The Architectural Features of the Abidin Pasha TombNacide Öter
Abidin Pasha was a statesman who has served as a sanjak manager for many years in many cities and undertook important duties during the Ottoman period. Pasha, who died in 1906, was buried in his tomb in the graveyard of Fatih Mosque. The tomb is located in the south of Gazi Osman Pasha Tomb, reflects the style of the 1st National Architecture. The baldachinshaped, square-planned building is covered with an eight-segmented dome. Baldachin-style tombs, which we encountered in the early Ottoman period, were preferred building forms not only in Anatolia but also in the Balkans during the Ottoman period. The segmented form of the dome is a rare feature in Turkish Islamic art. The examples with a dome inside and a hat outside in the previous centuries were replaced with domes both inside and outside ones in the Ottoman period. The tomb, which is completely made of marble, has two burial graves in which are also enclosed with marble. The grave in the southeast direction belongs to Veysel Pasha. Veysel Pasha, who was the brother of Abidin Pasha, also worked as a government official during the Ottoman period. The tomb, which contains the artistic elements of the period that it was built in, is also like the ancient monumental tombs in design. In this study, the plan and architectural features of the tomb were examined, and its similarity with the mausoleum in Milas Gümüşkesen was revealed.
Abidin Paşa Türbesinin Mimari ÖzellikleriNacide Öter
Abidin Paşa, Osmanlı döneminde önemli görevler üstlenmiş ve birçok şehirde uzun yıllar sancak yöneticiliği yapmış bir devlet adamıdır. 1906 yılında vefat eden paşa, Fatih Cami haziresinde yer alan türbesine gömülmüştür. Gazi Osman Paşa Türbesi’nin güneyinde bulunan türbe dekoratif olarak 1. Milli Mimarlık üslubunu yansıtırken yapının geneli batılı eklektik üslubun izlerini taşımaktadır. Baldaken şeklindeki, kare planlı yapı sekiz dilimli kubbeyle örtülüdür. Erken Osmanlı döneminde karşımıza çıkan baldaken tarzı türbeler sadece Anadolu’da değil Osmanlı döneminde Balkan coğrafyasında da tercih edilen bir yapı şekli olmuştur. Kubbenin dilimli formu Türk İslam sanatında ender karşılaşılan bir özelliktir. Daha önceki yüzyıllarda içte kubbe, dışta külah ile karşımıza çıkan örnekler Osmanlı döneminde içte ve dışta kubbeyle örtülü olarak düzenlenmiştir. Tamamen mermer malzemeden yapılan türbede iki adet pehleli mezar yer alır. Bu mezarlar da mermerden yapılmış olup güneydoğu yönündeki mezar Veysel Paşa’ya aittir. Abidin Paşa’nın kardeşi olan Veysel Paşa da Osmanlı döneminde devlet görevlisi olarak çalışmıştır. Yapıldığı dönemin sanatsal unsurlarını bünyesinde barındıran türbe tasarım olarak antik dönem anıt mezar yapılarına benzer. Bu çalışmada Abidin Paşa türbesinin plan ve mimari özellikleri incelenmiş, Milas Gümüşkesen’de yer alan anıt mezarla benzerliği ortaya konulmuştur.
Tomb architecture has a significant place in Turkish Islamic Art. The structure, which is built by belief, reflects the fashion of the period of construction. Ornamental elements on these structures, which are both architecturally and aesthetically valuable, were used in a balanced manner with the influence of the Islamic religion. The tombs, which constitute the topics of many kinds of research within the scope of belief and ritual, have been researched, documented, and recorded with the method of Architecture and Art History as well. The Abidin Pasha Tomb, which is the subject of the study, as a structure of the National Architecture period, is a unique example in terms of its origin from earlier periods and periodic features. Abidin Pasha, who lived in the Ottoman period, held important government positions. Pasha, who served as the governor of Sivas, Adana, Ankara, and the Mediterranean Islands, passed away while working in the Yemen Reform commission, which was his last work. His tomb is in the graveyard of Fatih Mosque, in the south of Gazi Osman Pasha Tomb. One side of the tomb, which was built very close to the Gazi Osman Pasha tomb, has been blinded. However, since it is desired by everyone to be buried in the graves of the Selatin Mosques, it was not considered important for a facade to be blind. The priority was to find a place in such a mosque graveyard and to have a tomb built here.
It is a baldachin-shaped, square-planned tomb covered with a dome placed on twelve columns, four of which are square. The building rising on a pedestal is surrounded by a railing. The railing was interrupted by the entrance opening in the east facade. Baldachin is defined as an open structure with a polygon, circle or square plan, which is covered and carried by columns. As can be understood from this definition, baldachin is not a plan form but a building style. Baldachin-shaped tombs are a highly preferred building style in both Anatolia and the Balkans in the Early Ottoman period. The columns in these structures are connected by arches. However, in the tomb of Abidin Pasha, lintels were used instead of arches. On the moulding belt on the lintel, consoles are protruding outward, reminiscent of ancient architectural metopes. For this reason, the tomb was built with inspiration from earlier dates. The use of lintels is similar to Roman burial structures, with cantilever arrangements reminiscent of metope. There is straight eave on 24 consoles arranged on each facade. Gargoyles with semicircular molding are arranged on each side of the eaves near the corners. The top of the eaves is made inclined towards the outside so that the rainwater can flow. There is an octagonal dome on the also octagonal frame. The dome covering the tomb is a unique example in terms of its eight-segmented form. The dome ends on top with an alem made of marble material. This cover form, which was mostly seen in Divriği tombs during the Anatolian Seljuk period, was not preferred in Ottoman tomb architecture. On the inner side of the dome, verses 30 and 32 of Surat Fussilat are inscribed on the lower parts of the rim in eight cartridges with Jeli Thuluth calligraphy. There are two punctuation graves in the tomb. The grave in the southeast direction belongs to Veysel Pasha. Veysel Pasha, who died in 1903, was the brother of Abidin Pasha and was the governor of Kütahya. The graves made of marble material have cylindrical head and foot gravestones. Sixteen muqarnas were made on the lower parts of the cylindrical gravestone, and the head sections were shaped with twelve prismatic triangles. An inscription was engraved on the head gravestone of Veysel Pasha and both head and foot gravestone of Abidin Pasha. Marble materials were used in the entrance facades or certain parts of the tombs built during the period of National Architecture. The Abidin Pasha Tomb was built entirely with marble. Red colored cylindrical columns are a periodic feature.
The Abidin Pasha Tomb is a unique example of tomb architecture with its plan and segmented dome form. Although is not certain about the origin of the tombs belonging to this plan, it is stated that the mausoleum found in Milas Gümüşkesen belonging to the Roman period has a great similarity with the baldachin tomb architecture. Baldachin-shaped examples applied in the Ottoman period generally have feet on four corners and feet or columns in the middle of each facade. These pillars and columns are connected with an arch. In the Abidin Pasha Tomb, lintels were placed on twelve columns carrying the dome. For this reason, Abidin Pasha tomb is more similar to Milas Gümüşkesen mausoleum. But also, it can be said that it reflects the sense of the art of the period it was built in. The structures, which was built during the National Architecture period between 1900-1930, shows period characteristics with its palmette, Turkish triangle and muqarnas ornaments. The building, which shows both Ottoman and ancient period features with its plan and design approach, appears as a unique example in Turkish Islamic Art tomb architecture.