Metal Cross Samples at Bursa Archaeological MuseumUfuk Elyiğit
In the study, nine metal cross samples at Bursa Archaeological Museum were analyzed. Before the introduction of these works, the use of the cross form in the historical process and its importance in terms of the Christian belief were emphasized. In the next stage, the reflections of the cross form on the Byzantine metal art were discussed. The aim of the study was to analyze the reflections of the cross form, which is one of the most important means of representation of Christianity, on the Byzantine metal art. The works in the museum were grouped by considering their usage patterns as well as their forms and technical features. The works discussed within the scope of the study are used as reliquary and pendant crosses. Four of the crosses were considered as reliquary and the others were considered as pendants. Some samples could not be identified in terms of decoration since the crosses were damaged over time. While decoration elements were observed in two of the reliquary crosses, writing and geometric motifs could be found in only one of the pendant crosses. While the casting technique was used in shaping the crosses made of bronze material, the engraving and low relief techniques were used together in their decorations. The scenes and saint figures of Christian iconography are included in reliquary crosses. The analyzed samples have the forms of Latin and Greek crosses by their shapes. The crosses at Bursa Archaeological Museum were compared with similar samples found in the museums in different regions of Anatolia. Thus, it was attempted to obtain data that can help with the stylistic features and dating of these works. There was a general view that the metal crosses, which are the subject of the article, could be dated between the 9th and 12th centuries.
Bursa Arkeoloji Müzesi’ndeki Madeni Haç ÖrnekleriUfuk Elyiğit
Çalışma kapsamında, Bursa Arkeoloji Müzesi’nde yer alan dokuz adet madeni haç örneği incelenmiştir. Söz konusu eserlerin tanıtımından önce, haç formunun tarihi süreç içerisindeki kullanımı ve Hristiyan inancı açısından önemi üzerinde durulmuştur. Daha sonraki aşamada ise haç formunun Bizans maden sanatına yansımaları konu edilmiştir. Çalışmanın amacı, Hristiyanlığın en önemli temsil araçlarından olan haç formunun Bizans maden sanatına yansıma şekillerini irdelemektir. Müzedeki eserler, form ve teknik özelliklerinin yanı sıra kullanım şekilleri de göz önüne alınarak gruplandırılmıştır. Araştırma kapsamında ele alınan eserler, röliker ve pandantif haç olarak kullanılmaktadır. Haçlar zamanla tahribata uğradıkları için bezeme açısından bazı örnekler tanımlanamamıştır. Röliker haçlardan iki tanesinde bezeme unsuru görülürken, pandantif haçlarda ise yalnızca birinde yazı ve geometrik motiflere rastlamak mümkün olmuştur. Bronz malzemeden yapılan haçların şekillendirilmesinde döküm tekniği, bezemelerinde ise kazıma ve alçak kabartma teknikleri bir arada kullanılmıştır. Röliker haçlarda Hristiyan ikonografisine ait sahnelere ve aziz figürlerine yer verilmiştir. İncelenen örnekler Latin ve Yunan haçı formuna sahiptirler. Bursa Arkeoloji Müzesi’ndeki haçlar, Anadolu’nun farklı bölgelerindeki müzelerde bulunan benzer örnekler ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Böylece söz konusu eserlerin üslup özellikleri ve tarihlendirilmelerine yardımcı olabilecek veriler elde edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Makalenin konusunu teşkil eden madeni haçların 9.-12. yüzyıllar arasına tarihlendirilebileceği noktasında genel bir kanı oluşmuştur.
The belief factor, which is the most important element that shapes the human life, has succeeded in influencing the internal dynamics, value judgments and means of representation of the society to which it belongs. Along with the spread of Christianity, it led to radical changes in the life and belief system of the society to which it belonged. The Christian belief, that began to become influential on the way of worship, daily life, architecture, and handicraft products, also changed the concept of worship. In addition to the church liturgy that started to develop over time, there were some innovations in the symbols of belief and worship. Anatolia, which contains cultures with different beliefs, is one of the geographies that best represent this situation. The Anatolian geography witnessed important developments in terms of the Christian belief, and the developments in the dimension of belief were also reflected in the understanding of art. From this point of view, the developments, and changes in the religious and daily life of the Byzantine Empire, which can be considered as the most important representative of Christianity, were also reflected in the products used. In parallel with the Byzantine belief system and increasing the effectiveness of the church, its representation power, and the tools it used in the society were enriched accordingly. It is necessary to state that Christology, which has an important place in terms of Christian theology, is one of the issues that mostly occupied the Christian world. In this context, many issues related to the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ have been included in Christian theology. These processes affected the meeting of councils and ignited the debates that would spread over a wide period of time. In the continuation of this process, there were also some changes in the dimensions of belief and worship. In particular, the event of the crucifixion and related events have an important place in the Christian faith. So, important stages of representation occurred in the dimension of belief. The developments that shaped the daily life, the way of worship and artistic activities manifested themselves concretely in the works produced. The event of the crucifixion has been one of the most important elements reflected in art in a concrete sense. The cross form, that was used in different ways by various civilizations throughout the historical process, has become the most important means of representation of Christianity over time. The cross, that began to be used in different forms by various societies belonging to the Christian faith, has turned into the most important means of symbol of handicraft products as well as architecture. In addition to metal products shaped according to the Christian church liturgy, various forms of crosses also began to be used widely. These crosses with the traces of Byzantine metal art consist of ceremonial cross, consecrated cross, reliquary cross, and the crosses called as pendant and designed by being worn around the neck. These works made in various sizes are used for different purposes. It is also observed that the decoration elements that can develop depending on the purpose of the crosses are included.
The crosses were shaped using various materials and different techniques in their production. In the study, nine metal cross samples at Bursa Archaeological Museum were analyzed. Before the introduction of these works, the use of the cross form in the historical process and its importance in terms of Christian belief were emphasized. In the next stage, the reflections of the cross form on the Byzantine metal art were discussed. The aim of the study was to analyze the reflections of the cross form, which is one of the most important means of representation of Christianity, on the Byzantine metal art. The works in the museum were grouped by considering their usage patterns as well as their forms and technical features. The works discussed within the scope of the study are used as reliquary and pendant crosses. While four of nine metal crosses in the museum that we analyzed within the scope of the study were described as reliquary crosses, the other five crosses were described as crosses used as pendants. Since two of the reliquary crosses were destroyed over time, the presence of decoration elements could not be determined. The crosses with inventory numbers (2009/39) and (2017/73) include depictions such as the “Jesus on the Cross” scene seen in many of the reliquary crosses, “Virgin Mary” figure exhibiting an orans stance, and medallions depicting the four biblical authors. Except for the cross with the inventory number (2011/2) among pendant crosses, they were kept simple in terms of decoration elements. While the casting technique was used in shaping the crosses made of bronze material, the engraving and low relief techniques were used together in their decorations. The analyzed samples have the forms of Latin and Greek crosses by their shapes. However, with regard to the arm ends of the crosses with inventory numbers (8449) and (6-1-98) among the pendant crosses, unlike other samples, while protrusions are located near the ends of the arms, arm ends form a circle. Anatolian geography provides concrete data in terms of liturgical materials, daily use items and cross forms reflecting the Byzantine metal art. From this perspective, it was possible to compare the crosses at Bursa Archaeological Museum with similar samples found at museums in different regions of Anatolia. Thus, it was attempted to obtain data that can help with the stylistic features and dating of these works. It was determined that the metal crosses, which are the subject of the article, had similarities with some works in other museums in terms of form, technical features, and usage purposes. Considering the sense of style and the techniques used, it was concluded that the crosses at Bursa Archaeological Museum could be dated between the 9th and 12th centuries.