Research Article


DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012    Full Text (PDF)

Persian-Zoroastrian Nationalism in the First Pahlavi Period Architecture

Arash Kazemivand Niar

The geography of Iran throughout the history of humanity has hosted different civilizations with their products and among these, the architectural products have been the dominant facts. After Islam, especially with the Seljuk Turks, these architectural products continued to increase in number and develop in terms of form, were interwined with neighboring geographies like Afganistan and Centeral Asia until the 19th century. Since the second half of the 19th century, initiatives based on the colonial policies of Great Britain began to operate strongly in the state of Turkic Qajar that was the last native monarchy authority in Iran. These influences of Great Britain had almost taken Iran under its authority and begun to weaken the state’s power. By the time 1857, the Turkic-Mughal state was abolished by the East Indian Company (established by Great Britain in India in the previous centuries) and new fields of Indo-European colonialism were opened. Thereupon Indo-European Nationalism that was the product of European romantic assimilationist mentality, strengthened its authority first through the East Indian Company and later through British India with activities such as “Constitution Movement” in Iran. So by these interventions the state of Qajar was overthrown and the modern Iranian nation-state -known as Pahlavi- was established in 1925. The new nation-state system created suitable groundwork to economical activities and construction bids of the “Zoroastrian Parsis of India” who had strict ideological and organizational relations with British India. After destroying the majority of the architectural products belonging to the Qajar era because of –as they say- “representing the obscurantism”, the Pahlavi state reverted to the pre-Islamic architectural elements of Iran, from the Forouhar symbol of Zoroastrian religion to the exterior appearance of the Achaemenid and Sasanid architectural products to decorating the facades of buildings by passing them through the ideological filter of the established nation-state. This forming or revivalism was implemented in two different ways: 1. Buildings where the facade elements of Achaemenid-Sasanid architecture were used symbolically. 2. Buildings where the facade order of the Achaemenid-Sasanid architecture were imitated exactly.

DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012    Full Text (PDF)

İran’da Birinci Pehlevi Dönemi Mimarisinde Fars-Zerdüşt Milliyetçiliği

Arash Kazemivand Niar

İslâmiyet’ten sonra İran’da özellikle Selçuklu Türkleriyle birlikte devam eden ve daha da çoğalmaya başlayan mimari ürünler, XIX. yüzyılın sonlarına kadar gelişimine devam etmiş ve komşu coğrafyalarla özellikle Orta Asya ve Afganistan mimarisiyle iç içe olmuştur. XIX. yüzyılın ikinci yarısından itibaren İran’da son yerli monarşi otorite olan Türk Kaçar devletinde güçlü bir şekilde faaliyet göstermeye başlayan Birleşik Krallık’ın (Britanya) sömürgeci politikaları, İran’ı neredeyse arka bahçesi haline getirmiş, devletin varlığını güçsüz kılmaya başlamıştır. Bu doğrultuda Hindistan’da Birleşik Krallık tarafından daha önceki yüzyıllarda kurulmuş olan Doğu Hint Şirketi vasıtasıyla 1857 yılında Türk Babür Devleti de ortadan kaldırılarak Hint-Avrupa sömürgeciliğine yeni alanlar açılmıştır. Bu eksende Avrupa’daki romantik asimilasyoncudışlayıcı Hint-Avrupa milliyetçiliği, önce Doğu Hint Şirketi ve daha sonra İngiliz Hindistan’ı aracılığıyla XIX. yüzyılda İran’da “meşrutiyet harekâtı” gibi faaliyetlerle güçlenmiş ve gelişimine devam ederek 1926 yılında Kaçar devletini ortadan kaldırarak bugünkü anlamda İran ulus-devletinin temelini oluşturmuştur. Yeni kurulmuş olan ulus-devlet sayesinde İngiliz Hindistan’ı ile sıkı ideolojik ve örgütsel bağları olan Hindistan Zerdüşt Parsîleri’nin o dönemdeki güçlü ekonomik faaliyetlerine özellikle inşaat ihalelerine uygun zemin oluşturulmuştur. Pehlevi devleti Kaçar dönemine ait mimari yapıların birçoğunu sözde “gericiliği temsil ettiğinden” yıktırarak, İran’ın İslamiyet öncesi mimari unsurlarına başvurmuş, mimari ürünlerini yeni kurulmuş olan ulus-devletin idelojik süzgecinden geçirerek, Zerdüşt dininin temsili olan Furuher simgesinden, Ahameniş ve Sâsâni mimarisinin süslerine kadar binaların cephelerini biçimlendirmiştir. Bu biçimlendiriliş veyahut canlandırmacılık iki farklı tarzda uygulanmıştır: 1. Sasani-Ahameniş mimarisindeki cephe öğelerinin simgesel olarak kullanıldığı binalar. 2. Sasani-Ahameniş mimarisindeki cephe düzeninin birebir olarak taklit edildiği binalar.


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APA

Niar, A. (2019). Persian-Zoroastrian Nationalism in the First Pahlavi Period Architecture. Art-Sanat, 0(11), 255-274. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012


AMA

Niar A. Persian-Zoroastrian Nationalism in the First Pahlavi Period Architecture. Art-Sanat. 2019;0(11):255-274. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012


ABNT

Niar, A. Persian-Zoroastrian Nationalism in the First Pahlavi Period Architecture. Art-Sanat, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 11, p. 255-274, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Niar, Arash Kazemivand,. 2019. “Persian-Zoroastrian Nationalism in the First Pahlavi Period Architecture.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 11: 255-274. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012


Chicago: Humanities Style

Niar, Arash Kazemivand,. Persian-Zoroastrian Nationalism in the First Pahlavi Period Architecture.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 11 (Feb. 2023): 255-274. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012


Harvard: Australian Style

Niar, A 2019, 'Persian-Zoroastrian Nationalism in the First Pahlavi Period Architecture', Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 11, pp. 255-274, viewed 1 Feb. 2023, https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Niar, A. (2019) ‘Persian-Zoroastrian Nationalism in the First Pahlavi Period Architecture’, Art-Sanat, 0(11), pp. 255-274. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012 (1 Feb. 2023).


MLA

Niar, Arash Kazemivand,. Persian-Zoroastrian Nationalism in the First Pahlavi Period Architecture.” Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 11, 2019, pp. 255-274. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012


Vancouver

Niar A. Persian-Zoroastrian Nationalism in the First Pahlavi Period Architecture. Art-Sanat [Internet]. 1 Feb. 2023 [cited 1 Feb. 2023];0(11):255-274. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012 doi: 10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012


ISNAD

Niar, Arash Kazemivand. Persian-Zoroastrian Nationalism in the First Pahlavi Period Architecture”. Art-Sanat 0/11 (Feb. 2023): 255-274. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.11.0012



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Submitted16.07.2018
Accepted10.01.2019

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