Research Article


DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006    Full Text (PDF)

The Kangaroo in Art – An Investigation of the Kangaroo-Formed Bibelots in Çanakkale Ceramics in the Ottoman Period

Azize Melek Önder

Pottery, which is known to have been produced over a long period of time from the 15th century to the beginning of the 20th century, has survived to the present day due to the existence of specific production centers. A few of the most important of these centers, İznik, Kütahya and Çanakkale completely fill the time period from the establishment of the Ottoman state to its demise. The ceramics produced during Ottoman period in the 16th and 17th centuries had their greatest times not only in technical aspects but also artistic aspects. Iznik became the center of ceramic production in this period. From the 17th century onwards, negative changes in colors and glazes were observed. Improvements in quality decreased over time, and in the 18th century began to decline completely. Kütahya, which produces separately from İznik, stands out as an important ceramic center in this period. Between the 17th and 20th centuries, Çanakkale was known as another center of production alongside Kütahya ceramics. With the decline of ceramic production in Kütahya, Çanakkale ceramics gained importance. There were many closed (cube, jar, jug, etc.) and open (plate, bowl etc.) ceramics produced in Çanakkale. In addition to these types of ceramics, animal shaped vessels called trinkets were found. Among the most noteworthy animal-shaped vessels are those forms that we call “kangaroo”. Given that these kangaroo forms (which are not typically rendered in Turkish art) appeared so suddenly in Çanakkale ceramics and these forms haven’t previously been researched, this has formed the basis of our research. The first aim of this study is to pinpoint the timeline in which the kangroos, whose habitta is Australia, emerged in the world art. Furthermore, it was aimed to determine from who and from where they were affected in the process in which kangaroo shaped figurines seen in Çanakkale, which is one of the important ceramic centers of the Ottoman period, were turned into ceramic figurines. When we look at previous studies on this subject, we can see that only general information is given about Çanakkale ceramics and that there is no detailed information available regarding this subject in scientific sources. 

DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006    Full Text (PDF)

Sanatta Kanguru ve Osmanlı Dönemi Çanakkale Seramiklerinde Görülen Kanguru Biçimli Bibloların Araştırılması

Azize Melek Önder

Osmanlı imparatorluğunun 15. yüzyıldan 20. yüzyılın başlarına kadar uzanan geniş zaman diliminde üretildiği bilinen seramik, farklı merkezlerin varlığı sebebiyle günümüze kadar gelebilmiştir. Bu merkezlerin en önemlilerinden olan İznik, Kütahya ve Çanakkale, Osmanlı devletinin kurulmasından yıkımına kadar olan sürenin tamamını eksiksiz bir şekilde doldurmaktadır. 16-17 yüzyıllarda Osmanlı döneminde üretilen seramikler gerek teknik, gerekse sanatsal yönlerden en mükemmel çağını yaşamıştır. İznik bu dönemde seramik üretim merkezi olmuştur. 17. yüzyıldan itibaren renk ve sırlarda başlayan olumsuz değişmeler, zamanla kalitesinin düştüğü, 18. yüzyılda ise tamamen gerilemeye başladığı görülür. İznik’ten ayrı üretim yapan Kütahya bu dönemde önemli seramik merkezi olarak öne çıkmaktadır. 17-20. yüzyıllar arasında Çanakkale, Kütahya seramikleri ile birlikte üretim yapan bir diğer merkez olarak bilinmektedir. Kütahya’da seramik üretimini durması ile birlikte Çanakkale seramikleri önem kazanmıştır. Çanakkale’de üretilen birçok kapalı (küp, kavanoz, sürahi. v.b.) ve açık (tabak, kâse. v.b.) formlu seramik bulunmaktadır. Bu tip seramiklerin haricinde biblo olarak isimlendirilen hayvansal biçimli kaplara da rastlanmıştır. Bibloların arasında en dikkat çeken hayvansal biçimli kaplar arasında “kanguru” olarak isimlendirdiğimiz formlar bulunmaktadır. Türk sanatında yer almayan kanguru biçimlerinin birden bire Çanakkale seramiklerinde görülmesi ve araştırmacılar tarafından ele alınmaması sebebiyle araştırma amacımızı oluşturmuştur. Bu çalışma, yaşam alanı Avustralya olan kanguruların dünya sanatında görülmeye başladığı zaman aralığını belirleyebilmek ve Osmanlı döneminin önemli seramik merkezlerinden birisi olan Çanakkale’de görülen Kanguru biçimli bibloların kimlerden, nerelerden etkilenerek seramik biblo haline getirildiklerini tespit edebilmek amacını taşımaktadır. Bu konu da yapılan çalışmalara bakıldığında Çanakkale seramikleri konusunda genel bir bilgi verildiği görülmektedir. Kaynaklarda, çalışılan bu konu hakkında detaylı bir bilgiye rastlanmamaktadır.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Pottery, which is known to have been produced over a long period of time from the 15th century to the beginning of the 20th century, has survived to the present day due to the existence of specific production centers. A few of the most important of these centers, İznik, Kütahya and Çanakkale completely fill the time period from the establishment of the Ottoman state to its demise.. The ceramics produced during Ottoman period in the 16th and 17th centuries had their greatest times not only in technical aspects but also artistic aspects. Iznik became the center of ceramic production in this period. From the 17th century onwards, negative changes in colors and glazes were observed. Improvements in quality decreased over time, and in the 18th century began to decline completely. Kütahya, which produces separately from İznik, stands out as an important ceramic center in this period. Between the 17th and 20th centuries, Çanakkale was known as another center of production alongside Kütahya ceramics. With the decline of ceramic production in Kütahya, Çanakkale ceramics gained importance. There were many closed (cube, jar, jug, etc.) and open (plate, bowl etc.) ceramics produced in Çanakkale. In addition to these types of ceramics, animal shaped vessels called trinkets were found. Among the most noteworthy animal-shaped vessels are those forms that we call “kangaroo”. Given that these kangaroo forms (which are not typically rendered in Turkish art) appeared so suddenly in Çanakkale ceramics and these forms haven’t previously been researched, this has formed the basis of our research. As a result of new research, the point when ceramic art production began was discovered in Çanakkale. Ceramics produced here date back to the 14th century. The development of Çanakkale ceramics and the ceramic centers of the Ottoman period (İznik-Kütahya) show a parallel artistic development. As a result of surveys carried out in Akköy in the Ezine district of Çanakkale, ceramic pieces from the 14th century have been included in the study as proof of this finding. The most important features that distinguish Çanakkale ceramics from other ceramics are the presence of figurative examples and the presence of different containers made with interesting applications. Among these examples, animal-shaped figurines are also found. Among the animal shaped figurines, examples of lion, horse, camel, deer, kangaroo, turtle, dog and bird shaped forms are familiar. The lion, horse, camel, deer, turtle, dog and bird forms used in these figurines are expected in Çanakkale ceramics since they are directly related to Turkish culture. According to research, Kangaroo shaped figurines samples had not been found in Turkish art. That is, until a group of figurine samples seen in Çanakkale ceramics refuted this thesis. The kangaroo can be described as a long-tailed, mouse-like creature that lives on the Australian continent. It is known that the Kangaroo was first introduced to world literature by Lieutenant James Cook in 1770. Later, in 1820, another captain, Phillip K. King, used the name “mee-nuah” “for kangaroo”, but this name has been forgotten. Besides the fact that kangaroos are the only large animals that can jump, they are one of the larger marsupials in the Macropodidae family. Their length is more than 1.5 meters - the most noticeable limb of the kangaroos being their tail, which is approximately 1 meter in length. Kangaroos are animals that can jump, but they can’t jump backwards. While their average life expectancy is 4-6 years, some are known to have lived up to 23 years. After the British discovery of Australia, it can be assumed that the kangaroos were known to the world. The first kangaroo depiction was attributed to George Stubbs (1724-1806, England), known for his oil painting “Kongouro from New Holland”. This painting was the first time that animals from the Australian continent were imported into Western art, and this was after Lieutenant James Cook’s first journey of discovery. Moreover, it is known that the figure of the kangaroo in the first state coat of arms of Australia was inspired by the painting of Stubbs. The kangaroo shaped figurines seen in the Çanakkale Ceramics are placed on a circle-shaped base, shaped in three-dimensional stylized forms. There are two legs on the front of the body. There is a long and curved tipped tail behind the body. A round opening is seen in the upper part of the tail. The kangaroo’s head is oval-shaped and has two long ears on the sides, a knob on its head. A small rosette in relief is attached to the middle of the chest. Seven kangaroo shaped figurines were found in this style. All of these figurines belong to the co Suna İnan Kıraç Foundation collection and are exhibited at the Kaleiçi Museum in Antalya. Within the scope of this research, many domestic and foreign museum inventories were scanned, and related resources such as books, encyclopedias, articles, theses, journals, etc. were analysed. However, apart from the seven kangaroo shaped figurines found in the Kaleiçi Museum in Antalya, no other examples were found. The first aim of this study is to pinpoint the timeline in which the kangroos, whose habitta is Australia, emerged in the world art. Furthermore, it was aimed to determine from who and from where they were affected in the process in which kangaroo shaped figurines seen in Çanakkale, which is one of the important ceramic centers of the Ottoman period, were turned into ceramic figurines When we look at previous studies on this subject, we can see that only general information is given regarding Çanakkale ceramics. There is no detailed information relating to this subject in scientific sources.


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APA

Önder, A. (2019). The Kangaroo in Art – An Investigation of the Kangaroo-Formed Bibelots in Çanakkale Ceramics in the Ottoman Period. Art-Sanat, 0(12), 369-384. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006


AMA

Önder A. The Kangaroo in Art – An Investigation of the Kangaroo-Formed Bibelots in Çanakkale Ceramics in the Ottoman Period. Art-Sanat. 2019;0(12):369-384. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006


ABNT

Önder, A. The Kangaroo in Art – An Investigation of the Kangaroo-Formed Bibelots in Çanakkale Ceramics in the Ottoman Period. Art-Sanat, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 12, p. 369-384, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Önder, Azize Melek,. 2019. “The Kangaroo in Art – An Investigation of the Kangaroo-Formed Bibelots in Çanakkale Ceramics in the Ottoman Period.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 12: 369-384. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006


Chicago: Humanities Style

Önder, Azize Melek,. The Kangaroo in Art – An Investigation of the Kangaroo-Formed Bibelots in Çanakkale Ceramics in the Ottoman Period.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 12 (Dec. 2022): 369-384. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006


Harvard: Australian Style

Önder, A 2019, 'The Kangaroo in Art – An Investigation of the Kangaroo-Formed Bibelots in Çanakkale Ceramics in the Ottoman Period', Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 12, pp. 369-384, viewed 7 Dec. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Önder, A. (2019) ‘The Kangaroo in Art – An Investigation of the Kangaroo-Formed Bibelots in Çanakkale Ceramics in the Ottoman Period’, Art-Sanat, 0(12), pp. 369-384. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006 (7 Dec. 2022).


MLA

Önder, Azize Melek,. The Kangaroo in Art – An Investigation of the Kangaroo-Formed Bibelots in Çanakkale Ceramics in the Ottoman Period.” Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 12, 2019, pp. 369-384. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006


Vancouver

Önder A. The Kangaroo in Art – An Investigation of the Kangaroo-Formed Bibelots in Çanakkale Ceramics in the Ottoman Period. Art-Sanat [Internet]. 7 Dec. 2022 [cited 7 Dec. 2022];0(12):369-384. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006 doi: 10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006


ISNAD

Önder, Azize Melek. The Kangaroo in Art – An Investigation of the Kangaroo-Formed Bibelots in Çanakkale Ceramics in the Ottoman Period”. Art-Sanat 0/12 (Dec. 2022): 369-384. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2019.12.0006



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Submitted11.01.2019
Last Revision10.05.2019
Accepted30.06.2019

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