Research Article


DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286    Full Text (PDF)

A Study on Mural Paintings of Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque

Begüm Buğdaycı

Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque is one of the buildings that attract attention in Anatolia with its mural paintings. A total of six mural paintings are available to decorate the structure. Three depictions of the murals, Mizan, Âlem-i lâhût and Livâü’l-Hamd, have their subjects taken from manuscripts with religious content such as Muhammadiye and Mârifetnâme. Apart from those, the Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet), Mecca and a carpet depiction painted on the intersection of two walls are included in the painting repertoire. During the restoration of the mosque, which was completed in 2022, Arabic and Latin alphabet scripts, various notes and hand-drawn decorations have been revealed under the plaster. The most important data obtained in these endeavors was the artist’s inscription on the western wall of the harem. According to the inscription, it is acknowledged that the murals were performed in 1950 by an artist named Muhsin Bali. The depiction of the Mizan, one of the mural paintings, differs in terms of being painted together with elements such a mosque, oil lamp and mimbar as well as the use of scripts. The depiction of the universe is of utmost importance in terms of its one-to-one depiction with the miniature in Mârifetnâme. The depiction of Livâü’l-Hamd, which appears only in Islamic works and hadiths, was also taken as an example from the painting on the subject of “Mirat-i Mahşer” in Muhammediye and the inscriptions on the flag arms have also been included. The depiction of the Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet) is depicted in the same view as the view from the northwest corner of the building and has been processed with almost true form to the architectural elements of the original building. Although the depiction of Mecca reflects the 20th century with its use of color and advanced perspective understanding, it still maintains traces of the miniature tradition. The depiction of the carpet engraved on the intersection of two walls is processed in a similar style with another example that we are aware of. 

DOI :10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286   IUP :10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286    Full Text (PDF)

Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Paşa Camii Duvar Resimleri Üzerine Bir Araştırma

Begüm Buğdaycı

Tokmak Hasan Paşa Camii, Anadolu’da duvar resimleriyle dikkat çeken yapılardan biridir. Yapının harimini süsleyen toplam altı adet duvar resmi bulunmaktadır. Duvar resimlerinden Mizan, Âlem-i lâhût ve Livâü’l-Hamd adlı üç tasvir, konularını Muhammediye ve Mârifetnâme gibi dinî içerikli el yazmalarından almıştır. Bunların dışında, Sultan Ahmet Camii, Mekke ve iki duvar kesişimine resmedilen bir halı tasviri de resim programına dâhil edilmiştir. Caminin 2022 yılında tamamlanan restorasyonunda sıva altlarından Arap ve Latin alfabeli yazılar, çeşitli notlar ve kalem işi süslemeler ortaya çıkarılmıştır. Bu çalışmalarda elde edilen en önemli veri, harimin batı duvarı üzerindeki sanatçı kitabesidir. Kitabeden duvar resimlerinin 1950’de Muhsin Bâli adında bir sanatçı tarafından yapıldığı öğrenilmektedir. Duvar resimlerinden Mizan tasviri, yazı kullanımının yanı sıra cami, kandil, minber gibi unsurlarla birlikte resmedilmesi açısından farklılık göstermektedir. Âlem-i lâhût tasviri, Mârifetnâme’deki minyatürle birebir resmedilmesi yönüyle önemlidir. Yalnızca İslami eserlerde ve hadislerde karşımıza çıkan Livâü’l-Hamd tasviri de Muhammediye’deki “Mirat-i Mahşer” konulu resimden örnek alınarak yapılmış ve bayrak kolları üzerinde yazılara yer verilmiştir. Sultan Ahmet Camii tasviri, yapının kuzeybatı köşesinden bakışla aynı görünümde resmedilmiş, orijinal yapının mimari ögelerine neredeyse birebir sadık kalınarak işlenmiştir. Mekke tasviri, renk kullanımı ve gelişmiş perspektif anlayışı ile 20. yüzyılı yansıtsa da minyatür geleneğinin izlerini yaşatmaktadır. İki duvar kesişimine işlenen halı tasviri ise tespit edebildiğimiz bir başka örnek ile benzer tarzda işlenmiştir. 


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque, which was built by Çerkes Mehmed Pasha in the Şefaatli district of Yozgat and Paşaköy Town in 1773-74, is one of the fine examples of a mosque support and wooden ceiling in Anatolia. The exterior of the building, which consists of the sanctuary, narthex and the women’s gathering place, is unadorned and gives the impression of a simple village mosque. However, the interior of the mosque has a dense decoration repertoire. This decoration repertoire consists of wooden ceillings, mimbar, hand-drawn works on wooden column capitals, stucco mihrab and mural paintings. The most important factor determining the limits of the study is the intense decoration repertoire within the mosque. Within the scope of the article, since not all the decorations of the building are available to be examined in detail, only the mural paintings of Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque are discussed accordingly. 

A total of six murals are available in the sanctuary. Among these, Âlem-i lâhût, Mizan and Livâü’l-Hamd depictions have their subjects taken from the manuscripts. Apart from these three paintings on religious subjects, the depiction of the Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet), Mecca and a carpet depiction is also seen among the mural paintings of the structure. 

In particular, in order to make sense of the depiction of the world, Sufism was followed and the information between the First and Fourth Chapters of Ibrahim Hakkı of Erzurum called Mârifetnâme was used. The picture used in the chapter titled “Uluhiyet Âlemi” in Mârifetnâme was depicted in the mural painting of Tokmak Hasan Paşa Mosque with almost all its details. In this description, in which the creation order of the universe is depicted, heaven, hell and the Kaaba take place in a certain hierarchy. Heaven is shown in the top part of the composition as if to be exalted. The Kaaba in the middle of the composition is within seven rows of round arches intertwined. According to Mârifetnâme, this place symbolizes the sky consisting of seven layers. Below the schematized depiction of heaven, a rectangular script board painted in black and red is placed on the right and left sides. Black color symbolizes night and red symbolizes day with a Sun motif. On the panel symbolizing the night, “Sea of Blessings, Sea of Kamkam, Sea of Animals” and on the panel symbolizing the day, “The Sea of Flames, The Sea of Spread, The Sea of Partitioned Lifload” is written. The entire expression is difficult to understand in the Sufi view of Ibrahim Hakkı of Erzurum and related to the formation of the universe. In contrast to heaven, in the depiction of hell given at the bottom of the composition, elements such as the Pit of Gayya, the Cauldron of Tar, the Oleander Tree, and the Al-Sirat bridge are depicted. In the current situation, since the heavy plaster and paint spillage coincides with the section where hell is described, assistance was obtained from Mârifetnâme about the scripts and compositions in general of the depiction described. In the upper left corner of the depiction of Hell, there is a scale motif in the empty space. Islamic belief suggests that this scale, where the sins and good deeds shall be weighed on the Day of Judgment, has been used as a balancing factor that will ensure justice. This is also an area close to the section where the Al-Sirat bridge is depicted and serves as a reference to Islamic folklore.

The Mizan depiction, which is depicted on the wall of the east side of the mosque and side by side with the depiction of Livâü’l-Hamd, is also mentioned in both the Qur’an and the Mârifetnâme. Since it means scales in Arabic, it is depicted in manuscripts and mural paintings with a scales motif. The depiction in the mural of this building was created by placing a double scaled scale in the rectangular panel. On the scale, two books of deeds are available in which rewards and sins are written. A single-domed mosque motif was embroidered in the space between the two panes. The mosque is illustrated with minbar and oil-lamp details. The scale and book used in the allegorical depiction find their place in Islamic folklore. Other mizan depictions in Anatolia are usually depicted with double-scaled scales; without using a book motif and script. Others have symbols such as scissors, tongue, and ear, which indicate the dervish lodge and the religious order. In this depiction of the Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque, no symbol indicating any dervish lodge and the religious order element was used. It is also depicted in a different style from the general Mizan depictions of the 18th-and 19th centuries.

The last religious depiction of the mural paintings of the structure is Livâü ‘l-Hamd. The eastern wall of the mosque was depicted side by side with the Mizan depiction and serves as a reference to the afterlife. This motif, known as the Flag of Respect, is depicted as a spear stuck on a rocky ground. The depiction, as in the book pictures, appears with the pole head and three flag motifs placed on the spearheads at the top of the pole. There is a separate script on each flag. It is important in terms of transferring the definition in Mârifetnâme to the mural by the definition.

Another panel depicts the Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet) in Istanbul. This structure, which is often depicted in Anatolian mural paintings, is depicted from the front with a view from the northwest side of the current mosque. In this picture, in where the trees are around it, the rules of perspective are processed in its lean form. There are errors of perspective, such as the fact that the trees in front are given a small size and the ones in the back are given a much larger size. At the bottom of the panel, the Blue Mosque (Sultan Ahmet) is written in Latin Alphabet and Turkish. 

The Mecca panel is also located on the western wall of the building. Masjid al-Haram is depicted here with the layout and surrounding texture just like in miniatures, but with a simpler drawing technique. The colors used do not reflect tradition. It differs from the depictions of the holy cities in Anatolia in terms of technique and style.

The carpet depiction, which is rarely seen in Anatolian mural paintings, is seamlessly embroidered at the intersection of the eastern and southern walls of the building. Features such as the lack of use of traditional motifs and patterns in the carpet depiction in the medallion composition and vivid color preferences stand out. In the weaving depictions of the 18th and 19th centuries in Anatolia, tassels placed at the bottom of carpets, rugs, peshkir or prayer rugs give the impression that the weavings are sagging. Details such as folded appearances and stitch marks hanging on a hanger with a rope are also not included in the carpet depiction in the Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque. The depiction here appears as a simply shaped weave with no depth perception. 

In the restoration works completed in 2022, the artist’s inscription has been revealed on the western wall of the sanctuary. According to the inscription, the murals have been performed by Muhsin Bali in 1950. Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque is one of the reflections in Anatolia of the examples of traditional mosques with wooden support and wooden ceilings, which have been able to preserve their original texture with the repairs and additions they have undergone since the process they were built. 


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Citations

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APA

Buğdaycı, B. (2024). A Study on Mural Paintings of Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque. Art-Sanat, 0(21), 161-201. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286


AMA

Buğdaycı B. A Study on Mural Paintings of Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque. Art-Sanat. 2024;0(21):161-201. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286


ABNT

Buğdaycı, B. A Study on Mural Paintings of Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque. Art-Sanat, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 21, p. 161-201, 2024.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Buğdaycı, Begüm,. 2024. “A Study on Mural Paintings of Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 21: 161-201. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286


Chicago: Humanities Style

Buğdaycı, Begüm,. A Study on Mural Paintings of Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque.” Art-Sanat 0, no. 21 (Mar. 2024): 161-201. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286


Harvard: Australian Style

Buğdaycı, B 2024, 'A Study on Mural Paintings of Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque', Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 21, pp. 161-201, viewed 5 Mar. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Buğdaycı, B. (2024) ‘A Study on Mural Paintings of Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque’, Art-Sanat, 0(21), pp. 161-201. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286 (5 Mar. 2024).


MLA

Buğdaycı, Begüm,. A Study on Mural Paintings of Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque.” Art-Sanat, vol. 0, no. 21, 2024, pp. 161-201. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286


Vancouver

Buğdaycı B. A Study on Mural Paintings of Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque. Art-Sanat [Internet]. 5 Mar. 2024 [cited 5 Mar. 2024];0(21):161-201. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286 doi: 10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286


ISNAD

Buğdaycı, Begüm. A Study on Mural Paintings of Yozgat Tokmak Hasan Pasha Mosque”. Art-Sanat 0/21 (Mar. 2024): 161-201. https://doi.org/10.26650/artsanat.2024.21.1009286



TIMELINE


Submitted13.10.2021
Accepted24.01.2024
Published Online31.01.2024

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