The Relationship Between Art and Politics in the 19th Century Ottoman Empire: Institutionalization, Change and Continuity
The National Anthems Institutionalization Process in the Ottoman Empire in the 19th CenturyL. Hilal Akgül
Musical pieces labeled modern anthems in this paper first appeared when Westernization movements began in the Ottoman Empire. These Western-style compositions, particularly national anthems, were played with Western instruments. The Ottoman State’s first encounter with modern anthems occurred at the inception of movements toward Westernization, during which changes to military, legal, financial, administrative, and social spheres caused the transformation of the public representation of the state. The praxis of designating a national anthem was first applied during Mahmud II’s reign. This practice continued in the eras that followed until it was finally institutionalized. The system was sustained for 91 years until Vahdettin era ended and the Ottoman Empire became history. This paper examines the history of Ottoman Empire anthems in the context of Westernization and examined the functioning of anthems as symbols created to restructure the state. The first section discusses the history of anthems in general terms. The sections that follow elucidate the history of the anthems of the Ottoman Empire and the construction of the band, Muzika-i Hümâyûn.