Proposals for Monitoring Current Conservation Condition of Historical Masonry Buildings: Matrone Church and Çardak Han CasesFeyza Durmuşlar, Emre İpekci, Mine Hamamcıoğlu Turan, Engin Aktaş
The aim of this study is to transfer the international developments related to the process of diagnosis and monitoring of historical masonry structures to the national area. The method chosen is to test the recommendations made at the international level on national cases and to discuss the results obtained by comparing them. A review of preliminary studies, on-site observations, measured surveys, material characterizations, mapping and visual analysis have been carried out. An examination of structural characteristics and observed failures have also been detailed. Related risks have been evaluated with criteria developed by taking into consideration condition classes defined in the UNI EN 16096, titled Conservation of Cultural Property – Condition Survey and Report of Built Cultural Heritage. According to the defined risks and classes, priorities of interventions were determined. Two historical masonry buildings which possess characteristics of different periods and present different damage types were selected: Matrone Church in Ildırı, Çeşme, İzmir and Çardak Han in Çardak, Denizli. The condition reports of the selected buildings have been prepared. The critical points in the condition reporting of historical masonry buildings were determined: accurate comprehension of the authentic structural characteristics and related failures have priority in maintaining historical masonry structures. Identification of condition class and risk assessment of each historic masonry building should be made in accordance with a standard specific to the cases of our country, but in line with the European standards and current developments in the field of architectural restoration. Thus, it will be possible to evaluate the conservation state of our masonry assets in comparison with each other. The content and priority of interventions can be well planned with the participation of the necessary disciplines.
Tarihsel Yığma Yapıların Hâlihazır Koruma Durumunun İzlenmesi İçin Öneriler: Matrone Kilisesi ve Çardak Han ÖrneğiFeyza Durmuşlar, Emre İpekci, Mine Hamamcıoğlu Turan, Engin Aktaş
Bu yazının amacı, tarihsel yığma yapıların tespit ve izlenme süreciyle ilgili uluslararası gelişmelerin ulusal alana aktarılmasıdır. Seçilen yöntem, uluslararası düzeyde yapılan önerilerin ulusal vakalar üzerinde sınanması, elde edilen sonuçların karşılaştırılarak tartışılması şeklindedir. Hâlihazır analitik belgeleme sürecinde yer alan; ön çalışmalara ulaşma, yapıyı yerinde gözlemleme, ölçülü belgeleme, malzeme karakterizasyonu, haritalama ile görsel analiz aşamaları sürdürülmüştür. Ancak yapısal özellikler ve sorunların da incelenmesi vurgulanmaktadır. İlgili riskler; 2012 tarihli, UNI EN 16096 numaralı, Kültür Varlıklarının Korunması – Mimari Mirasın Durum Tespiti ve Raporlanması başlıklı standartta tanımlanan durum sınıfları dikkate alınarak değerlendirilmekte ve koruma durumuna göre müdahale öncelikleri belirlenmektedir. Ege bölgesinden, farklı hasar tip ve dağılımı içeren, farklı dönemlere ait iki tarihi yığma yapı seçilmiştir. İzmir, Çeşme, Ildırı’daki Matrone Kilisesi ve Denizli’deki Çardak Hanı’nın koruma durumu raporları hazırlanmıştır. Bu örneklemelerin sonucunda, tarihsel yığma yapıların hâlihazır koruma durumunun izlenmesinde dikkat edilmesi gerekenler belirlenmiştir. Özgün yapım özelliklerinin ve ilgili hasarların doğru kavranmasının kültür varlığı olan tarihsel yığma yapıların sürdürülmesinde önceliği vardır. Her tarihsel yığma yapı bütünü için genel bir koruma durumu sınıfı tanımlanması ve risk değerlendirmesi, Avrupa standartlarını ve mimari restorasyon alanındaki güncel gelişimleri dikkate alan ancak ülkemiz örneklerine özgü olarak geliştirilecek bir standart çerçevesinde yapılmalıdır. Böylece kültür varlıklarımızın birbirleriyle kıyaslamalı olarak hasar durumlarının değerlendirilmesi mümkün olacaktır. Müdahaleler, doğru sırada ve kapsamda, gerekli disiplinlerin katılımı ile planlanabilecektir.
In order to document and conserve immovable cultural assets in Turkey, inventory sheets have been used. These inventory sheets include written and visual information for definition of cultural assets. However, there is a lack of information in terms of risks and intervention decisions. It might not be enough using only listed cultural assets by inventories but also, they should be monitored according to their conditions. In addition, each phase of intervention should be defined and planned. A condition survey is a management tool for developing plans and consideration for further measures. In order to provide unity in efforts to monitor the conservation condition, a European Standardization Committee produced a standard, UNI EN 16096 titled “Conservation of cultural property-Condition survey and report of built cultural heritage”. It provides guidelines for a condition survey of built cultural heritage by stating assessment, documentation, recording and reporting methods. This European Standard, identifies maintenance measures and defines procurement needs for a group of buildings or a region. According to this standard, the statuses of the buildings can mostly be evaluated by visual observation, and simple measurements can be made if necessary. Relevant data and documents should also be collected and added to the status report. First, general information about built cultural heritage should be recorded - such as a description in the form of a short text of the condition, the symptoms, the type and extent of any damage and condition of the components. Defined symptoms of the structure are analyzed and divided into classes according to the physical state of a built cultural heritage. Condition class 0 refers to no symptoms whereas condition class 3 exhibit major symptoms. There are other classes - minor and moderately strong symptoms. Minor symptoms are few broken elements or worn paint, whereas moderately strong symptoms are localized damage caused by minor wet rot infestation and partial replacement. Major symptoms are leaking roof with damage and major damages. According to condition classes, risk assessments are carried out and their urgency is defined. Risk assessments include probable causes for recorded conditions, external actions affecting components, expected variations in external actions and probable consequences due to recorded conditions, probability that may cause further deterioration, requirements for further investigations and its effect on hidden damage, effect on historical significance and urgency of measures. Urgency class 0 refers to long term interventions, again urgency class 3 require urgent and immediate actions. Depending on the risk assessment, recommended measures for all components are defined in four different classes ranging from recommendation class 0 (no measures) to recommendation class 3 (major intervention based on diagnosis). Maintenance, preventive measures and simple repair can be recommended. Maintenance is defined as periodic preventive conservation actions aimed at sustaining the appropriate condition of the heritage. Preventive conservations are measures and actions taken in order to avoid and minimize future damage, deterioration and loss. Repair refers to actions that recover an object’s functionality and its appearance. These types of interventions are not only to conserve and maintain the significance of built cultural heritages but also to retain their authenticity and integrity. A condition report defines the process necessary for sustaining built cultural heritages in a stable and maintained condition. In its scope and terminology, it is suitable for historical buildings, especially for masonry. Determination of current conditions of historic masonry structures is a significant step for conservation studies. Even though the usage of this method is common for other stakeholders of this committee, it is still not applied to the process in Turkey. In addition, there is a lack of monitoring and continuous maintenance of cultural assets. After restoration, they are not monitored and maintained. The purpose of this paper is to transmit the international advancements identified with the procedure of documenting, analyzing and monitoring of cultural assets to the national area. This developed strategy furnishes an assessment method of historical components in different conditions and provides planning in a defined schedule. The selected method is to test the proposals made at the global level on national cases and discourse about the outcomes with comparisons. For this reason, the European Standard was used to determine condition reports of two masonry buildings: Matrone Church, Ildırı, İzmir and Çardak Khan, Çardak, Denizli. Matrone Church was built in the 19th century. However, it was abandoned in the early 20th century with the population exchange. It was demolished in 1948 and therefore, it was in ruins. With the excavations of Erythrai, the monument was listed as a part of a 1st degree archaeological site. Çardak Khan was built in the 13th century. It was used until the early 20th century with different functions and later abandoned in the 1960s. The building was listed in 1991. Due to vandalism, the walls of the Khan were damaged. The church ruin and abandoned khan were belonging to Turkish periods. Both monuments were compensated due to abandonment and anthropogenic reasons. Within this frame, architectural, structural and material properties of the historic buildings were defined. Structural failures and material deterioration were identified and categorized into three condition classes. Risk assessments including their urgency classes were performed and possible measures were proposed. The condition reports regarding the conservation state of historic masonry monuments prepared in the scope of this standard ease communication among different institutions of conservation and assure sustainability.