Research Article

DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2023.20.1151941   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2023.20.1151941    Full Text (PDF)

A Underglazed Monogram from the Palaiologos Dynasty in İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Acropolis)

Dilek Maktal Canko

Monograms, which are symbols formed by the combination of a series of letters indicating a title or prayer, have gained an important place in Byzantine symbolism since the early Christian world. In small-sized Byzantine glazed ceramics such as bowls and plates, monograms are usually seen on the tondo of the ceramics. In these monograms, the names of saints such as Mikhail, Demetrios, Prodromos, Andronikos, and Georgios or dynastic names such as Palaiologos (ΠΑΛΑΙΟΛΟΓΟC) were read intensively. Palaiologos monogram, consisting of four letters, Π and A adjacent, Λ and Γ side by side, is one of the monograms created by combining two or more letters side by side. This monogram is also seen intensely in ceramics. Palaiologos monogram ceramics found in the centers on the Black Sea coast and Constantinople are rarely seen on the Aegean coasts. The Izmir Kadifekale Palaiologos monogamous sgraffito sample is important in that it is a rare specimen (single specimen?) found on the Aegean coasts. In this article, the place of the İzmir Kadifekale sample among other monogrammed samples has been tried to be determined by examining its style features. Moreover, the functions of Palaiologos monogram sgraffito ceramics are discussed in the light of İzmir Kadifekale’s example. In modern literature, a point of view has emerged that monogrammed vessels are used mainly for liturgical purposes, regardless of their content. However, while the names of the saints already fulfil this task, it should be considered that the Palaiologos monogram, which encodes a dynasty name, has a different function than the religious one. Considering the examples in the contemporary West, it is suggested that this monogram may be a part of a policy of developing a language of power that offers political unity and trust.

DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2023.20.1151941   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2023.20.1151941    Full Text (PDF)

İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Akropolü)’de Palaiologos Dönemine Ait Sır Altı Monogram

Dilek Maktal Canko

Unvan veya dua belirten bir dizi harfin bileşiminden meydana gelen monogramlar, erken Hristiyanlık dünyasından itibaren Bizans sembolizminde önemli bir yer edinmiştir. Kâse ve tabak gibi küçük boyutlu Bizans sırlı seramiklerinde monogramlar, genellikle seramiğin tondosunda görülmektedir. Bu monogramlarda yoğun olarak Mikhail, Demetrios, Prodromos, Andronikos, Georgios gibi aziz isimleri veya Palaiologos (ΠΑΛΑΙΟΛΟΓΟC) gibi hanedan isimleri okunmuştur. Π ve A bitişik, Λ ve Γ yan yana olmak üzere dört harften oluşan Palaiologos monogramı, iki ya da daha fazla harfin yan yana bitiştirilerek oluşturulmuş monogramlardan biridir. Bu monogram, seramikler üzerinde de yoğun olarak görülmektedir. Karadeniz kıyılarındaki merkezler ve Konstantinopolis’te buluntularına rastlanan Palaiologos monogramlı seramikler, Ege kıyılarında nadir görülmektedir. İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Akropolü) Palaiologos monogamlı sgraffito örneği, Ege kıyılarında ele geçen nadir örnek olması açısından önemlidir. Bu makalede, İzmir Kadifekale örneğinin diğer monogramlı örnekler arasındaki yeri, stil özellikleri incelenerek belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca Palaiologos monogramlı sgraffito seramiklerin işlevleri tartışılmıştır. Modern literatürde, içeriği ne olursa olsun monogramlı kapların esas olarak litürjik amaçlar için kullanıldığına dair bir bakış açısı oluşmuştur. Ancak aziz isimleri bu görevi yerine getirirken, bir hanedan ismini kodlayan Palaiologos monogramının dinî amaçtan farklı bir işlevde kullanıldığı düşünülmelidir. Batıdaki çağdaşı örnekler de göz önünde bulundurularak bu monogramın siyasi birlik ve güven sunan bir iktidar dili geliştirme politikasının bir parçası olabileceği göz önüne alınmalıdır.


Monograms are symbols that are unique to and identify a person or group, consisting of a combination of letters that indicate a name, title or prayer. Monograms, which have taken an important place in Byzantine symbolism since the early Christian world, have been found most intensely as signs of state power such as coins, seals, and weights, or as property markers in personal works such as jewellery, accessories, and manuscripts. The purpose and function of using monograms on ceramics, such as accessories and monumental structures, is still debated. Recently, new ideas have been put forward. In this article, the function of the Palaiologos monogram is discussed in light of the example of the underglaze monogram found in the İzmir Kadifekale Byzantine Cistern by including these new views.

In Byzantine glazed ceramics, monograms are seen on the inner surface of small glazed pottery such as bowls and plates. The monogram is in the center of the composition in the examples seen in the tondo part of the monochrome vessels, which are usually created with sgraffito or sometimes wide engraving technique under yellow or green glaze. Examples of monogrammed glazed pottery have been recovered from archaeological sites on the Black Sea and Aegean coasts, as well as in Balkan countries such as Bulgaria and Greece, especially in Constantinople. Sirkeci’s excavations revealed data on the production of monogrammed ceramics. In these monograms; Names of saints such as Mikhail (ΜΙΧΑΗΛ), Demetrios (ΔΗΜΗΤΡΙΟC), Prodromos (ΠΡΟΔΡΟΜΟC), Andronikos (ΑΝΔΡΟΝΙΚΟC), Georgios (ΓΕOΡΓΙΟC) or dynastic names such as Palaiologos (ΠΑΛΑΙΟΛΟΓΟC) were read.

The Palaiologos monogram, which first appeared on the coins of Andronikus II (1282-1328), is one of the monograms formed by juxtaposing two or more letters. The Palaiologos monogram consists of four letters, P and A adjacent, and Λ and Γ side by side. In buildings, architectural plastic pieces and small artifacts dating to the Palaeologan period, can be seen either alone or with the accompanying Solomon knot, swastika motif, double-headed eagle or the symbol (#) where two horizontal bars intersect with two vertical bars. The similarity of the monogram to Western heraldry, which was revived during the Paleologan period, helps us to understand why heraldic images accompany the monogram so often.

The Palaiologos monogram, which was seen during the monogramming fashion of household names popular in the late Byzantine period, is one of the most common monograms on ceramics. The monogram, which offers quality workmanship and is usually found in the tondo of yellow or green monochromatic glazed ceramics, is made with the technique of engraving under the glaze. The capital city of Constantinople, Heraklion, Bulgaria, Nessebar, Varna, Kaliakra, Rusokastro Castle, and Crimea are the centers where finds have been concentrated until today. The only reliable data on the production of the Palaiologos monogram came from the Istanbul Sirkeci excavations. While the finds of Palaiologos monogram sgraffito specimens are mostly seen on the Black Sea coasts, the İzmir Kadifekale Palaiologos monogamous sgraffito specimen is important in that it is a rare example (single example?) found on the Aegean coasts.

It is now accepted by many researchers that the monograms found in the tondo of the monogrammed Late Byzantine sgraffito ceramics are not pottery’s marks. In modern literature, a point of view has emerged that monogrammed vessels are used mainly for liturgical purposes, regardless of their content. Among these monograms, which are related to Christian liturgy and ritualism, the Palaiologos monogram, which encodes the dynasty, can be considered to have a different function, since many of them undoubtedly encode the names of saints. Heraldic monograms, evoking features of privileged social status, patronage, and property, developed in the West in the mid-12th century, and by the 13th century, these monograms appeared prominently in art. In other words, heraldry, which spanned medieval Europe and the Mediterranean, became part of developing a visual “language of power” for an increasingly elite society. Social conditions in 12th-century Byzantium were in many ways similar to those in Western Europe. The Byzantine dynasty may also have wanted to create a language of power with the heraldic symbol. The Palaiologos dynasty must have discovered the fact that the loyalty to the city of Constantinople and the Byzantine state, which was lost with the Crusades but was taken back in 1261, can be maintained by being united, and must have wanted to make the power of the government feel more often through symbols and to create an environment of trust. The appearance of the Palaiologos monogram on the castle walls also supports the idea that it points to a strong and reliable empire and its apotropaic function. For the Byzantine society to feel that they lived in unity and a strong empire, monograms were also used on the most widely used objects in Byzantine daily life. However, the fact that the number of finds is less than the other monogrammed samples and the distribution area is narrower shows that these samples are not from daily-use containers. These vessels were kept in homes, perhaps as ornaments or as a religious symbol, with an apotropaic function. Finding finds in places beyond the political control of the Byzantine emperors may suggest that it was designed as a gift to high-ranking or deserving people. Given the empire’s precarious financial situation, it is conceivable that skillfully crafted ceramic pots might be offered as presents. In this case, it can be thought that it may have been given to successful military members as a gift as a symbol of political unity and trust. However, each theory needs more data and more discussion as it decodes the meaning of monograms.

PDF View


  • Asutay-Effenberger, Neslihan. Die Landmauer von Konstantinopel-I'stanbul. Almanya: Walter de Gruyter, 2007. google scholar
  • Aytekin, Osman. “Şavşat (Satlel) Kalesi Kazı ve Restorasyon çalışması 2008”. 31. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı (25-29 Mayıs 2009, Denizli). C. 4. Ankara: T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları. 2010, 247-261. google scholar
  • Böhlendorf-Arslan, Beate. Glasierte Byzantinische Keramik Aus Der Türkei III. İstanbul: Ege Yayınları, 2004. google scholar
  • Böhlendorf-Arslan, Beate. “Byzantinische Glasurkeramik: “Billige Imitate” oder “Volkskunst”?”. &IAOnATIONSpaziergang im kaiserlichen Garten. Schriften über Byzanz und seme Nachbarn. Ed. Neslihan Asutay-Effenberger ve Falko Daim. Almanya: Verlag des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums. 2012, 79-94. google scholar
  • Buchthal, Hugo ve Hans Belting. Patronage in Thirteenth- Century Constantinople: An Atelier of Late Byzantine Book Illumination and Calligraphy. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Studies, 1978. google scholar
  • Byzantine Glazed Ceramics. The Art of Sgraffito. Ed. Demetra Papanikola-Bakirtzi. Atina: Archaeological Receipts Fund, 1999. google scholar
  • Byzantium: Faith and Power (1261-1557). Ed. Halen C. Evans. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2004. google scholar
  • Dark, Ken. Byzantine Pottery. Tempus: Stroud & Charleston, 2001. google scholar
  • Demangel, Robert ve Ernest Mamboury. Le Quartier des Manganes et la Premiere Region de Constantinople. Paris: De Boccard, 1939. google scholar
  • Doğer, Lale “Anaia-Kuşadası Kadıkalesi Kazısı 2002 Yılı Bizans Dönemi Seramik Buluntularının Ön Değerlendirilmesi”. Sanat Tarihi Dergisi XIII/1 (2004): 1-31. google scholar
  • Doğer Lale ve Dilek Maktal-Canko. “İzmir Kadifekale 2015 Yılı Bizans Sarnıcı Araştırma Kazısından Seramik Buluntular”. Smyrna/İzmir Kazı ve Araştırmaları III. Ed. Hakan Göncü, Akın Ersoy ve Duygu Akar Tanrıver. İstanbul: Ege Yayınları, 2019, 111-134. google scholar
  • Ebersolt, Jean. Catalogue Des Poteries Byzantines et Anatoliennes du Musee de Constantinople. Istanbul: Osmanlı Müzesi Yayınları, 1910. google scholar
  • François, Veronique. La Ceramique Byzantine A Thasos. Etudes Thasiennes XVI. Paris: Ecole Francaise d’Athenes, 1995. google scholar
  • François, Veronique. “Les Ateliers de Ceramique Byzantine de Nicee/Iznik et leur Production (Xe-debut XIVe siecle)”. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique 121 (1997): 411-442. google scholar
  • François Veronique. “Elaborate Incised Ware: Une Preuve du Rayonnement de Ia Culture Byzantine a l’epoque Paleologue”. Byzantinoslavica LXI (2003): 151-168. google scholar
  • François Veronique. La Vaisselle de Terre a Byzance, Cataloque des Collections du Musee du Louvre. Paris: Coedition Somogly/Louvre Editions, 2017. google scholar
  • Frutiger, Adrian. Signs and Symbols Their Design and Meaning. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989. google scholar
  • Garipzanov, Ildar. Graphic Signs of Authority in Late Antiquity and The Early Middle Ages 300-900. Amerika: Oxford Üniversitesi Yayınları, 2018. google scholar
  • Ginkut, Natalia Vitalievna (ruHBKyT, Harama BuTanueBHa). “BmaHTHMCKue noauBHBie cocygtı XIV b. c MonorpaMMaMH H3 pacKonoK Xepcona h KpenocTH HeMÖaao (Vizantiyskiye Polivnyye Sosudy XIV v. s Monogrammami iz Raskopok Khersona i Kreposti Chembalo)”, AHmurnaa dpeBHocmb u cpednue Beka (Antichnaya Drevnost’ i Sredniye Veka) 48 (2020): 225-253. google scholar
  • Grierson, Philip. Byzantine Coins. Kaliforniya: Kaliforniya Üniversitesi Yayınları, 1982. google scholar
  • Gün Işığında İstanbul’un 8000 Yılı, Marmaray, Metro, Sultanahmet Kazıları. Haz. Arzu Karamani Pekin. İstanbul: Vehbi Koç Vakfı Yayını, 2007. google scholar
  • Hasluck, Frederick W. “Monuments of the Gattelusi”. The Annual of the British School at Athens 15 (1908/1909): 248-269. google scholar
  • Hoffmann, Philippe. “Une Nouvelle Reliure Byzantine au Monogramme des Paleologues (Ambrosianus M 46 SUP. = gr. 512)”. Scriptorium 39/2, (1985): 274-281. google scholar
  • İnanan, Filiz. “Kuşadası Kadıkalesi/Anaia Kazısı Zeuksippus Tipi Seramikleri”. Doktora tezi. Ege Üniversitesi, 2010. google scholar
  • İstanbul’daki Bizans Sarayları, Haz. Asuman Denker, Gülbahar Baran Çelik, Gülcan Kongaz, Havva Koç, Sedat öztopbaş, Şehrazat Karagöz. İstanbul: Arkeoloji Müzesi Yayını, 2011. google scholar
  • Josifova, Marija. “Ceramique a Decor “Sgraffito” de Kaliakra (XIII - La Moitie du XV S.)”. Byzantino-Bulgarica VII (1981): 437- 444. google scholar
  • Kalanlar/The Remnants 12. ve 13. Yüzyıllarda Türkiye’de Bizans. Ed. Ayla Ödekan. İstanbul: Vehbi Koç Vakfı Yayınları, 2007. google scholar
  • Karagianni, Flora. “City-Ports from Aegean to the Black Sea. An Overview of their Early Christian and Medieval Past”. Medieval Ports in North Aegeanand the Black Sea Links to the Maritime Routes of the East International Symposium (4-6 Aralık 2013), Ed. Flora Karagianni. Selanik: European Centre for Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Monuments, 2013, 23-46. google scholar
  • Kuleff, Ivelin ve Rumyana Djingova. “Chemical Profile of Medieval Grafitto Ceramic Finds V. Investigation of Archaelogogical Finds From Nessebar and Sozopol (Bulgaria)”. Berliner Beitrage zur Archaomet:rie Band 15 (1998): 217-236. google scholar
  • Kuzev, Al. Sredneovekovna Sgrafito Keramika s Monogrami ot Varna (Medieval Sgraffito Ceramics with Monograms from Varna). Izvestiia na Narodnyimuzei Varna 10 (1974): 155-169. google scholar
  • Lianta, Eleni. Late Byzantine Coins 1204-1453. Büyük Britanya: Spink Son Ltd, 2009. google scholar
  • Maiko, Vadim Vladislavovich (MaftKo, BagHM). “KepaMUKa c MonorpaMMaMH cpegpeBeKoBoH Congaftu. Tunoaorua, xpoHoaorua u Mecmo npou3BogcTBa (Keramika s Monogrammami Srednevekovoy Soldayi. Tipologiya, Khronologiya i Mesto Proizvodstva)”. Materialy po Arkheologii, Istorii i Etnografii Tavrii 24 (2019): 288-311. google scholar
  • Maiko, Vadim Vladislavovich (MaftKo, BaguM). “BH3aHTHftcKHe HMnopTHBie nogpıa3ypHBie MûHorpaMMM cpegneBeKOBOH CyrgeH (Vizantiyskiye Importnyye Podglazurnyye Monogrammy Srednevekovoy Sugdei)”. Anmam dpeBHocmb u cpedme Beka (Antichnaya Drevnost’ i Sredniye Veka) 48 (2020): 212-224. google scholar
  • Meriç, Zeynep Adile ve Aygün Ekin Meriç. “2012-2019 Yılları Arasında İznik Roma Tiyatrosu’nda Bulunan Bizans Sırlı Seramiklerin Değerlendirilmesi”. Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Fen-Edebiyat Fakültesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 54 (Aralık 2021): 49-66. google scholar
  • Millet, Gabriel. “Inscriptions Byzantines de Mistra (Pl. XIV-XXIII)”. Bulletin de Correspondance Hellenique 23 (1899): 97-156. google scholar
  • Morgan, Charles H. The Byzantine Pottery Corinth 11. Atina: American School of Classical Studies, 1942. google scholar
  • Nikolov, Milen (Hukoiob, MuıeH). “nogrna3ypHH MOHorpaMu ot Kpenocmma PycoKacmpo (Podglazurni Monogrami ot krepostta Rusokastro)”. Ihı:ecmwA Ha My.3eume om lOrmuımo'ina Ebnrapun (Izvestiya naMuzeite ot Yugoiztochna Bülgariya) 25 (2010): 47-54. google scholar
  • Ousterhout, Robert. The Art of The Kariye Camii. İstanbul: Scala Publishers, 2002. google scholar
  • Ousterhout, Robert. “Byzantium Between East and West and the Origins of Heraldry”, Byzantine Art: Recent Studies. Ed. Colum Hourihane. Tempe: ACMRS, 2009. google scholar
  • Ousterhout, Robert. “Emblems of Power in Palaiologan Constantinople”. The Byzantine Court: Source of Power and Culture, Papers from The Second International Sevgi Gönül Byzantine Studies Symposium. Ed. Ayla Ödekan, Nevra Necipoğlu ve Engin Akyürek. İstanbul: Koç Üniversitesi Yayınları, 2013, 89-94. google scholar
  • Parman, Ebru. “Bizans Keramik Sanatı ve Ayasoluk tepesinde Bulunan Bizans Keramikleri”. Doktora Tezi, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, 1978. google scholar
  • Pasinli, Alpay. “Pittakia ve Magnum Palatium-Büyük Saray, Bölgesinde 1999 Yılı Çalışmaları (Eski Sultanahmet Cezaevi Bahçesi)”. 11. Müze Çalışmaları ve Kurtarma Kazıları Sempozyumu. Ankara: T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları, 2001, 41-64. google scholar
  • Robov, Mirko (MupKo, Poöob). “Hob nograasypeH MoHorpaM ot fohstohhh^ ceKTop Ha 'Ipaııe'iıma (Nov podglazuren monogram ot goiztochniya sektor na Trapezitsa)”. Cnucanue EHOEII XXIII, 2 (2015): 279-285. google scholar
  • Rice, David Talbot. “The Byzantine Pottery”. Preliminary Report Upon the Excavations Carried Out in the Hippodrome of Constantinople in 1927. Londra: The British Academy 1928, 29-42. google scholar
  • Rice, David Talbot. Byzantine Glazed Pottery. Oxford: Clarendon Yayınları, 1930. google scholar
  • Rice, David Talbot. “Byzantine Pottery”. The Great Palace of The Byzantine Emperor Second Report. Edinburg: Edinburg Üniversitesi Yayınları, 1958. google scholar
  • Sağlam, Sercan. “Anadolu’daki Armalı Ceneviz Yazıtları”. Orta Çağ’da Anadolu’da Kültürel Karşılaşmalar. 12.-15. Yüzyıllarda Anadolu’da İtalyanlar Sempozyum Bildirileri. İstanbul: Koç Üniversitesi VEKAM Yayınları, 2019, 99-130. google scholar
  • Seibt, Werner. “The Use of Monograms on Byzantine Seals in the Early Middel-Ages (6th to 9th Centuries)”. Parekbolai 6 (2016): 1-14. google scholar
  • Sengalevich, Georgi (CeHraıeBHH, reopru). ““Dimitrios” or “Prodromos”: The Case of a Popular Sgraffitı Ceramics Monogram”. Proceedings of the 23rd International Congress of Byzantine Studies Belgrade 22-27 August 2016, Thematic Sessions of Free Communications, Ed. Dejan Dzelebdzic ve Stanoje Bojanin. Belgrad: AIEB Sırp Ulusal Komitesi, 2016, 438-439. google scholar
  • Sengalevich, Georgi (CeHraneBUH, reopru). “BrnaHTUücKa crpa^UTo KepaMUKa c MoHorpaMU Ha naaeono3UTe (Vizantiîska Sgrafito Keramika s Monogrami na Paleolozite)”. Bulgarskoe-Spisanie za Arkheologiia 6 (2018): 157-168. google scholar
  • Sengalevich, Georgi (CeHra^eBHB, reopru). “MûHorpaMHTe ırus BHsaHTHÜcKaTa nucMena Kyjımypa. npuHoc kbm cucTeMHOTo um U3cnegBaHe (Monogramite vüv Vizantiıskata Pismena Kultura. Prinos Küm Sistemnoto im Izsledvane)”, Carissimae Magistra Grato Animo (2020): 301-312 google scholar
  • Sengalevich, Georgi (CeHraneBUH, reopru). “The Bulgarian Group of Sgraffito Ceramics with Underglaze Monograms: Characteristics and Problems”, Contributions to Bulgarian Archaeology X (2020): 185-208. google scholar
  • Spieser, Jean Michel. Die Byzantinishe Keramik Aus Der Stadtgrabung von Pergamon. Berlin: Deutsches Archaologisches Institut, 1996. google scholar
  • Stevenson, Robert B. K. “The Pottery, 1936-7”. The Great Palace of the Byzantine Emperors, Being a First Report on the Excavations Carried Out in Istanbul on Behalf of the Walker Trust (The University of St. Andrews) 1935-1938, Ed. Gerard Brett, W. J. Macaulay, Robert B. K. Stevenson. Oxford: Oxford Üniversitesi Yayınları, 1947, 31-63. google scholar
  • Teslenko Iryna. “Bupoönu^rBo nonuB’anoro nocygy b KpuMy 3a uacİB yjıyr yjıycy (Vyrobnytstvo Polyv’yanoho Posudu v Krymu za Chasiv Uluh Ulusu)”. Apxeo.nori% i daBHn icmopia yKpaırn, Bun (Arkheolohiya i Davnya Istoriya Ukrayiny) 4 (29) (2018): 7-83. google scholar
  • Teslenko, Iryna. KepaMUKa KpbiMaXVeeka (Keramika Kryma XV Veka), Kiev: Instituta Arkheologii NAN Ukrainy, 2021. google scholar
  • The City of Mystras, Byzantine Hours Works and Days in Byzantium Athens-Thessaloniki-Mystras. Ed. Pali Kalamari ve Angeliki Mexia. Atina: Yunan Kültür Bakanlığı Yayınları, 2001. google scholar
  • Tzitzibassi, Antigoni. “Palaeologan Monograms on Sculprures from Thessaloniki”. Muzeum of Byzantine Culture 12 (2005): 92-110. google scholar
  • Vikan, Gary. “Reviewed Works: Patronage in Thirteenth-Century Constantinople: An Atelier of Late Byzantine Book Illumination and Calligraphy by H. Buchthal and H. Belting”. The Art Bulletin 63/2 (Haziran, 1981): 325-328. google scholar
  • Vroom, Jonita. Bizans’tan Modern Döneme Ege’de Seramik, 7.20. yüzyıllar Bir Giriş ve El Kitabı. Çev. Yasemin Bağcı. İstanbul: Anamed, 2019. google scholar
  • Wallis, Henry. Byzantine Ceramic Art. Notes on Examples of Byzantine Pottery Recently Found at Constantinople with Illustrations. London: Bernard Quaritch 11 Grafton Street W, 1907. google scholar
  • Waksman Sylvie Yona ve Çiğdem Girgin. “Les Vestiges de Production de Ceramiques des Fouilles de Sirkeci (İstanbul). Premiers Elements de Caracterisation”. Anatolia Antiqua XVI (2008): 443-469. google scholar
  • Waksman, Sylvie Yona, Nihal Erhan ve Süleyman Eskalen. “Les Ateliers Ceramiques de Sirkeci (İstanbul). Resultats de la campagne 2008.” Anatolia Antiqua XVII (2009): 457- 467. google scholar
  • Waksman, Sylvie Yona. “Konstantinopolis/İstanbul’da Çömlek Üretimi: Güncel Kazılar ve Modellerin ve Tekniklerin Yayılmasına Dair Yeni sorunlar”. Bizans, Selçuklu ve Osmanlı Topraklarında Kültürel Üretim Aracı Olarak Sırlı Kaplar. 13. Uluslararası ANAMED Yıllık Sempozyumu. Ed. Nikos Kontogiannis, Beate Böhlendorf Arslan ve Filiz Yenişehirlioğlu. İstabul: Koç Üniversitesi Yayınları, 2021, 65-82. google scholar
  • Wroth, Warwick. Catalogue of the Imperial Byzantine Coins in the British Museum 2, Londra: Order of the Trustees, 1908. google scholar
  • Yalman, Bedri. “İznik Tiyatro kazısı 1980”. III. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı. Ankara: T.C. Kültür Bakanlığı Eski Eserler ve Müzeler Genel Müdürlüğü. 1981, 31-34. google scholar
  • Yalman, Bedri. “İznik Tiyatro Kazısı 1982”. V. Kazı Sonuçları Toplantısı (23-27 Mayıs 1983 İstanbul). Ankara: Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı Yayınları, 1983, 215-220. google scholar


Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format



Maktal Canko, D. (2023). A Underglazed Monogram from the Palaiologos Dynasty in İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Acropolis). Art-Sanat, 0(20), 377-402.


Maktal Canko D. A Underglazed Monogram from the Palaiologos Dynasty in İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Acropolis). Art-Sanat. 2023;0(20):377-402.


Maktal Canko, D. A Underglazed Monogram from the Palaiologos Dynasty in İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Acropolis). Art-Sanat, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 20, p. 377-402, 2023.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Maktal Canko, Dilek,. 2023. “A Underglazed Monogram from the Palaiologos Dynasty in İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Acropolis).” Art-Sanat 0, no. 20: 377-402.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Maktal Canko, Dilek,. A Underglazed Monogram from the Palaiologos Dynasty in İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Acropolis).” Art-Sanat 0, no. 20 (Dec. 2023): 377-402.

Harvard: Australian Style

Maktal Canko, D 2023, 'A Underglazed Monogram from the Palaiologos Dynasty in İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Acropolis)', Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 20, pp. 377-402, viewed 3 Dec. 2023,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Maktal Canko, D. (2023) ‘A Underglazed Monogram from the Palaiologos Dynasty in İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Acropolis)’, Art-Sanat, 0(20), pp. 377-402. (3 Dec. 2023).


Maktal Canko, Dilek,. A Underglazed Monogram from the Palaiologos Dynasty in İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Acropolis).” Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 20, 2023, pp. 377-402. [Database Container],


Maktal Canko D. A Underglazed Monogram from the Palaiologos Dynasty in İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Acropolis). Art-Sanat [Internet]. 3 Dec. 2023 [cited 3 Dec. 2023];0(20):377-402. Available from: doi: 10.26650/artsanat.2023.20.1151941


Maktal Canko, Dilek. A Underglazed Monogram from the Palaiologos Dynasty in İzmir Kadifekale (Smyrna Acropolis)”. Art-Sanat 0/20 (Dec. 2023): 377-402.


Published Online01.08.2023


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.