Transnational Islam and Muslim Politics: Policies, Identities, and Ideologies
Transnational Islam in Paki̇stan: A Case Study of Rohingya MuslimsRiaz Ahmad Saeed
The Rohingya are one of the most repressed communities of the world and live in Myanmar under miserable conditions. This study elaborates upon the impacts, issues, and activities of Rohingya Muslims living in Pakistan with reference to transnational Islam. Transitional Islam has arguably captured the attention of academic researchers in recent years, with many studies and reports available on the impacts, issues, and crises of transnationalism and transitional Islam. The crisis of the Rohingya people is undoubtedly a growing transnational challenge, as they are systematically discriminated against and compelled to leave Burma to find refuge in various countries such as Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Malaysia. They face many problems in Pakistan, such as being stateless because Pakistan considers them Bengali (i.e., a community originating from Bangladesh) while Bangladesh considers them as Burmese citizens. The Rohingya have faced decades of statelessness and targeted violence, as well as the brutal murder of innocent men, women, and children. Many reported cases are also found of women being raped and children being burnt during these tragedies by Burmese forces. These are violations of the United Nations charter on human rights in the age of globalization and civilization. This study aims to examine and highlight the current situation regarding the education, job opportunities, and healthcare services available to them in their host countries. The Rohingya seem to be in a very poor state and to be living a miserable life in most of the areas of Pakistan, Bangladesh, and India. The dire need exists to provide them with citizenship and other human rights in the host countries. The Rohingya also need legal and constitutional protection in Pakistan and should be allowed to participate in national politics for the welfare and service of their community. This study has adopted the analytical and historical research methodologies using a qualitative approach.