Research Article


DOI :10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944   IUP :10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944    Full Text (PDF)

Formation in the Highlands of Eastern Turkey: An Overview From the Bronze to Iron Ages

Aylin Ü. Erdem

Archaeological data from the highlands of Eastern Turkey unfortunately does not provide tangible evidence for the transformation of the earliest village communities into the institutional societies of the Urartian State period. The first cities, advanced agricultural activities, mass production and developed commercial activities, however, started to appear after the establishment of the Urartian State, as a result of central authority and institutionalization. There is a sharp difference between the pre-Urartian and Urartian State periods, which makes it difficult to understand the stages of the state transformation process. This article discusses political and social changes and stages of state formation through the archaeological data, chronologically. The emergence of the first elites in the Eastern Anatolian plateaus goes back to the Middle Bronze Age with the appearance of the kurgan burials, which is mostly observed in Northeastern Anatolia. After a while, another organizational process started in the Van Lake Basin during the Late Bronze-Early Iron Age, which is characterized by the construction of fortresses and cemeteries including bronze and iron weapons. This means the state formation in the region and the establishment of the Urartian State rises from the organizational process of the semi-nomadic tribes dealing with animal husbandry during the Early Iron Age, rather than farmer societies engaged in agriculture. In other words, the state formation in the Eastern Anatolian highlands did not develop from the agricultural model of “village, city and state”. Rather, it is observed in the form of “village, state and city”


PDF View

References

  • Bahşeliyev, V. (1997). Nahçıvan Arkeolojisi, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Baştürk, M. B. (2015). Considerations on the Belief Systems on the Early Iron Age Peoples in Lake Van Basin, International Symposium on East Anatolia-South Caucasus Cultures, vol. 2, Cambridge: 2-11. google scholar
  • Batmaz, A. (2012). War and Identity in the Early History of Urartu, in Çilingiroğlu, A., Sagona (eds), Anatolian Iron Ages 7, ANES, Supplement 39, Leuven: 23-50. google scholar
  • Belli, O. and Konyar, E. (2003). Doğu Anadolu Bölgesi’nde Erken Demir Çağ Kale ve Nekropolleri, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Çiftçi, A. (2017). The Socio Economic Organisation of the Urartian Kingdom, Leiden. google scholar
  • Çilingiroğlu, A. (1991a). The Early Iron Age Dilkaya, in Çilingiroğlu A., French, D. (eds), Anatolian Iron Ages 2. The Proceedings of the Second Anatolian Iron Ages Colloquium held at Van, Ankara: 29-38. google scholar
  • Çilingiroğlu, A. (1991b). Van-Dilkaya Höyüğü Kazıları Kapanış, XIV. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı-I, Ankara: 469-489. google scholar
  • Çilingiroğlu, A. (1994). Urartu Tarihi, Ege Üniversitesi Yayınları, İzmir. google scholar
  • Erdem, A. Ü. (2011). Doğu Anadolu’nun Demir Çağ Aşiretleri, Tüba-ar 14: 59-68. google scholar
  • Erdem, A. Ü. (2018). A Consideration of Status and Wealth in the Lake Van Basin According to the Early Iron Age Burials, TÜBAAR (Special Issue): 29-36. google scholar
  • Frangipane, M. (2007). Different Types of Egalitarian Societies and the Development of Inequality in Early Mesopotamia, World Archaeology 39/2: 151-176. google scholar
  • Grayson, A. K. (2002a). Assyrian Rulers of the Third and Second Millennia BC (To 1115 BC), The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Assyrian Periods Vol. 1, Toronto-Buffalo-London. google scholar
  • Grayson, A. K. (2002b). Assyrian Rulers of the First Millennium BC (1114-859 BC), The Royal Inscriptions of Mesopotamia, Assyrian Periods Vol. 2, Toronto-Buffalo-London. google scholar
  • Helwing, B. (2016). Networks of Craft Production and Material Distribution in the Late Chalcolithic. Metallurgical Evidence from Iran and the Southern Caucasus, in Rova, E., Tonussi, M. (eds), At the Northern Frontier of Near Eastern Archaeology, Brepols. google scholar
  • Işıklı, M. (2011). Doğu Anadolu Erken Transkafkasya Kültürü. Çok Bileşenli Gelişkin Bir Kültürün Analizi, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Işıklı, M. (2015). Geç Prehistorik Çağda Doğu Anadolu Yaylasında Ölüm: Kura-Aras Kültürü Ölü Gömme Uygulamaları Üzerine Gözlemler, İstanbul: 257-275. google scholar
  • Konyar, E. (2022). Urartu: Aşiretten Devlete, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Köroğlu, K. (2000). Çıldır Kurganları, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Dergisi 96: 2-11. google scholar
  • Köroğlu, K. (2003). The Transition from Bronze Age to Iron Age in Eastern Anatolia, in Fischer, E., Genz, H., Jean, E. and Köroğlu, K. (eds), Identifying Changes: The Transition from Bronze to Iron Ages in Anatolia and its Neighbouring Regions, İstanbul: 231-244. google scholar
  • Köroğlu, K. and Konyar, E. (2005). Van Havzası’nda Erken Demir Çağ Problemi, Arkeoloji ve Sanat Dergisi 119: 25-38. google scholar
  • Köroğlu, K. (2021). Urartu’da Kentleşme: Doğuda Devletin Değişim Çabası, Aktüel Arkeoloji 78: 68-81. google scholar
  • Kroll, S. (2017). Fortified Kura-Arax Settlements in North-Western Iran, in Avetisyan, P. S., Grekyan Y. H. (eds), Bridging Times and Space. Papers in Ancient Near Eastern, Mediterranean and Armenian Studies. Honouring Gregory E. Areshian on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday, Oxford: 253-261. google scholar
  • Kushnareva. Kh. (1997). The Southern Caucasus in Prehistory: Stages of Cultural and Socioeconomic Development from the Eight to the Second Millennium B.C., Philadelphia. google scholar
  • Kuvanç, R., Ayaz, G., Işık, K., Erdoğan, S., and Genç, B. (2016). A New Iron Age Chamber Tomb Near Çatak, South of Lake Van, ANES 53: 149-194. google scholar
  • Özfırat, A. (2001). Doğu Anadolu Yayla Kültürleri, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Özfırat, A. (2003). Doğu Anadolu Yüksek Yaylası’ndan M.Ö. 2. Binyıl Kurganları, Belleten LXXIII/268: 343-356. google scholar
  • Özfırat, A. (2009). Bozkurt Kurgan Mezarlığı Kazıları, Belleten LXVI/246: 635-644. google scholar
  • Özfırat, A. (2014a). Ağrı Dağı ve Van Gölü Havzası Yüzey Araştırması (Muş, Bitlis, Van, Ağrı, Iğdır İlleri ve İlçeleri), in Özfırat, A., Coşkun, N. (eds), Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Arkeoloji Bölümü Kazı ve Araştırmaları, Antakya: 17-43. google scholar
  • Özfırat, A. (2014b). Bozkurt Kurgan Nekropolü Kazısı, in Özfırat, A., Coşkun, N. (eds), Mustafa Kemal Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Arkeoloji Bölümü Kazı ve Araştırmaları, Antakya: 45-70. google scholar
  • Özfırat, A. (2014c). Bozkurt Kurgan Mezarlığı Kazısı (2007-2013), Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı 36/2, Ankara: 209-226. google scholar
  • Palumbi, G. (2016). The Early Bronze Age of the Southern Caucasus, Oxford Handbooks Online: 1-44. google scholar
  • Puturidze, M. (2003). Social and Economic Shifts in the South Caucasian Middle Bronze Age, in Smith, A., Rubinson, K. (eds), Archaeology in the Borderlands. Investigations in Caucasia and Beyond, California: 111-127. google scholar
  • Rubinson, K. S. (2003). Silver Vessels and Cylinder Sealings: Precious Reflections of Economic Exchange in the Early Second Millennium BC”, Archaeology in the Borderlands. Investigations in Caucasia and Beyond, California: 128-143. google scholar
  • Sagona, A. and Sagona, C. (2000). Excavations at Sos Höyük, 1998-2000: Fifth Preliminary Report”, Ancient Near Eastern Studies 37: 56-127. google scholar
  • Salvini, M. (2006). Urartu Tarihi ve Kültürü, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Sevin, V. (2004a). Doğu Anadolu Orta ve Son Tunç Çağı, Arkeoatlas 3: 104-129. google scholar
  • Sevin, V. (2004b). Son Tunç/Erken Demir Çağ Van Bölgesi Kronolojisi: Kökeni Aranan Bir Devlet-Urartu, Belleten LXVIII-252: 355-400. google scholar
  • Sevin, V. and Kavaklı, E. (1996a). Van/Karagündüz Erken Demir Çağı Nekropolü”, Belleten LX-227, Ankara: 1-20. google scholar
  • Sevin, V. and Kavaklı, E. (1996b). Bir Erken Demir Çağ Nekropolü Van/ Karagündüz, İstanbul. google scholar
  • Sevin, V., Özfırat, A. and Kavaklı, E. (2000). Van-Karagündüz Höyüğü Kazıları (1997 Yılı Çalışmaları), Belleten 63: 847-867. google scholar
  • Zimansky, P. (1985). Ecology and Empire: The Structure of the Urartian State, Chicago. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Erdem, A.Ü. (2023). Formation in the Highlands of Eastern Turkey: An Overview From the Bronze to Iron Ages. Anatolian Research, 0(28), 85-96. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944


AMA

Erdem A Ü. Formation in the Highlands of Eastern Turkey: An Overview From the Bronze to Iron Ages. Anatolian Research. 2023;0(28):85-96. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944


ABNT

Erdem, A.Ü. Formation in the Highlands of Eastern Turkey: An Overview From the Bronze to Iron Ages. Anatolian Research, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 28, p. 85-96, 2023.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Erdem, Aylin Ü.,. 2023. “Formation in the Highlands of Eastern Turkey: An Overview From the Bronze to Iron Ages.” Anatolian Research 0, no. 28: 85-96. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944


Chicago: Humanities Style

Erdem, Aylin Ü.,. Formation in the Highlands of Eastern Turkey: An Overview From the Bronze to Iron Ages.” Anatolian Research 0, no. 28 (Jun. 2024): 85-96. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944


Harvard: Australian Style

Erdem, AÜ 2023, 'Formation in the Highlands of Eastern Turkey: An Overview From the Bronze to Iron Ages', Anatolian Research, vol. 0, no. 28, pp. 85-96, viewed 22 Jun. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Erdem, A.Ü. (2023) ‘Formation in the Highlands of Eastern Turkey: An Overview From the Bronze to Iron Ages’, Anatolian Research, 0(28), pp. 85-96. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944 (22 Jun. 2024).


MLA

Erdem, Aylin Ü.,. Formation in the Highlands of Eastern Turkey: An Overview From the Bronze to Iron Ages.” Anatolian Research, vol. 0, no. 28, 2023, pp. 85-96. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944


Vancouver

Erdem AÜ. Formation in the Highlands of Eastern Turkey: An Overview From the Bronze to Iron Ages. Anatolian Research [Internet]. 22 Jun. 2024 [cited 22 Jun. 2024];0(28):85-96. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944 doi: 10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944


ISNAD

Erdem, AylinÜ.. Formation in the Highlands of Eastern Turkey: An Overview From the Bronze to Iron Ages”. Anatolian Research 0/28 (Jun. 2024): 85-96. https://doi.org/10.26650/anar.2023.28.1293944



TIMELINE


Submitted08.05.2023
Accepted03.07.2023
Published Online17.07.2023

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.