Use of the Stone in Gaziantep Traditional Architecture from Past TodayGaye Cansunar Yetkin, Tülay Çobancaoğlu
Having a rich historical background Gaziantep (SE of Turkey) limestones have been used as a building stone until recently. Limestones occur in the geological formations near this city. Basic factors crucial for development of the traditional architecture such as the topography, climate, vegetation, social and cultural structure were effective in determining characteristics of local architecture of the city. Artisans of Gaziantep used this stone properly and has given the city an authentic architectural character. Within the historical development of the city, limestones have been used as the main building material until the 1950’s. Recently the reinforced concrete system was used in the architecture of the city. Nowadays after the recent restoration projects carried out in the city, there is a revival use of stone as a construction material. The aim of this study is to examine the use of stone in the traditional architecture of Gaziantep from past to present and to discuss the sustainability of this material. In this context, the use of stone in the urban architecture is discussed with different perspectives including archival research, site surveys and material properties determined by laboratory analysis.
Dünden Bugüne Gaziantep Geleneksel Mimarisinde Taşın KullanımGaye Cansunar Yetkin, Tülay Çobancaoğlu
Zengin bir tarihsel geçmişe sahip olan Gaziantep, bulunduğu bölgenin jeolojik yapısında bulunan kireç kayalarını belirli bir döneme kadar aktif bir şekilde kullanmıştır. Topoğrafya, iklim, bitki örtüsü, sosyal ve kültürel yapı, Gaziantep yerel mimari özelliklerin belirlenmesinde etkili olmuş, kentli elindeki malzemeyi söz uygun bir biçimde işleyerek, kente özgün bir mimari karakter kazandırmıştır. Kentin tarihsel süreci içerisinde 1950’li yıllara kadar taş kullanımı devam etmiş olup, bu tarihten sonra betonarme, kentin mimarisinde etkili olmaya başlamış ancak son dönemde gerçekleştirilen restorasyon çalışmaları ile yapı malzemesi olarak taş, yeniden gündeme gelmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amacı; Gaziantep geleneksel mimarisinde taş malzemenin kullanımının geçmişten günümüze olan sürecinin incelemesi ve malzemenin sürdürülebilirliğinin araştırılması ve tartışılmasını amaçlamaktadır. Bu kapsamda arşiv araştırmaları ve yerinde incelemelerle kent mimarisinde taş kullanımı çok boyutlu olarak ele alınmış, laboratuar analizleri ile özgün malzemenin petrografik, mineralojik, mekanik ve fiziksel özellikleri belirlenmiştir.
Introduction, Research Questions and Purpose
In this study, the use of stone in Gaziantep ‘s traditinonal architecture is discussed from past to the peresent day. The stone types used in city, the existing quarries, the dimensions of stone, and the process up to its use in the structure were examined through the stone builds which constitute the traditional architecture of the city. Currently, the fact that the authentic stone details are not known and there is not enough number of stone masons who can work with these details, in addition to insufficient application time, have a negative impact on restoration works in the city. Mostly Urfa limestone is used in conservation works because there are a few active quarries in the city. Thus, the aim of this study is to discuss the relevance of the stone used in restoration works instead of authentic stone. In addition to this, suggestions have been made about the methods that can be applied to quarry local stone.
In the study, work of local researchers were used to determine the traditional architecture features of the city. In this context, Cemil Cahit Güzelbey’s publications, interviews with local experts and the results obtained form field study have been useful. There are few written resources of knowledge on the traditional architectural features of the city. The study’s aim is to make this information more permanent by means of detail drawings developed over sample structures evaluated according to the order of historical development of the city.
In this study, to investigate the development of urban architecture in the historical process and the local architectural features, the local researcher’s publications were compiled and then fieldwork was made to reach tangible data. For the purposes of this study, details of in-situ traditional architecture were documented through drawings and photography. One of the reasons for conducting this study was the fact that local stone quarries of the city were shut down, thus leading absence of local stone and perishing of stone masonry. With the laboratory results that constitute part of the research, the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of the stone types in the city were determined by scientific metods and the stones were classified. The same analysis was carried out on the Urfa lime stone, which is mostly used due to the lack of authentic material and economic reasons in restoration works and the suitability of the material selection discussed.
Results and Conclusions
As a result of the surveys conducted in and around the city, it was found that there was not enough stone quarry. The cost of the stone obtained from the city is approx imately twice as much as the cost of Urfa lime Stone These facts explain why local material is not preferred in restoration works. It is not possible to use the old stone quarries because they are in the urban areas of the city where it could be hard to acquire. However, at this stage, it is considered that the studies to be carried out in the vicinity of the city and the new stone reserve areas can be created and new quarries can be opened with the incentives of the state. If the local material needs of institutions carrying out restoration works are provided, a supply-demand equilibrium for use of local stone can be created. As a result of the material anaylsis, mechanical, physical, chemical properties of ‘Keymık’ and ‘Havara’ stones were determined. It is also seen that the ‘Carpın stone’which is defined as marble, is lime stone. One of the problems of the restoration projects in city, is that they are generally created with the idea of ‘renovation in accordance with the authenticity’. However, nowadays, with help of developing technology, consolidation methods in structural and material scale, are not preferred in restoration-conservation projects to carried out in the city. Instead, applications based on rebuilding are preferred by the contractor because they are easier to practice. The misapplication of traditional architectural details, the inadequacy of the work periods given by the institutions for restoration works, the price foreseen in the current bidding system, happen to be not only insufficient for the traditional stone dressing work, but also the number of craftsmen who know the traditional details in the city is almost insufficient to pass on the knowledge as reguired, to the most; thus these are the major problems identified in the city. In this context, the reorganizition of the current bidding system, the incentive practices for the implemention of traditional metods and details in restoration practices by institutions working in the field of conservation and the organization of various training programs with the support of professional chamber and non-govermental organizations for maintaining the tradional stonework, are measures that can be taken to solve the problems. According to the ICOMOS, Charter On The Built Vernacular Heritage (1999), Guidelines in Practice, Article 3; “The continuity of traditional building systems and craft skills associated with the vernacular has been fundamental for vernacular expression, and essential for the repair and restoration of these structures. Such skills should be retained, recorded and passed on to new generations of craftsmen and builders in education and training”. As a result, it is recommended that the practices be carried out while giving importance to the interdisciplinary studies based on scientific conservation approaches.