theorists in the Ottoman Empire, Musicologist, 2 (2),115-126. google scholar
  • Tura, Y., ed. (2001). Kitabu ‘İlmi’l-Mûsîkî ‘ala vechi’l-Hurufat: Mûsikîyi Harflerle Tesbît ve İcrâ İlminin Kitabı [Book of Establishing Music through Letters and the Science of Performance]. 1. Cilt Edvâr (Tıpkıbasım-Çeviriyazı-Çeviri-Notlar). Istanbul, Turkey: Yapı Kredi Yayınları. google scholar


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.