Archaeometric Analyses of the Building Materials for the Karabük Ovacik Çukur MosqueMurat Eroğlu, Muhammet Bilgen, Ezgin Yetiş, Yusuf Kağan Kadıoğlu, Kıymet Deniz
This study aims to determine the conservation status of Karabük Ovacık Çukur Mosque building materials using analytical methods. Çukur Mosque is connected to the Ovacık district of Karabük and is 12 km away from the district center. The distance between Karabük and Ovacık is 48 km. Originally, the wooden roofed building consisted of a harim. Stone, mortar, rendering, and paint samples of the mosque were examined due to their architectural properties, dated to the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Analytical methods were used to determine the physical, chemical, and petrographic properties of building materials, including raw material samples. The following techniques were used for performing the analysis: Silicate aggregate/binder analysis, granulometric sieve analysis-particle size distribution, X-Ray Fluorescence analysis, Confocal Raman Spectroscopy analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis, and petrographic examinations. Material samples were photographed, documented, and coded for laboratory studies within the scope of the study. The results showed the identification of aggregatebinder properties in mortars and renderings and cement in some samples. Conversely, various pigments of mineral origin and organic properties were identified in paints.
Karabük Ovacık Çukur Camisi Yapı Malzemelerinin Arkeometrik AnalizleriMurat Eroğlu, Muhammet Bilgen, Ezgin Yetiş, Yusuf Kağan Kadıoğlu, Kıymet Deniz
Bu çalışmada, Karabük Ovacık Çukur Camisi yapı malzemelerinin korunmasına yönelik özelliklerinin analitik yöntemlerle tespiti amaçlanmıştır. Karabük Ovacık Çukur Camisi, Karabük’ün Ovacık ilçesine bağlı Çukur köyünde bulunmaktadır. Köy, ilçe merkezine 12 km mesafededir. Ovacık ilçesi de Karabük iline 48 km mesafededir. Ahşap çatılı olan yapı yalnızca harim kısmından oluşmaktadır. Mimari özelliklerinden dolayı 19. yüzyıl sonu, 20. yüzyıl başlarına tarihlendirilen caminin taş, harç, sıva ve boya örnekleri incelenmiştir. Örneklenen yapı malzemeleri ve hammadde örneklerinin fiziksel, kimyasal ve petrografik analizlerle özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Bu kapsamda silikatlı agrega/bağlayıcı analizi, granülometrik elek analizi-agregada tane boyutu dağılımı, X-Işını Floresans (XRF) analizi, Konfikal Raman Spektroskopisi (KRS) analizi, Fourier Dönüşümlü Kızılötesi Spektroskopisi (FT-IR) analizi ve petrografik incelemeler yapılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında, Karabük Ovacık Çukur Camisi’ne ait malzeme numuneleri fotoğraflanarak belgelenmiş ve laboratuvar çalışmaları için kodlanmıştır. Çalışmanın sonucunda harç ve sıvaların agrega-bağlayıcı özellikleri belirlenmiş, bazı örneklerin çimento bağlayıcısı içerdiği, boyalarda ise çeşitli mineral kaynaklı pigmentler ile birlikte organik katkıların kullanıldığı tespit edilmiştir.
The Çukur Mosque is connected to the Ovacık district of Karabük and is 12 km away from the district center. The distance between Karabük and Ovacık is 48 km. No information or written record about the date of construction of the mosque and its owner are found. Based on reports in the archives of Kastamonu Regional Directorate of Foundations, the building was dated between the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. The structure is divided into two sections: the harim (inner side of the mosque) section and an additional section, which was built later adjacent to the north direction. The façades of the harim were built with face stone in the corners and rough-hewn stone and the masonry of rubble stone in the body walls. Wooden girders were used in the masonry at certain intervals on the façades. The entrance to the building, which was originally a single venue, was from the north, although it is now on the western side of the additional section, which was built adjacent to the building in the north direction. However, the portico (narthex) and additional section consisting of rooms were designed as a two-story structure. During the 2018-2019 restoration, it was left as a two-story, but the section with the rooms was reduced to a single floor (Kastamonu Regional Directorate of Foundations Archive). A room can be found to the east of the entrance area. The second floor (women’s balcony/ makhpil) is accessed via wooden stairs to the south of the entrance. The entrance to the harim from the extension section is constructed from the north via a wooden double-wing door set inside a stone, flattened round arch. To the west of the door, on the final rendering, the inscription “bismillahirahmanirahim” is written in black, and again in black rulers with taliq calligraphy. The joisting of the ceiling is in the bottom-covered ceiling technique. The joints of the girders are covered with profiled laths, which energize the surface as well. At the center of the ceiling, an octagonal core is painted in a geometrical arrangement in the tones of yellow, blue, red, and green. The wooden Islamic pulpit of the mosque, made using a hammering technique, is located in the western corner of the south wall, adjacent to the west wall, and is not original. The mihrab (Islamic altar) made with plaster work as a relief technique is decorated with plant motifs. In addition to wood and plaster work, kalem isi (Ottoman decorative wall painting technique) made with print, template, and brush techniques are seen on the inner surfaces of the four walls of the mosque. A total of 22 mortars, renderings, and paint samples were examined within the scope of the archaeometric analysis performed in the Çukur Mosque. Samples of the structural materials (stone, mortar, rendering, and paint) were also examined.
Mineralogical and petrographic examinations were performed from open-top thin sections using a polarizing microscope. The following techniques were used for the analysis: Silicate aggregate/binder analysis, granulometric sieve analysis (particle size distribution), X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry analysis, Confocal Raman Spectroscopy analysis, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The building is a masonry wall with a rubble foundation. While face stones are used in the corners, edges of the window, and door jambs on the wall, they are generally built with rough-hewn stone, and samples are taken from both the types of stone. On the interior of the building, sampling could be made from the places where rendering was removed from the west, south, and north walls, but on the east wall, the sampling could not be made because it is a well conservated wall. However, it is thought that the eastern and other walls contain similar features when examined visually. The smooth face stone and rough-hewn stone samples taken from the building were both identified as metasandstone similar to each other. Two types of renderings were found on the west wall. The first is the rendering at the back of the pulpit and it consists of two layers. The lower layer of this rendering (S1b) is a rough and clay + straw + tow-added rendering on the stone wall, similar to rendering consisting of clay + lime used in the rubble filling. Conversely, the upper layer (S1a) is a final rendering with lime + tow. The rendering with clay + straw + tow must have been removed over time, and a new rendering was made. Thus, the original rendering behind the pulpit was preserved. The late period rendering is cement-containing rendering found on the south, north, and west walls. However, the sampling could not be constructed without causing damage to the original work on the east wall, which was in a good condition. The cement-containing rendering on the west, south, and north walls have similar aggregate-binding ratios, aggregate sizes, and chemical contents. This result has been determined both petrographically and chemically. The aggregate ratios and sizes of the mortar (H1) and rendering (S1b) formed with clay + lime adobe mortar are very similar. However, unlike the other, the S1b sample contains rendering, broken bricks, and tow. The paint samples were taken from the back of the mihrab (islamic altar) and the pulpit (original periods), showing that pigments of natural mineral origin were generally used but artificial chrome yellow was preferred as well. Furthermore, it was concluded that binders of organic origin (polysaccharide, protein, oil, and resin) are used in the paints, which should be thoroughly examined in future research.