Research Article


DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343    Full Text (PDF)

An Example of Architectural Representation from the Second Constitutional Era: The Ottoman Pavilion by Léon Gurekian at the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911

Hatice Adıgüzel

The Ottoman Empire took care to attend the international exhibitions that emerged because of the Industrial Revolution, beginning from the first event organized in London in 1851. During the reign of Sultan Abdülhamid II, this involvement increased in line with the idea of presenting a modern society and the leader of the Islamic world to the West. The Ottoman government continued to be a part of these exhibitions during the Second Constitutional Era. This paper focuses on the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor 1911, which the Ottoman Empire attended during the Second Constitutional Era. The paper is largely based on an evaluation of relevant documents obtained from the Ottoman Archives and Italian publications from that period. Studies revealed information on the Ottoman participation in Turin International 1911, actors in the background, architectural and stylistic characteristics of the pavilion, and the architect, Léon Gurekian. In addition to known visual data, the plan of the pavilion signed by Gurekian is introduced in this paper for the first time. The pavilion stands out with an Orientalist style during a period dominated by the First National Architectural Movement in the Ottoman Empire. The paper discusses the relationship of this late example of the Orientalist style with the Ottoman national architectural identity that emerged after the Tanzimat reform period.

DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343    Full Text (PDF)

II. Meşrutiyet Dönemi’nden Bir Mimari Temsil Örneği: Levon Güreğyan’ın 1911 Torino Uluslararası Endüstri ve Çalışma Sergisi’ndeki Osmanlı Pavyonu

Hatice Adıgüzel

Osmanlı Devleti, Sanayi Devrimi’nin bir sonucu olarak ortaya çıkan uluslararası sergilere 1851 Londra Sergisi’nden itibaren katılmaya özen göstermiştir. Sultan II. Abdülhamid döneminde, Batı’ya karşı modern bir toplum ve İslam dünyasının lideri görüntüsü sunma idealiyle, bu katılımlar yoğunlaşarak farklı bir boyut kazanmıştır. II. Meşrutiyet Dönemi’nde de Osmanlı hükümeti bu sergilerin bir parçası olmaya devam etmiştir. Bu makale, II. Meşrutiyet Dönemi’nde Osmanlı Devleti’nin katıldığı 1911 Torino Uluslararası Endüstri ve Çalışma Sergisi’ne odaklanmaktadır. Makale, ağırlıklı olarak Osmanlı Arşivi’nde konuyla ilgili bulunan belgeler ve İtalya’da serginin gerçekleştiği dönemde yapılan yayınların değerlendirilmesiyle hazırlanmıştır. Yapılan araştırmalar sonucunda, Osmanlı’nın 1911 Torino sergisine katılım süreci, arka plandaki aktörleri, inşa edilen pavyonun mimari ve üslup özellikleri, mimarı gibi konularda tespitler ortaya konulmuştur. Bu sergi için inşa edilen Osmanlı pavyonu mimar Levon Güreğyan tarafından tasarlanmıştır. Bilinen görsel verilerine ek olarak, pavyonun Güreğyan imzalı planı ilk kez bu çalışmada tanıtılmaktadır. Pavyon, Osmanlı’da Birinci Ulusal Mimarlık Akımının egemen olduğu bir dönemde Oryantalist üslubuyla dikkat çekmektedir. Çalışmada Oryantalist üslubun bu geç örneğinin Osmanlı’da Tanzimat sonrası oluşan milli mimari kimliği ile ilişkisi tartışılmaktadır.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


International exhibitions have been organized in the Western world from the mid19th century onwards because of the industrialization and the search for new markets. The Ottoman Empire took care to attend these exhibitions, beginning from the first event organized in London in 1851, in parallel with the industrialization and modernization programs of the Tanzimat Era. Participating countries in international exhibitions would exhibit their national architectural identities in addition to their industrial technologies and products, especially following the Paris exhibition of 1867. The Ottoman Empire attended these exhibitions with an architectural representation in keeping with the image of the “East” in the Western imagination. Within this context, a sort of Islamic eclecticism was devised by a combination of architectural shapes gathered from Ottoman structures from the past and European-oriented Orientalist elements (mostly from Maghreb-Andalusia). This Orientalist style also manifested itself on buildings erected within the empire’s borders and constituted the character of Ottoman pavilions at international exhibitions.

Ottoman participation in international exhibitions took a new form during the long reign of Abdülhamid II as the purpose of presenting a modern society and the leader of the Islamic world to the West gained strength. This period saw a high level of participation in international exhibitions, mostly by building a pavilion. The Ottoman Empire tried to be a part of international exhibitions during the Second Constitutional Era, albeit at a lower scale. The architectural manifestation of the changing ideology with constitutionalism was named the First National Architectural Movement. While this style was preferred in the official buildings built in many parts of the state, it is seen that the Orientalism that emerged after the Tanzimat continued to be used in the Ottoman architectural representations at the international exhibitions of this period.

Although there is a large body of research on the 19th century Ottoman participation in international exhibitions, limited research exists on exhibitions with Ottoman participation in the early 20th century. This paper addresses Ottoman participation in the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911. The paper is largely based on an evaluation of relevant documents obtained from the Ottoman Archives and Italian publications from that year. Studies revealed information on the Ottoman participation in the exhibition, which has not been studied in detail yet, as well as actors in the background, architectural and stylistic characteristics of the pavilion built in Turin, and the architect.

Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor 1911 was among the events marking the 50th establishment anniversary of the Kingdom of Italy. As part of the celebrations, international exhibitions were organized in Turin, Florence, and Rome, which served as capitals of the kingdom after 1861. The Ottoman Empire initially planned to participate in Rome and Turin exhibitions. Many documents are available in the Ottoman Archives related to the preparations for these attendances. The Ottoman Embassy in Rome and the Ministry of Trade and Public Works assumed principal roles in organizing the exhibitions. To encourage participation, officials from the embassy in Rome penned various letters, which provide information on locations where exhibitions were planned, participating countries, as well as dimensions, costs, and styles of the pavilions.

The Ottoman government, possibly due to concerns such as time constraints and financial difficulties, withdrew from the Rome exhibition in late 1910, and only attended the Turin exhibition with a pavilion. In February 1911, Ali Rıza Bey, Consul of Ancona, was appointed as the Ottoman commissioner of the Turin exhibition. Construction of the Ottoman pavilion was completed around the same time. The pavilion was designed by Léon Gurekian, an Ottoman architect who was born in Istanbul, studied architecture in Rome and designed and constructed buildings in Istanbul and Sofia. He moved to Rome with his family in 1907. The fact that Gurekian had demonstrated his architectural ability with buildings he produced in Istanbul, had a grasp of Ottoman architecture, and resided in Italy must have been factors when the Ottoman government commissioned him to design the pavilion.

Photos of the Ottoman pavilion designed by Léon Gurekian were printed in Italian publications from the exhibition period, Ottoman newspapers and various postcards. In 2010, Armen Gurekian, grandson of Léon Gurekian, published a watercolor perspective drawing of the pavilion. Within the context of this study, the ground floor plan of the pavilion was obtained in the Ottoman Archives. According to this plan which is introduced in this study for the first time and additional images of the structure, the pavilion had a square plan. The exterior mass was in the shape of an Ottoman mansion with Orientalist characteristics in style. It is understood that a document found in the Ottoman Archives and submitted to the Ottoman government helped determine the style. This document is a letter signed by Seyfeddin Bey, who worked as an undersecretary at the embassy in Rome during the period of exhibition preparations and was appointed as commissioner of the Turin exhibition before Ali Rıza Bey, and relays general information on the exhibitions in Rome and Turin. In this letter, Seyfeddin Bey also expresses an opinion, proposing that the Ottoman pavilion as a representative structure should stand out with “magnificent architecture” and decorations, like the Green Mosque in Bursa. In this paper, the Orientalist structure designed by Gurekian, which was possibly inspired by this proposal, is associated with the Ottoman architectural discourse that emerged after the Tanzimat. The paper discusses the significance of the Green Mosque and other early Ottoman buildings in the concept of “national architecture”, which was created during the late Tanzimat era. Moreover, this pavilion example reveals that the Orientalist style was still in use in Ottoman architectural representations at international exhibitions during a period dominated by the First National Architectural Movement. The architectural repertoire implemented by Léon Gurekian in Istanbul indicates a familiarity with this style on his part. Therefore, this paper emphasizes that the tendencies of architects as well as patrons and the elite class guiding them were determinant factors during the selection of style for buildings. 


PDF View

References

  • Adıgüzel, Hatice. “Bir Tasarımın İzinde: Yeni Bulgular Işığında Raimondo D’Aronco’nun İlk İstanbul Projesi Dersaadet Ziraat ve Sanayi Sergi-i Umumisi.” METU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture 36/1 (2019): 157-182. google scholar
  • Akçura, Gökhan. Türkiye Sergicilik ve Fuarcılık Tarihi. İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları, 2009. google scholar
  • Akyıldız, Ali. “Yusuf İzzeddin Efendi.” TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 44. İstanbul: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları, 2014, 13-16. google scholar
  • Allwood, John. The Great Exhibitions. London: Studio Vista, 1977. google scholar
  • Annuaire Oriental du Commerce de L’industrie, de L’administration et de la Magistrature. google scholar
  • Constantinople: Cervati Freres & Cie, 1896. google scholar
  • Annuaire Oriental du Commerce de L’industrie, de L’administration et de la Magistrature. google scholar
  • Constantinople: Cervati Freres & Cie, 1898. google scholar
  • Annuaire Oriental du Commerce de L’industrie, de L’administration et de la Magistrature. google scholar
  • Constantinople: The Annuaire Oriental & Printing Company Limited,1900. google scholar
  • Annuaire Oriental du Commerce de L’industrie, de L’administration et de la Magistrature. google scholar
  • Constantinople: The Annuaire Oriental & Printing Company Limited, 1901. google scholar
  • Annuaire Oriental du Commerce de L’industrie, de L’administration et de la Magistrature. google scholar
  • Constantinople: The Annuaire Oriental & Printing Company Limited,1902. google scholar
  • Annuaire Oriental du Commerce de L’industrie, de L’administration et de la Magistrature. google scholar
  • Constantinople: The Annuaire Oriental & Printing Company Limited,1903. google scholar
  • Annuaire Oriental du Commerce de L’industrie, de L’administration et de la Magistrature. google scholar
  • Constantinople: The Annuaire Oriental & Printing Company Limited,1904. google scholar
  • Annuaire Oriental du Commerce de L’industrie, de L’administration et de la Magistrature. google scholar
  • Constantinople: The Annuaire Oriental & Printing Company Limited,1909. google scholar
  • Annuaire Oriental du Commerce de L’industrie, de L’administration et de la Magistrature. Constantinople: Alfred Rizzo, 1921. google scholar
  • Aoki, Miyuki. “Leon Parvillee: Osmanlı Modernleşmesinin Eşiğinde Bir Fransız Sanatçı.” Doktora Tezi, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, 2002. google scholar
  • Ayverdi, Ekrem Hakkı ve İbrahim Aydın Yüksel. İlk 250 Senenin Osmanlı Mimarisi. İstanbul: İstanbul Fatih Cemiyeti Yayınları, 1976. google scholar
  • Başaran, Bengi. “1893 Chicago Kolomb Dünya Sergisinde Osmanlı Temsili.” Doktora Tezi, İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, 2015. google scholar
  • Borgo Medievale. “Dall’Esposizione al Museo.” Erişim 16 Eylül 2021. http://www. borgomedievaletorino.it/il-borgo/come-nasce-borgo-medievale/da-esposizione-a-museo/ . google scholar
  • Bozdoğan, Sibel. Modernizm ve Ulusun İnşası: Erken Cumhuriyet Türkiyesi’nde Mimari Kültür. İstanbul: Metis Yayınları, 2002. google scholar
  • Buscioni, Maria Cristina. Esposizioni e “Stile Nazionale” (1861-1925): Il Linguaggio dell’Architettura nei Padiglioni Italiani delle Grandi Kermesses Nazionali ed Internazionali. Firenze: Alinea Editrice, 1990. google scholar
  • Çark, Yervant G. Türk Devleti Hizmetinde Ermeniler, 1453-1953. İstanbul: Yeni Matbaa, 1953. google scholar
  • Çelik, Zeynep. Şarkın Sergilenişi: 19. Yüzyıl Dünya Fuarlarında İslam Mimarisi. İstanbul: Tarih Vakfı Yurt Yayınları, 2005. google scholar
  • De Luca, Pasquale. “All’Esposizione Internazionale di Torino.” Emporium 34/ 199 (1911): 37-52. google scholar
  • De Luca, Pasquale. “L’Arte all’Esposizione di Torino.” Emporium 34/ 202 (1911): 271-289. google scholar
  • Derin, Sevil. “1904 St. Louis Dünya Fuarı ve Osmanlı Temsiliyeti: Celal Esad Arseven Sergisi.” Art-Sanat 13 (2020): 87-116. google scholar
  • Deringil, Selim. İktidarın Sembolleri ve İdeoloji: II. AbdülhamidDönemi (1876-1909). İstanbul: Doğan Kitap, 2014. google scholar
  • Edhem Pacha. Usul-i Mimari-i Osmani/ L’Architecture Ottomane /Die Ottomanische Baukunst. İstanbul: y.y, 1873. google scholar
  • Ergüney, Yeşim Duygu ve Nuran Kara Pilehvarian. “Ondokuzuncu Yüzyıl Dünya Fuarlarında Osmanlı Temsiliyeti.” Megaron 10/2 (2015): 224-240. google scholar
  • Ersoy, Ahmet. “Architecture and the Search for Ottoman Origins in the Tanzimat Period.” Muqarnas 24 (2007): 117-139. google scholar
  • Ersoy, Ahmet. “Aykırı Binanın Saklı Kalfası: Hamidiye Camisi ve Nikolaos Tzelepis (Celebis),” Batılılaşan İstanbul’un Rum Mimarları. Ed. Hasan Kuruyazıcı ve Eva Şarlak. İstanbul: Zoğrafyon Lisesi Mezunları Derneği, 2011, 104-117. google scholar
  • Ersoy, Ahmet. Architecture and the Late Ottoman Historical Imaginary: Reconfiguring the Architectural Past in a Modernizing Empire. Burlington: Ashgate, 2015. google scholar
  • Guida Pratica della Esposizione Internazionale di Torino, 1911. Torino: Ajassa & Ferrato Editori, 1911. google scholar
  • Guida Ufficiale della Esposizione Internazionale: Torino 1911. Torino: Stabilimento Tipografico Dott. G. Momo, 1911. google scholar
  • Gurekian, Armen. Leon Gurekian Architetto. Treviso: G.S. Stampa di Asolo, 2010. google scholar
  • Gurekian’s Home Page. Erişim 16 Eylül 2021. http://www.gurekian.com/index.html . google scholar
  • Hasol, Doğan. 20. Yüzyıl Türkiye Mimarlığı. İstanbul: YEM Yayınları, 2017. google scholar
  • Işıklı, Aytaç. Türkiye Fuar Albümü: Osmanlı Dönemi. İstanbul: İstanbul Fuar Merkezi Yayınları, 2012. google scholar
  • İnal, İbnülemin Mahmut Kemal. Osmanlı Devrinde Son Sadrazamlar. 4. cilt, İstanbul: Dergah Yayınları, 1982. google scholar
  • Kuban, Doğan. Osmanlı Mimarisi. İstanbul: YEM Yayınları, 2007. google scholar
  • Kuneralp, Sinan. “Palazzo Gamberini’den Osmanlı-İtalyan ilişkilerine Bir Bakış,” Palazzo Gamberini: Türkiye’nin Roma Büyükelçiliği. Haz. Arzu Karamani Pekin. İstanbul: Vehbi Koç Vakfı, 2013, 16-46. google scholar
  • Kurşun, Zekeriya. “İbrahim Hakkı Paşa (1863-1918) Osmanlı Sadrazamı.” TDV İslâm Ansiklopedisi. 21. İstanbul: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları, 2000, 311-314. google scholar
  • Kuruyazıcı, Hasan. “İstanbul’un Unutulmuş Mimarları-4.” İstanbul 34 (2000): 73-76. google scholar
  • Küçükerman, Önder. Anadolu’nun Geleneksel Halı ve Dokuma Sanatı İçinde Hereke Fabrikası: Saray’dan Hereke’ye Giden Yol. İstanbul: Sümerbank Yayınları, 1987. google scholar
  • La Guida Tricolore Rimborsabile di Torino e della Esposizione del 1911. Milano: F. De Rio, 1911. google scholar
  • Le Esposizioni di Roma e di Torino nel 1911 Descritte ed Illustrate. 10. Milano: Societâ Editrice Sonzogno, 1911. google scholar
  • Le Esposizioni del 1911: Torino, Roma, Firenze. Milano: Fratelli Treves, 1911. google scholar
  • L’Esposizione di Torino: Giornale Ufficiale Illustrato dell’Esposizione Internazionale delle Industrie e del Lavoro 1911, 25. Torino: Stabilimento Tipografico Momo, 1911. google scholar
  • Önsoy, Rıfat. “Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nun Katıldığı İlk Uluslararası Sergiler ve Sergi-i Umumi-i Osmani (1863 İstanbul Sergisi).” Belleten 185 (1984):195-235. google scholar
  • Pamuk, Şevket. Osmanlı-Türkiye İktisadi Tarihi 1500-1914. İstanbul: İletişim Yayınları, 2017. google scholar
  • Pamukciyan, Kevork. Ermeni Kaynaklarından Tarihe Katkılar-IV: Biyografileriyle Ermeniler. İstanbul: Aras Yayıncılık, 2003. google scholar
  • Petrusa, Mariantonietta Picone, Maria Raffaela Pessolano ve Assunta Bianco. Le Grandi Esposizioni in Italia 1861-1911: La Competizione Culturale con l’Europa e la Ricerca dello Stile Nazionale. Napoli: Liguori, 1988. google scholar
  • Rigotti, Giorgio. 80 Anni di Architettura e di Arte: Annibale Rigotti Architetto 1870-1968, Maria Rigotti Calvi Pittrice 1874-1938. Torino: Tipografia Torinese Editrice, 1980. google scholar
  • Sakaoğlu, Necdet. “Yusuf İzzeddin Efendi.” Yaşamları ve Yapıtlarıyla Osmanlılar Ansiklopedisi. 2. cilt. İstanbul: Yapı Kredi Yayınları, 1999, 683-684. google scholar
  • Saner, Turgut. 19. Yüzyıl İstanbul Mimarlığında “Oryantalizm”. İstanbul: Pera Turizm ve Ticaret, 1998. google scholar
  • Şehbal 39. 1 Mayıs 1327 (14 Mayıs 1911), 297. google scholar
  • Şehbal 77. 15 Haziran 1329 (28 Haziran 1913), 95. google scholar
  • Şenyurt, Oya. “Geç 19. ve Erken 20. Yüzyılda İstanbul’da Etkinlik Göstermiş Bazı Ermeni Mimarlar.” Arredamento Mimarlık 11 (2002): 74-81. google scholar
  • Şenyurt, Oya. “II. Abdülhamid Döneminde Panislamist Siyasetin Mimaride Oksidentalist Temsiliyete Dönüşmesi Üzerine Bir Deneme.” Munzur Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 8/15 (2019): 9-32. google scholar
  • Tanyeli, Uğur. “ ‘İslam Mimarlığı’ Kavramına Eleştirel Bir Bakış.” Mimarlık 226 (1987): 52-54. google scholar
  • Tanyeli, Uğur. Mimarlığın Aktörleri Türkiye, 1900-2000. İstanbul: Garanti Galeri, 2007. google scholar
  • Toprak, Zafer. Türkiye’de Milli İktisat 1908-1918. İstanbul: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları, 2019. google scholar
  • Tuğlacı, Pars. Tarih Boyunca İstanbul Adaları, 1. cilt. İstanbul: Cem Yayınevi, 1989. google scholar
  • Turin 1911: The World’s Fair in Italy. “Participating Countries.” Erişim 16 Eylül 2021. https:// italyworldsfairs.org/basic/NS/Nation_States . google scholar
  • Uras, Büke. Balyanlar: Osmanlı Mimarlığı ve Balyan Arşivi. İstanbul: Korpus Kültür ve Sanat Yayıncılık, 2020. google scholar
  • Wharton, Alyson. “Armenian Architects And ‘Other’ Revivalism,” Revival: Memories, Identities, Utopias. Ed. Ayla Lepine, Matt Lodder ve Rosalind McKever. London: The Courtauld Institute of Art, 2015, 130-167. google scholar
  • Wharton-Durgaryan, Alyson. “ ‘I Understood that He Is Entrusted to Serve Some Great Business Undertaking’: Armenian Architects Reshaping the Ottoman East in the Hamidian Era (18761909),” Art, Trade and Culture in the Islamic World and Beyond From the Fatimids to the Mughals. Ed. Alison Ohta, J.M. Rogers ve Rosalind Wade Haddon. London: Gingko Library, 2016, 124-137. google scholar
  • Yazıcı, Nurcan. “Osmanlı’nın İlk Mimarlık Kitabı: Usul-u Mimari-i Osmani.” Arkitekt 497 (2003): 12-19. google scholar
  • Yazıcı, Nurcan. “Uluslararası Sergilerde Osmanlı Mimarisi’nin Sunumu.” Arkitekt 500 (2004): 1830. google scholar
  • Yazıcı, Nurcan. “Atmeydanı’nda İlk Osmanlı Sergi Binası ve Mimar Bourgeois-Parvillee-Montani İşbirliği,” Hipodrom/Atmeydanı: İstanbul’un Tarih Sahnesi. Ed. Ekrem Işın. İstanbul: Pera Müzesi Yayınları, 2010, 128-151. google scholar
  • Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Bab-ı Ali Evrak Odası (BEO) 3806/285423-8, M 3 Şubat 1909. google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Bab-ı Ali Evrak Odası (BEO) 3733/ 279934-5, R 23 Kanunisani 1910 (23 Ocak 1910). google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Bab-ı Ali Evrak Odası (BEO) 3733/ 279934, R 4 Safer 1328 (16 Şubat 1910). google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Bab-ı Ali Evrak Odası (BEO) 3806/285423-2, H 17 Ramazan 1328/R 8 Eylül 1326 (21 Eylül 1910). google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Bab-ı Ali Evrak Odası (BEO) 3834/287489-1, H 8 Zilhicce 1328/R 27 Teşrinievvel 1326 (11 Aralık 1910). google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Bab-ı Ali Evrak Odası (BEO) 3835/287570-2, H 27 Zilhicce 1328/R 16 Kanunuevvel 1326 (30 Aralık 1910). google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Dahiliye İdare (DH.İD.) 108/11-7, M 13 Şubat 1911. google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Dahiliye İdare (DH.İD.) 108/11-1, R 2 Şubat 1326 (15 Şubat 1911). google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Dahiliye İdare (DH.İD.) 108/11-3, R 7 Mart 1327 (20 Mart 1911). google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Hariciye Nezareti İdare (HR.İD.) 1225/39-1, M 12 Şubat 1908. google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Hariciye Nezareti İdare (HR. İD.)1225/34-1, M 3 Şubat 1909. google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Hariciye Nezareti İdare (HR.İD.) 1225/34-7, M 9 Haziran 1909. google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Hariciye Nezareti İdare (HR.İD.) 1225/38-1, M 23 Ocak 1910. google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Hariciye Nezareti İdare (HR.İD.) 1225/38-2, M 29 Ocak 1910. google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). İrade Meclis-i Mahsus (İ. MMS.) 136/7-1, H 7 Safer 1329 / R 25 Kanunisani 1326 (7 Şubat 1911). google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). İrade Meclis-i Mahsus (İ. MMS.) 136/7-2, H Muharrem/Safer 1329 / R Kanunisani 1326 (Ocak/Şubat 1911). google scholar
  • Başkanlık Osmanlı Arşivi (BOA). Meclis-i Vükela Mazbataları (MV.) 139/17-1, H 29 Rebiulevvel 1328/ R 28 Mart 1326 (10 Nisan 1910). google scholar
  • Salt Araştırma. Fotoğraf ve Kartpostal Arşivi. Katalog Numara: AHTOR001. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Adıgüzel, H. (2022). An Example of Architectural Representation from the Second Constitutional Era: The Ottoman Pavilion by Léon Gurekian at the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911. Art-Sanat, 0(17), 1-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343


AMA

Adıgüzel H. An Example of Architectural Representation from the Second Constitutional Era: The Ottoman Pavilion by Léon Gurekian at the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911. Art-Sanat. 2022;0(17):1-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343


ABNT

Adıgüzel, H. An Example of Architectural Representation from the Second Constitutional Era: The Ottoman Pavilion by Léon Gurekian at the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911. Art-Sanat, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 17, p. 1-33, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Adıgüzel, Hatice,. 2022. “An Example of Architectural Representation from the Second Constitutional Era: The Ottoman Pavilion by Léon Gurekian at the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 17: 1-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343


Chicago: Humanities Style

Adıgüzel, Hatice,. An Example of Architectural Representation from the Second Constitutional Era: The Ottoman Pavilion by Léon Gurekian at the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 17 (Feb. 2023): 1-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343


Harvard: Australian Style

Adıgüzel, H 2022, 'An Example of Architectural Representation from the Second Constitutional Era: The Ottoman Pavilion by Léon Gurekian at the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911', Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 17, pp. 1-33, viewed 1 Feb. 2023, https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Adıgüzel, H. (2022) ‘An Example of Architectural Representation from the Second Constitutional Era: The Ottoman Pavilion by Léon Gurekian at the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911’, Art-Sanat, 0(17), pp. 1-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343 (1 Feb. 2023).


MLA

Adıgüzel, Hatice,. An Example of Architectural Representation from the Second Constitutional Era: The Ottoman Pavilion by Léon Gurekian at the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911.” Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 17, 2022, pp. 1-33. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343


Vancouver

Adıgüzel H. An Example of Architectural Representation from the Second Constitutional Era: The Ottoman Pavilion by Léon Gurekian at the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911. Art-Sanat [Internet]. 1 Feb. 2023 [cited 1 Feb. 2023];0(17):1-33. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343 doi: 10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343


ISNAD

Adıgüzel, Hatice. An Example of Architectural Representation from the Second Constitutional Era: The Ottoman Pavilion by Léon Gurekian at the Turin International Exhibition of Industry and Labor in 1911”. Art-Sanat 0/17 (Feb. 2023): 1-33. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2022.17.1002343



TIMELINE


Submitted29.09.2021
Accepted29.09.2021
Published Online27.01.2022

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.