A New Tomb from Hadrianopolis in PaphlagoniaMevlüt Eliüşük
The surface surveys and excavations performed at Hadrianopolis in Paphlagonia and the surrounding area have unearthed a rich collection of tombs consisting of a cist tomb, chamber tomb, pediment tomb, and a rock-cut tomb. Apart from these tomb types, the recovery of a plain limestone ostothec child sarcophagus lid, in the form of a gable roof, with the edge acroters taking the form of profile, with the dimensions of 84 x 68 cm in the excavation season of 2021, has revealed a new tomb type for the city and a new burial type at the same time. The tomb is in the form of a sarcophagus comprised of fragmented stones along with the in-situ state of the lid. The absence of the bracket slots on both sides of the lid, as seen on the plates identified at the bottom, suggests that the tomb had experienced two phases of use. Experts have argued that the lid was used as an ostotheca during its initial phase of use and later served as a pediment tomb, probably intended for a child, which is common only in the southern Paphlagonia Region. Based on the fact that the tomb has been used as an ostothec within its initial phase of use, it further revealed the presence of cremation burials in the region. The presence of ostothecae with and without epigraphs in the region reveals that cremation burial was preferred by both the general public and soldiers. Therefore, the cremation burial may simply have been preferred by everyone without requiring any privileged or special status within the society. The presence of the lid of the unearthed ostothecae proves that the cremation burial tradition previously known only in Amastrist and Pompeiopolis until today was also practiced in Hadrianopolis. This fact also suggests that not only ostothecae but also terra-cotta urns were used for cremation rituals within the city. Considering the limited amounts of regular archeological excavations executed in the city within the last ten years, the data related to the tomb typology and burial traditions will likely increase. New data will be acquired to demonstrate the cremation burial in the upcoming years.
Paphlagonia Hadrianopolisi’nden Yeni Bir MezarMevlüt Eliüşük
Paphlagonia Hadrianopolis’i ve çevresinde gerçekleştirilen yüzey araştırmaları ve kazılarda, sandık mezar, oda mezar, alınlıklı mezar ve kaya mezarlarından oluşan zengin bir mezar repertuvarı tespit edilmiştir. 2021 kazı sezonunda anılan mezar tipleri dışında; beşik çatı formlu, köşe akroterleri profil şeklinde, bezemesiz, 84 x 68 cm ölçülerinde, kireçtaşı ostothek-çocuk lahti kapağının tespiti, kent için yeni bir mezar tipini ve aynı zamanda yeni bir gömü şeklini de gündeme getirmiştir. Kapağın in situ hali ile parçalar halinde taşlarla oluşturulan bir sanduka şeklinde olduğu belgelenmiştir. Bu hali ile kapağın her iki yönündeki kenet yuvalarının altta tespit edilen levhalarda olmaması mezarın iki kullanım evresi geçirdiğini ifade etmiştir. Kapağın ilk kullanım evresinde bir ostothek olduğu, ikinci kullanım evresinde ise sadece Paphlagonia Bölgesi’nin güneyinde görülen olasılıkla bir çocuk için oluşturulmuş alınlıklı mezar olabileceği görüşü üzerinde durulmuştur. Mezarın ilk kullanım evresinde ostothek olarak değerlendirilmiş olması aynı zamanda bölgede kremasyon gömünün varlığını da ortaya koymuştur. Bölgede yazıtlı ve yazıtsız ostotheklerin varlığı, kremasyon gömünün hem halk hem de askerler tarafından tercih edildiğini; dolayısıyla toplum içinde özel bir statü gerektirmeden, herkes tarafından kremasyon gömünün tercih edilebileceğini göstermiştir. Tespit edilen ostothek kapağının varlığı, bugüne kadar sadece Amastrist ve Pompeiopolis’te olduğu bilinen kremasyon gömü geleneğinin, Hadrianopolis’te de olduğunu kanıtlanmıştır. Bu durum aynı zamanda kentte kremasyon gömü için sadece ostotheklerin değil aynı zamanda pişmiş toprak urnelerin kullanılmış olabileceğini de düşündürmektedir. Kentte yürütülen düzenli arkeolojik kazıların son 10 yıl içinde gerçekleştirildiği göz önüne alındığında ileriki yıllarda mezar tipolojisi ve gömü gelenekleri ile ilgili verilerin artacağı ve kremasyon gömüyü kanıtlayacak yeni verilerin elde edileceği öngörülmektedir.
The ancient city of Hadrianopolis in Paphlagonia includes the locality known as “Viranşehir” today, located approximately 3 km west of the District center of Eskipazar in the Province of Karabük near the villages of Budaklar, Büyükyaylalar, Çaylı, and Beytarla, scattered on the surrounding land. In ancient times, the city was within the borders of the Paphlagonia Region, bordered by Halys (Kızılırmak) and the Pontos region in the east, Parthenio (Bartınsu) or Billaios (Filyos brook) and Bithynia in the west, and the Gangra (Çankırı) and Galatia regions in the south. The surface surveys and excavations performed at Hadrianopolis in Paphlagonia and the surrounding regions have unearthed a rich tomb repertoire consisting of a kistvaen “cist tomb,” chamber tomb, pediment tomb, and a rockcut tomb.
Apart from these tomb types unearthed in the excavation season of 2021, the recovery of a plain limestone ostothec child sarcophagus lid, in the form of a gable roof, with the lateral and upper acroters forming the profile, and the dimensions of 84 x 68 cm, has revealed a new tomb type for the city and a new burial form at the same time.
The newly discovered sarcophagus with its lid consists of a plain sarcophagus formed by four limestone blocks measuring 1.15 x 0.12 m on the long side, serving as a stone board. The inner surfaces of the sarcophagus exhibit fine workmanship contrasting with the rough workmanship of the two outer blocks having the dimensions of 38 x 10 cm. When reassembled, the tomb with the stone boards set around the lid appears to be in the form of a minor sarcophagus partially closed with this lid. The absence of any counterparts of the bracket slots seen on the center of the short side of the lid on the fine boards indicates that the lid belongs to another tomb, thus indicating that the lid had two phases of use.
Workers assessed the dimensions and the initial state of the lid when it was originally unearthed, in other words, those of its second phase of use. In this context, the fact that a great number of child‒infant tombs have been discovered alongside adult tombs in the excavations conducted thus far in the second or third century CE southern necropolis of the city indicates that special tombs were available for the children in Hadrianopolis. This understanding constitutes the starting point for this paper.
However, the authors recognize that the upper part of the rock-carved child‒infant tombs in the southern necropolis illustrate a plain structure covered with slates and therefore are rather incompatible with the tomb we have unearthed. Because the façade of the lid is in the form of a triangular pediment and the acroters engraved on the sides in the form of the pediment for this phase the authors contend that the find could have served as a pediment tomb in its second phase of use. The resemblance to the pediment tombs encountered in both Hadraianoupolis and southwestern Paphlagonia Region in terms of the façade design of the lid supports this conclusion. The authors have researched whether pediment tombs of the region included special tombs for children based on the resemblance between the two tomb groups. As a result of this research, the authors discovered a board decorated with figures measuring 1.30 x 0.57 m with only one visible façade, on the wall of a house in the village of Çavuş. G. Koch reviewed the board and concluded that the board was the sarcophagus part of a cist tomb because of the child figure engraved on it.
However, it has been further shown that the current block is a board having 19 cm thick, therefore disproving Koch’s suggestion. When the form of the board and the figure featuring on it are evaluated concurrently, in the context of prior studies and excavations, the board clearly belongs to a pediment used in tombs classified as Southern Paphlagonia Region Pediment Tombs. Thus, the authors acknowledge that the pediment tombs in the region were specifically made for children. In the context of this evaluation, the authors suggest that the discovered tomb was for infants with pediment type for inhumation burial for the second phase of use.
As for the initial phase of use of the tomb, analogous tombs have been reviewed in the past; however, no published sample could be identified. Subsequent to this study, ostothecs were identified in Pompeiopolis and Amastris within the Paphlagonia Region. The resemblance between the lid of the ostothec graced with festoon identified in Amastris and the lid of the one in Hadrianopolis in terms of its identical material, workmanship, and dimensions is obvious. Thus, our lid is unveiled as an ostothec lid. Identifying the artifact as an ostothec also permitted for the first time a highly substantial identification of the cremation burial tradition in Hadrianopolis. The authors acknowledge that not only the ostothecs but also terra-cotta urns that can easily be destroyed have been used here for the cremation burials. Since the necropolises in Hadrianopolis have experienced intense destruction, the authors cannot judge whether runs were used within the burial tradition apart from the ostothec unearthed. Nonetheless, it has been acknowledged for the first time that such burials could be located at the city.
The authors have addressed preference for this cremation burial tradition. The presence of fine examples, dating to 2nd Century CE, unearthed in Amasrist and Pompeipolis that the authors are certain of are the ostothecs which has revealed the cremation burial tradition even if to a lesser extent. Even though it is challenging and difficult to deliver a definitive judgment in this regard, a tomb of two families indicated on the epigraph was found on the two samples from Amastris. However, no script could be found on the epigraph denoting the occupation or the status of the individuals within the tombs. Therefore, it is feasible to assume that the tomb owners were members of the common public. The figures on the ostothec unearthed in Kaypı Tumulus in Pompeipolis suggest that the tomb belonged to a soldier. Excellent workmanship on the ostothec as well as on the tumulus on the tomb comprising the monument indicate that the tomb owner was a high-ranking civic officer in the society. In this context, the authors acknowledge that the cremation burial was preferred in the Paphlagonia Region by both the general public and the high-ranking soldiers. It is feasible to assert within this scope that cremation could have been preferred by everyone without requiring any particular social status.
Consequently, although it is quite difficult to make a definitive judgment in this regard, initial data has been acquired indicating that the cremation burial tradition that has previously been known only in Amastrist and Pompeiopolis could be performed in Hadrianopolis as well. Considering that scientific excavations in the city have only been conducted within the last ten years, the authors expect that such tombs will be encountered again in the future.