Daily Object-Oriented Narratives in the Point of Art of Gülsün KaramustafaMehmet Hasan Demirci, Cüneyt Kurt
In the 1980s, the definition, boundaries and purpose of Turkish art entered the process of change and increased its prominence with different approaches. After these years, conceptualization, creating different forms and content, and the emphasis on alternative objects have become common in works with installation-oriented understandings that started in Turkish art. In this direction, the intellectual and conceptual inquiries of Turkish artists on the work have increased, and the way they approach the object has been a factor in the creation of the work. The works of Gülsün Karamustafa, who exhibits topics such as migration, memory, identity, cultural expression, kitsch, popular culture images, and gender with her unique expressions, especially based on everyday objects, draws attention. In this article, the daily object-oriented installations in Gülsün Karamustafa’s works are discussed and the transformation of objects into art objects in these installations is examined. In this context, the article is based on object-oriented narratives; Gülsün Karamustafa’s understanding of art includes four subheadings: everyday objects used in her migration-oriented works, everyday objects used in her identity/kitsch-focused works, and everyday objects used in her genderoriented works. In the article, the data that is the subject of the study were obtained by scanning method, and some of Gülsün Karamustafa’s works focused on everyday objects after 1980 were examined.
Gülsün Karamustafa’nın Sanatında Gündelik Nesneye Odaklı AnlatılarMehmet Hasan Demirci, Cüneyt Kurt
1980’li yıllarda, Türk sanatının tanımı, sınırları ve amacı değişim sürecine girmiş, farklı yaklaşımlarla belirginliğini daha da arttırmıştır. Nitekim bu yıllardan sonra Türk sanatında başlayan yerleştirme odaklı anlayışlarla eserlerde kavramsallaştırma, farklı biçim ve içerik oluşturma ve alternatif nesne vurgusu yaygın hâle gelmiştir. Bu doğrultuda Türk sanatçıların eser üzerine düşünsel ve kavramsal sorgulamaları artmış, nesneye yaklaşım biçimleri eserin oluşmasında etkili olmuştur. Özellikle gündelik nesneden hareketle göç, bellek, kimlik, kültürel ifade, kitsch, popüler kültür imgeleri, cinsiyet gibi başlıkları kendine has anlatımlarıyla sergileyen Gülsün Karamustafa’nın çalışmaları dikkat çekmektedir. Bu makalede Gülsün Karamustafa’nın çalışmalarında yer alan gündelik nesneye odaklı yerleştirmeler ele alınmış ve bu yerleştirmelerde nesnelerin sanat nesnelerine dönüşümü incelenmiştir. Bu bağlamda nesneye odaklı anlatılardan hareketle makale; Gülsün Karamustafa’nın sanat anlayışı, göç odaklı işlerinde kullanılan gündelik nesneler, kimlik/kitsch odaklı işlerinde kullanılan gündelik nesneler ve cinsiyet odaklı işlerinde kullanılan gündelik nesneler olmak üzere dört alt başlık içermektedir. Makalede incelemeye konu olan veriler, tarama yöntemiyle elde edilmiş, Gülsün Karamustafa’nın 1980 sonrası gündelik nesneye odaklı bazı çalışmaları mercek altına alınmıştır.
There was intense questioning about what art is or how it should exist in the 1950s and after in Western art. In these art inquiries, which continue beyond traditional understandings, an attitude has developed not only against formal and intellectual but also established rules. With these searches, object-oriented approaches increased in the production of works, conceptual propositions and critical perspectives began to gain weight. Therefore, artists diversified their production of object-oriented works in these periods when the understanding of installation became widespread.
On the other hand, the understanding of installation and object-oriented approaches became intense in Turkish art in the 1980s and later. In this context, Turkish art increased the interaction and interrogation of different disciplines, in this direction, it made the understanding of installation widespread and focused on the object emphasis.
The object-oriented placement understanding that developed with Altan Gürman’s use of objects such as cardboard-paper-foam-plastic in his Works has become important for the artists of the Art Definition Society, in the works of the New Trends Exhibition. During these periods, memory-focused everyday objects in Sarkis’ exhibition named Çaylak Sokak; Füsun Onur’s objects in the garden of the Dolmabahçe Palace in the Dolmabahçe Souvenir installation; the hat object used by Ayşe Erkmen in her work named “J, K & H” objects in many of Gülsün Karamustafa’s works are among the important examples.
The works of Gülsün Karamustafa which are one of the important names of contemporary Turkish art, which she created with daily object-oriented approaches, draws attention in this period. Issues such as migration, memory, identity, cultural elements, kitsch, popular culture images and gender, which Karamustafa extensively deals with in her works, come to the fore with a unique style with their daily use of objects.
Therefore, Karamustafa; with the objects he chooses in his works, creates more intense expressions especially on the reality of migration, identity-cultural elements, kitsch expressions, gender, gender and the place of women in society.
Karamustafa, who is an important breaking point in contemporary Turkish art, focused on subjects with social reflections such as migration, memory, cultural elements and kitsch, especially in his 1980 and later works. Artist Karamustafa continued her work with painting in the early years of her art, and later with collages, installation and videos with various materials. Karamustafa, who exhibits human-based approaches throughout her works, has an important place in the subjects she deals with and the relations between the objects she chooses. So many of Gülsün Karamustafa’s daily object-oriented works can be said to shed light on the social, cultural memory of the lived periods. Artist Karamustafa also provides opportunities to perceive the social life and contemporary art phenomenon of that period, especially with the works he created in 1980 and after.
Objects such as quilts, rugs, fabrics, vests and spoons chosen by Gülsün Karamustafa in her migration-oriented works are mainly based on the themes of migration and identity. Migration and identity-themed works, which the artist emphasizes with various everyday objects, are also local and universal dynamics fed by his own life. Therefore, the subject of migration, which the artist expresses concerning objects in his arrangements, is in an intense relationship. Karamustafa’s artistic use of daily objects such as satin quilts and spoons, which are cultural expressions of rural identity, took place as a powerful expression in Turkey, especially in the 1980s.
The jar chosen by Karamustafa in her identity and cultural identity studies, satin fabrics with a kitsch expression, tapestries, plexiglass grasses, artificial flowers, on the other hand, offer a periodical and mass expression. The artist’s emphasis on arabesque and kitsch, which broke out in the 1980s, carries an ironic and questioning expression with the objects he chooses. Karamustafa’s daily objects, especially in Eastern and Western cultures, provide a social/cultural reading of the lived period.
Objects such as mannequins and ribbons, which Gülsün Karamustafa uses in her gender and gender narratives, examines identity questioning and women’s life in society. In particular, the ribbon material, beyond being an object, questions the status of women in society and the way they occupy a place and serves as a memory.
As a result, Gülsün Karamustafa’s object-oriented installation take place in a structure that predominates social, social, and cultural expressions. The objects used by the artist in his works are from life and express a cross-section and period of life. The daily objects that the artist Karamustafa uses in her works are in a way that depicts a history, period, event or mass, and is also an analysis tool that reveals the facts and views in the background of culture, memory, in short, social lifestyle. The objects that makeup almost all Karamustafa’s work, carry a strong conceptualization dimension with form and content and load a representation and a story, and leave permanent references at the point of the flow of art into daily life.