A New Example to Art of the Depiction of the Westernization Era: Muğla Keyfoturağı MosqueAyşe Aydın
Keyfoturağı Mosque is located in the Muğla Karabağlar Quarter, Yurtlar, and has a square plan. The name Kehfoturağı which comes from the names of the companions of the cave (Ashab al-Kahf) was written on the sanctuary wall of the mosque and has been transformed into Keyfoturağı in the course of time. The mosque was built in 1870 according to the inscription and was restored in 2005. The mural paintings located between the upper sanctuary windows are designed as square, transverse tetragon and rectangle panels. Inside these panels there are medallions inscribed with the names of the Prophet Muhammad, his grandsons, four caliphs and Ashab al-Kahf. These medallions are decorated with Baroque-Rococo style drapery, volute, acanthus, and C and S curved leaves. Two rectangular formed panels have date palms, two square formed panels have a sailboat on each, and one panelhas the depiction of the mosque surrounded by date palms and cypress trees. Besides the inscribed medallions, the inscriptions are placed within cartouches on one of the panels. It is apparent that some of the panels have vanished in the course of time, some motifs have been covered by whitewash during restorations, and some motifs have been retraced and appended. By using colour and chiaroscuro, volume is enhanced on the motifs of the decoration program and perspective trials have been made due to the western influenced drawing orders. The mural paintings of Keyfoturağı Mosque reflect the general characteristics of the Westernization era both by their themes and motifs, and by their technical and characteristic features. A deliberate study should be carried out in order to remove the traces of misguided restoration in Keyfoturağı Mosque which is a rare mosque having mural paintings in Muğla.
Batılılaşma Dönemi Tasvir Sanatına Yeni Bir Örnek: Muğla Keyfoturağı CamisiAyşe Aydın
Muğla Karabağlar Mahallesi Yurtlar Mevkii’ndeki Keyfoturağı Camisi kare planlıdır. Caminin harim duvarlarındaki Ashâb-ı Kehf isimlerinden alınan Kehfoturağı adı zamanla Keyfoturağı’na dönüşmüştür. Kitabesine göre 1870 yılında inşa edilen cami 2005 yılında onarılmıştır. Harim üst pencere aralarında yer alan duvar resimleri kare, enine dörtgen ve dikdörtgen panolar şeklinde düzenlenmiştir. Bu panoların içinde Hz. Muhammed, torunları, dört halife ile Ashâb-ı Kehf isimlerinin yazılı olduğu madalyonlar vardır. Bu madalyonlar Barok-Rokoko üslubunda perde motifi, volüt, C ve S kıvrımlarıyla ve akant yapraklarıyla süslenmiştir. Dikdörtgen formlu panolardan ikisinin içinde hurma ağaçları, kare formlu iki panoda birer yelkenli gemi, bir panoda ise hurma ve selvi ağaçlarıyla birlikte cami tasviri yer alır. Yazılı madalyonların yanı sıra panolardan birinde yazılar kartuşlar içine yerleştirilmiştir. Zamanla bazı panoların yok olduğu, yapılan onarımlarda bazı motiflerin badana altında kaldığı, bazı motiflerin de üzerinden tekrar geçildiği ve ekler yapıldığı görülmektedir. Süsleme programındaki motiflere renkler kullanılarak ışık-gölge ile hacim verilmiş, Batı etkili resim kurallarına göre perspektif denemelerinde bulunulmuştur. Keyfoturağı Camisi’nin duvar resimleri hem seçilen konuları ve motifleriyle hem de bunların teknik ve üslup özellikleriyle Batılılaşma döneminin genel özelliklerini yansıtmaktadır. Muğla’daki sayılı duvar resimlerine sahip camilerden biri olan Keyfoturağı Camisi’nde yanlış onarımların izlerini ortadan kaldırmak amacıyla bilinçli bir çalışma yapılmalıdır.
Keyfoturağı Mosque is located in the Muğla Karabağlar Quarter, in the district of Yurtlar. It is assumed that the square planned mosque was named after the names of Ashab al-Kahf inscribed on the sanctuary walls. Over the course of time the name KehfoturağI has changed slightly both in sound and spelling and become Keyfoturağı
The mosque, constructed by Kadızade in 1287 A.H./1870 A.D. according to its inscription over the gateway door, was restored in 2005 when its roofing was also renewed.
On the sanctuary walls of the mosque, between the upper windows, there are depictions inside panels. Some of the panels have completely disappeared and some seem to have been covered by whitewash. Although the surviving panels and their depictions were originally stencilled, most of them were retraced with oil paint and some sections are appended during restorations. The panels between the sanctuary windows are in three forms: square-like tetragon, transverse tetragon and rectangle. All the panel frames have an S curved border. Transverse tetragon panels have a common scheme. Each panel is divided into two equal sections with a column in the middle. The columns have plinths, spiral bodies and Corinthian type capitals. The lower halves of the oval formed medallions inside the panels are decorated with Baroque drapery motifs. The decoration program of the upper halves of the medallions is divided into two main groups. On the first main group there is a large acanthus motif on the top point of the medallion. There are two subgroups of this group. On the first subgroup there are burgeons among C and S curved winding branches growing both ways from the acanthus (West wall Panel 3, East wall Panels 2-3, South wall Panel 4, North wall Panel 3.5-8). On the second subgroup, on both sides of the acanthus, there are semicircle formed motifs filled with round shapes and burgeons among C and S curved winding branches (East wall panel 3, South wall Panels 4-5). On the second main group there are burgeons among C and S curved winding branches growing both ways from a crown-like motif consisting of volutes on the top point of the medallion (Dexter medallion on West wall Panel 2 and South wall Panel 3). Inside the medallions, the names of the Prophet Muhammad, his grandsons, four caliphs and Ashab al-Kahf are inscribed.
The placing of mural paintings between the sanctuary walls is a characteristic that can be seen in diverse areas of Asia Minor, besides Keyfoturağı Mosque, especially in mosques in Denizli, Aydın, Manisa and Izmir dated to the 18th and 19th centuries. In some mosques mural paintings have been included in square or transverse tetragon formed panels. This characteristic seen in the Keyfoturağı Mosque has also been applied in some mosques in the Marmara, Central Asia Minor, and Aegean regions. Besides Keyfoturağı Mosque, the equal division of transverse tetragon panels into two by columns can be seen in some mosques of the same era in Istanbul and in the Aegean region. Floral, geometrical motifs and edifice depictions were included in the panels together or separately. As in the Keyfoturağı Mosque, oval or round medallions were sometimes included in the panels. Floral decorations or edifice depictions were sometimes included in the medallions. But more commonly, the names of the Prophet Muhammad, his grandsons, four caliphs and various religious inscriptions were included in these medallions. On the frames of the inscribed medallions Western decorative elements have been used, and stylized flowers and leaves have been applied with the vigorous C and S curves of the Baroque-Rococo insight. Such characteristic medallions which can be observed in mosques in the Balkans and diverse areas of Asia Minor are also observed in most of the mosques in Aydın, Manisa and especially in Denizli in the Aegean region where Keyfoturağı Mosque is located. On the panel depicting a mosque and on two rectangular panels in the Keyfoturağı Mosque, the date palm and cypress trees have similar iconographies. Date palms and cypress trees which are identified with the tree of life are frequently used as the symbol of life, immortality, eternity and heaven. Date palms and cypress trees are depicted separately or together and sometimes with the edifices on examples of miniature and handicrafts, especially on gravestones; and in the Westernization era, on mosques and tombs. In addition to floral and geometrical motifs on the decoration repertoire of mural paintings of Keyfoturağı Mosque, there is a two-minaret monumental mosque depiction on the south wall and a sailboat depiction on both ends of the north wall of the women’s court. Mosques and sailboat depictions, both solitary or within a landscape, can be observed in many places in Asia Minor, especially in Westernization era mosques or in civil architectural structures in Izmir, Aydın, Manisa and Denizli. Mural paintings, the first examples of which appeared in Turkish art in capital city Istanbul and extended to Asia Minor in the 19th century with the effect of miniature tradition, have started to be made in Western drawing insight and technique in Baroque, Rococo and Imperial style which were developed in Europe on the 18th century. On Westernization era mural paintings, fewer colours have been used, lightness-darkness degrees have precisely been applied and chirascuro effect has been reflected due to the effect of miniature and application features. Yellow, blue, brown and green colours have been used and chiaroscuro effect has been created by the shades of the same colour in order to bring volume on the panels and the depictions inside these panels which were placed between upper sanctuary walls of Keyfoturağı Mosque. On the frames of the medallions inside the panels, Western decoration elements including volutes, draperies, acanthus leaves, stylized flowers and leaves have been designed and applied with the vigorous C and S curves of the Baroque-Rococo insight. On the panel on the south wall, which is depicted with a mosque, two cypress trees placed among mosque domes, the placement of minarets bordering the mosque sideward and the placement of date palms next to the mosque by considering their dimensions are perspective trials. On the panels decorated with date palm, scaling the dimensions by considering the distance is also an evidence for the pursuit of perspective. On the sailboat depictions at North wall, the set up of the topsail and the motion of flags by the wind are also aimed to give a depth to the drawing. Sailboat depictions are Western attributed drawings of impressionistic insight.
Most of the builders and craftsmen working in the Aegean coastal region of Asia Minor in the 18th and 19th centuries were of Greek origin. The design of the decorations on the upper and lower halves of the medallions, and the use of colours on the mural paintings of the sanctuary walls of Keyfoturağı Mosque can also be observed on the mural paintings of churches in Muğla and in the surrounding area from the same era. Therefore, it is possible that local or non-Muslim builders who have a grasp of the church decoration styles of the era may have worked on the sanctuary decoration program.
Unfortunately, as a result of restoration made on the sanctuary of the mosque most of the decoration compositions of the medallions inside the panels have been deformed. Some depictions have been covered by whitewash. Retracing the motifs with different colours and appending them are malpractices which occurredon some drawings of the era. It is necessary that the whitewash and the appending should be removed and that the original view of the drawings should be revealed. In this way the mural paintings of Keyfoturağı Mosque, one of the significant representatives of the Westernization era in the Aegean region, may be handed down to the next generations in their original style.