Research Article


DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027    Full Text (PDF)

A Historical Educational Building in Edirne: Bulgarian Catholic School and Its Architectural Features

Merve Arslan ÇinkoZeynep Eres

In the 19th century, when the transition from traditional education to the modern education system was experienced in the Ottoman Empire, various modern educational institutions were established. Not only Muslims but also non-Muslims and foreigners opened many schools throughout the country. The Bulgarians, one of the substantial communities living in Edirne, which is adjacent to the capital Istanbul, opened many schools in the province. One of them was the Bulgarian Catholic School. This school was opened in the second half of the 19th century by the Resurrectionists, a group affiliated with the Polish Catholic sect, to spread the Catholic sect among the Bulgarians. This school first became operational in an existing wooden structure. Then, a two-storey masonry building was built in 1839 in this area, and after 1907, with the addition of a new masonry building, the school turned into a magnificent structure. Although the educational function of the building was interrupted in the 1930s, it was opened in the 1960s again. The building is still used for education today. This study is aimed to determine the historical, cultural, and architectural values of a Late Ottoman Period Bulgarian educational building in Edirne, which constitutes a singular example for the region. The purpose of usage and architectural development of the building has been revealed in the Ottoman Archive documents. Its importance has been emphasized in the context of education and architectural history, and the necessity of its conservation has been indicated.

DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027    Full Text (PDF)

Edirne’de Tarihî Bir Eğitim Yapısı: Bulgar Katolik Okulu ve Mimari Özellikleri

Merve Arslan ÇinkoZeynep Eres

Osmanlı Devleti’nde geleneksel eğitimden modern eğitim sistemine geçişin yaşandığı 19. yüzyılda çeşitli çağdaş eğitim kurumları faaliyete geçmiş, ülke genelinde hem Müslümanlar hem de gayrimüslim ve yabancılar tarafından çok sayıda okul faaliyete geçirilmiştir. Edirne vilayetindeki önemli topluluklardan birisi olan Bulgarlar da hem vilayet bütününde hem de kent merkezinde çok sayıda okul açmışlardır. Bunların birisi de Bulgar Katolik Okulu’dur. Polonyalı Katolik mezhebine bağlı bir grup olan Resüreksiyonistler tarafından Bulgarlar arasında Katolik mezhebini yaymak üzere 19. yüzyılın ikinci yarısında açılan Bulgar Katolik Okulu, ilk önce mevcut bir binada faaliyete geçmiştir. Okulun bulunduğu arazi üzerinde 1893 yılında iki katlı kâgir bir yapı inşa edilmiş, 1907 sonrası ise yeni bir kâgir yapının eklenmesiyle okul görkemli bir yapıya dönüşmüştür. Yapının eğitim işlevi 1930’lu yıllarda kesintiye uğrasa da 1960’larda tekrar okul olarak kullanıma açılmıştır. Yapı, günümüzde eğitim işlevi ile kullanılmaktadır. Bu çalışma ile Edirne’de 19. yüzyılda inşa edilen ve bölge için tekil bir örnek oluşturan bir Bulgar eğitim yapısının tarihî, kültürel ve mimari değerlerine yönelik tespitlerin yapılması amaçlanmıştır. Yapının inşa ediliş amacı ve mimari gelişim süreci Osmanlı Arşivi belgeleriyle ortaya çıkarılmış hem eğitim tarihi hem de mimarlık tarihi bağlamında öneminin ortaya konulması ve korunması gerekliliğinin vurgulanması çalışmanın hedefleri arasında yer almıştır. 


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


The transition from traditional education to modern education in the Ottoman Empire began in the 18th century, and military schools were first opened to train qualified officers for the army. The Tanzimat Edict, which was one of the most substantial steps of modernization and was declared in 1839, also pioneered changes in social, political, economic, and cultural areas. The innovations related to education were not included in the Tanzimat Edict directly, but it was understood that qualified individuals should be trained to make new practices and ensure the continuity of the Empire. This could be done with the modern education system and institutions instead of primary schools (sıbyan mektebi) and madrasahs. At the beginning of the transition period, training was provided in the existing structures, but due to the emergence of new education levels and the increase in students, the buildings began to be inadequate. So, the construction of new education buildings was emphasized. In the 19th century, new educational institutions such as primary schools (iptidai), intermediary schools (rüşdiye), high schools (idadi), sultani, vocational schools, and teacher’s schools began to operate, and new structures began to be built throughout the country. 

In the Ottoman Empire, people from different religious and ethnic groups lived together for centuries. As a matter of fact, in the 19th century, not only Muslims but also non-Muslims and foreigners started to open new schools throughout the country. The Reform Edict of 1856 and the Regulation of Public Education of 1869 provided the legal infrastructure in this regard. Thus, non-Muslims and foreigners were able to convey their educational approaches in their schools. 

The province of Edirne, which is adjacent to the capital Istanbul, is also a region where many new practices have been implemented and has hosted many people with different religious beliefs and identities. Bulgarians were one of the important groups living in the region, and they opened many schools in the province. According to the documents of the Ottoman Archives, 111 of the 472 Bulgarian schools in the country in the last quarter of the 19th century were located in Edirne province. As for the information in the 1891-1892 Edirne provincial yearbook, there are five Bulgarian boys’ schools and seven Bulgarian girls’ schools in the city center of Edirne. When these schools were opened by the Orthodox community, a Bulgarian Catholic School was also opened in the city. 

Bulgarian Catholic School was opened in the second half of the 19th century by the Resurrectionists, a group affiliated with the Polish Catholic sect, to spread the Catholic sect among the Bulgarians. This school first became operational in an existing wooden structure. A two-storey masonry building was built for the school in 1893, and after 1907 it turned into a magnificent structure with the addition of a new masonry building. In 1914, the Bulgarian Catholic School was confiscated by the Ottoman administration, and in the 1915-1916 academic year, the city’s first Girl’s Teachers School started to train in this building. Education was suspended during the First World War. Between 1918 and 1927, education was given again at the Bulgarian Catholic School, with the efforts of the Resurrectionists, who still exist in the region. When this group left Edirne in 1928, the education at the school ended. It was reopened in the 1960s with its original function. The building is still used as an educational institution today. 

The school has three floors and a basement floor. The short arm of the L-shaped building faces Balıkpazarı Street, and the long arm faces İzmir Street. According to the historical background and its architectural features, it is understood that the school is a structure consisting of two separate masses. So, the section, which is the short arm of the building and faces Balıkpazarı Street, was first built in 1893 and underwent extensive repairs in 1906 after the great fire in Kaleiçi. The long arm was also started to build in 1907.

The building was built with stone masonry in the basement and brick masonry on the upper floors. The effects of neoclassicism can be seen on the facades and in plan features. There are moldings between floors and pilasters between windows throughout the building. Different plan schemes were applied on the short and long arms of the L-shaped building, which were built in different periods. The main entrance door on the eastern facade of the long arm of the building opens into a entrance hall. There are administrative units in the corridor in the south wing of this hall. After the entrance hall, there is another corridor bounded by round arches with aluminum joinery. The classrooms and stairs are accessed from this corridor. A similar plan scheme was applied on the other floors as well. 

Although the building has undergone various repairs, functional and structural changes in the process, the fact that the building has survived is very important for understanding both the history of education and the educational heritage. This study is aimed to determine the historical, cultural, social, and architectural values of a Bulgarian educational building constructed in Edirne in the 19th century. The purpose of usage and architectural development of the building has been revealed in the Ottoman Archive documents. Its importance has been emphasized in the context of education and architectural history, and the necessity of its conservation has been indicated.


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APA

Arslan Çinko, M., & Eres, Z. (2024). A Historical Educational Building in Edirne: Bulgarian Catholic School and Its Architectural Features. Art-Sanat, 0(21), 69-102. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027


AMA

Arslan Çinko M, Eres Z. A Historical Educational Building in Edirne: Bulgarian Catholic School and Its Architectural Features. Art-Sanat. 2024;0(21):69-102. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027


ABNT

Arslan Çinko, M.; Eres, Z. A Historical Educational Building in Edirne: Bulgarian Catholic School and Its Architectural Features. Art-Sanat, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 21, p. 69-102, 2024.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Arslan Çinko, Merve, and Zeynep Eres. 2024. “A Historical Educational Building in Edirne: Bulgarian Catholic School and Its Architectural Features.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 21: 69-102. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027


Chicago: Humanities Style

Arslan Çinko, Merve, and Zeynep Eres. A Historical Educational Building in Edirne: Bulgarian Catholic School and Its Architectural Features.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 21 (Mar. 2024): 69-102. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027


Harvard: Australian Style

Arslan Çinko, M & Eres, Z 2024, 'A Historical Educational Building in Edirne: Bulgarian Catholic School and Its Architectural Features', Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 21, pp. 69-102, viewed 5 Mar. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Arslan Çinko, M. and Eres, Z. (2024) ‘A Historical Educational Building in Edirne: Bulgarian Catholic School and Its Architectural Features’, Art-Sanat, 0(21), pp. 69-102. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027 (5 Mar. 2024).


MLA

Arslan Çinko, Merve, and Zeynep Eres. A Historical Educational Building in Edirne: Bulgarian Catholic School and Its Architectural Features.” Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 21, 2024, pp. 69-102. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027


Vancouver

Arslan Çinko M, Eres Z. A Historical Educational Building in Edirne: Bulgarian Catholic School and Its Architectural Features. Art-Sanat [Internet]. 5 Mar. 2024 [cited 5 Mar. 2024];0(21):69-102. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027 doi: 10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027


ISNAD

Arslan Çinko, Merve - Eres, Zeynep. A Historical Educational Building in Edirne: Bulgarian Catholic School and Its Architectural Features”. Art-Sanat 0/21 (Mar. 2024): 69-102. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1344027



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Submitted15.08.2023
Accepted24.01.2024
Published Online31.01.2024

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