As A Roman City Aelia Capitolina/JerusalemAzize Gelir Çelebi, Nuran Kara Pilehvarian
The relationship between Jerusalem and the Roman Empire, which has a deep-rooted history, dates to It began in 63 BC. when the Roman leader Pompeius captured the city. Thus, the Roman domination of Jerusalem, which would last for about seven centuries, began. In 37 BC, during the reign of King Herod, the city, and the temple (built by King Solomon) were repaired, and an amphitheater and hippodrome were added to the city’s zoning plan. The Roman Emperor Hadrianus (117-138 AD) restructured the city, which was destroyed because of the rebellion in 135 and had Aelia Capitolina designed following the Hippodamos plan. One of the most important features of Roman city planning is that it was created parallel to two main artery/road axes in the north-south (Cardo Maximus) and east-west (Decumanus Maximus) directions This plan in the literature is called grid/ Hippodamian plan/chessboard, and it has been known since Hippodamos of Miletus in the 5th century BC. After coming under Roman domination, Jerusalem was shaped according to this plan like other Roman cities. The article focuses on the historical process of Jerusalem (old city- inner the wall) in the Roman Empire period and the shaping of the city plan according to the Roman period road texture, traces of which can still be read today. Readings were made on the Madaba Mosaic Map and the Crusader Maps, the oldest visual source where the Roman period road texture can be seen. The oldest known period of today’s urban texture of Jerusalem has been tried to be revealed with sources and period readings.
Bir Roma Kenti Olarak Aelia Capitolina/KudüsAzize Gelir Çelebi, Nuran Kara Pilehvarian
Köklü bir geçmişe sahip olan Kudüs’ün Roma İmparatorluğu ile olan ilişkisi MÖ 63’te Roma lideri Pompey (Pompeius)’in Kudüs’ü alması ile gerçekleşmiştir. Böylece Kudüs’te yaklaşık yedi yüzyıl sürecek Roma hâkimiyeti başlamıştır. MÖ 37’de, Kral Herod döneminde kent ve Kral Süleyman’ın yaptırdığı mabet onarılmış, kentin imar planına bir amfitiyatro ve hipodrom eklenmiştir. Roma İmparatoru Hadrianus (MS 117-138), 135 yılında çıkan isyan neticesinde tahrip olan kenti yeniden yapılandırmış ve Aelia Capitolina’yı Hippodamos planına uygun tasarlatmıştır. Roma kent planlamasının en önemli özelliklerinden biri kuzey güney yönünde (Cardo Maximus) ve doğu batı yönünde (Decumanus Maximus) iki ana arter/yol aksına paralel olarak oluşturulan ve literatürde grid/ hippodamic/ızgara/satranç tahtası olarak adlandırılan MÖ 5. yüzyılda Miletli Hippodamos’tan beri bilinen plandı. Roma hâkimiyetine girdikten sonra Kudüs de diğer Roma kentleri gibi bu plan şemasına göre şekillenmiştir. Bu çalışma günümüzde de izleri okunabilen, Roma İmparatorluğu dönemi Kudüs’ünün (eski Kudüs-sur içi bölge) tarihî süreci ve kentin planının Roma dönemi yol dokusuna göre şekillenmesi konularına odaklanmıştır. Roma dönemi yol dokusunun görülebildiği en eski görsel kaynak olan Madaba Mozaik Haritası ve Haçlı Haritaları üzerinden okumalar yapılmıştır. Kudüs’ün günümüzdeki kent dokusunun bilinen en eski dönemi özgün kaynaklar ve dönem okumalarıyla ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır.
Jerusalem, which has a very long historical past, has hosted many civilizations. The first exodus of Jews to the city, which was founded by the Canaanites in 3000 BC, took place during the reign of Abraham (21.- 20. centuries BC). King David succeeded in taking Jerusalem (1000s BC) and made it the capital after he took it. During his reign, the Israelites settled down. During the reign of King David and his son, King Solomon, the Israelites, and Jerusalem enjoyed their most prosperous days. King Solomon, who ascended the throne after his father’s death, had the temple that his father wished to be built on Mount Moriah outside the city walls.
With the capture of Jerusalem by the Roman leader Pompeius in 63 BC, Roman domination began, which would last for about seven centuries. During the reign of King Hirodes/Herod, appointed by Rome in 37 BC, the city and temple were repaired, and an amphitheater and a hippodrome were added to the city’s zoning plan. Turning into a Roman colony with the construction of the Tenth Legion Camp (2nd century AD), Jerusalem has been reshaped in line with Roman soldiers and their beliefs since the 2nd century. As a result of the rebellion (AD 135) that broke out during the reign of Roman Emperor Hadrian (AD 117-138), the city was destroyed and restructured. In this new urban setting, a planned street network led to a greater density of settlements in the northwest. Temples built at this spot created an entirely new city center. Hadrian continued his plans to rebuild Jerusalem as a pagan Roman city. Hadrian gave his name to the city he founded after himself, just as Alexander the Great did centuries ago. Thus, the appearance of the city radically changed.
One of the most important features of Roman city planning is that it was created parallel to two main artery/road axes in the north-south (Cardo Maximus) and eastwest (Decumanus Maximus) directions. In the literature: it is the plan called grid/ hippodamos/chessboard. This plan has been known since Hippodamos of Miletus in the Hellenistic period. After coming under Roman domination, Jerusalem was shaped according to this plan like other Roman cities.
The city of Jerusalem is very vividly depicted on the Madaba mosaic map discovered in the late 19th century. The most striking detail on the Madaba Mosaic Map dated to the 6th century is the cardo maximus with colonnades on both sides. The first paving stones of Cardo were reached during the excavations carried out in 1976. Today, the southern part of the Cardon, the colonnaded road can be partially seen. In addition, a part of the Eastern Cardo (Cardo Valensis) was unearthed in the following years.
The Madaba Map is very important in that it depicts the state of Jerusalem in the 6th century and shows the location of Cardo. Except for the Madaba Map, which shows that Jerusalem has a Roman road texture, the Crusader Period maps of Jerusalem are important data. Cardo Maximus and Decumanus Maximus can be seen clearly on the Crusader Maps depicting Jerusalem surrounded by circular fortifications. Two main streets; Cardo and Decumanus form a cross in the center of crusader maps. These streets, one in the north-south direction and the other in the east-west direction intersecting each other at right angles, are still the main roads of the city.
The two main streets, Cardo Maximus and Decumanus Maximus (today’s names Suq Khan A-Zeit (Beit HaBad) St. and David St.), which are the distinguishing features of the Roman city plan, left their mark on the shaping of the city. The influence of Rome, which has an advanced architectural and urban planning experience, on Jerusalem, can be seen even today.
Jerusalem, which preserved its pagan identity for nearly two hundred years, turned its face in this direction when Constantinus adopted Christianity. Jerusalem is no longer a pagan Roman city and has become a Christian Roman city.
Constantinus had the Church of the Holy Sepulcher built on the place believed to be the tomb of Jesus according to Christian belief. Thus, the city of Jerusalem became an important center for the Christian world. The new focal point of the city has shifted to the area where the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is located. During the reign of Emperor Justinianus, reconstruction movements continued.
Jerusalem was transformed from a Pagan Roman city into a Christian city, with churches built between the 4th and 7th centuries. Between the 7th and 11th centuries, Jerusalem took on the appearance of a city where the Roman road network and parcellation, Christian and Islamic structures were seen together, together with the Islamic structures added to the Christian city.
The article focuses on the historical process of Jerusalem during the Roman Empire period and the shaping of the city plan according to the Roman period road texture, traces of which can still be read today. Readings were made on the Madaba Mosaic Map and the Crusader Maps, the oldest visual source where the Roman period road texture can be seen. The oldest known period of today’s urban texture of Jerusalem has been tried to be revealed with original sources and period readings.