The Birth of Stalinism in Russiaİsmail Görgen
The Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), founded in Minsk in 1898, paved the way for the formation of the Communist Party. The opinion that the only way to gain power was through revolutionary struggle predominated at the party congresses held in 1903, first in Brussels and then in London. Bolsheviks, meaning “majority” in Russian, were called to Lenin and his followers who held this viewpoint. The Communist Party, whose foundation phase was completed in 1903 by Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924), served as the ideological and political foundation of the Russian government. V. Lenin established the Pravda (Real) newspaper as the publication organ of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party. Pravda Newspaper later became the publication organ of the Soviet Communist Party. The Russian people united around the idea of communism formed the “Soviet of Workers’ and Soldiers’ “ with the participation of military units on March 12, 1917. As a result of the pressure, Tsar II. Nikola was forced to resign on March 16, 1917. As a result, Russia’s 300-year reign of the Romanovs came to an end. The Bolsheviks seized power in Petrograd in October 1917, and Lenin became the leader of the Soviet Union. Lenin ordered that the RSDLP be renamed the “Communist Party of Russia” in 1918. Moreover, the name of this party was changed to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in October 1952. Josef Stalin (1878-1953) took over the Soviet Union’s administration after Lenin’s death on January 21, 1924. Thousands of people were arrested, killed, exiled, and sentenced to labor in factories and labor camps as a result of Stalin’s repressive practices to consolidate his power and make communism effective in the Soviet Union. Russia managed to penetrate Europe militarily and ideologically after eliminating the German threat with the support of the great powers. During this period, the major powers began to regard Stalinism and communism as a threat to Europe. When Stalin died on March 5, 1953, the Soviet Union entered a new era. The present study aims to reveal the origins and practices of Stalinism in the Soviet Union in all of their facets.
Rusya’da Stalinizm’in Doğuşuİsmail Görgen
Minsk’te 1898’de kurulan Rusya Sosyal Demokrat İşçi Partisi (RSDİP) Komünist Parti’nin kurulmasına zemin hazırlamıştır. 1903 yılında önce Brüksel daha sonra Londra’da yapılan parti kongrelerinde iktidara gelmenin yolunun devrimci mücadeleyle gerçekleştirilmesi görüşü ağır basmıştır. Bu görüşte olan Lenin ve yandaşlarına çoğunluk anlamına gelen Bolşevik denmiştir. 1903’te de Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924) tarafından kuruluş aşaması tamamlanan Komünist Parti, Rus idaresinin ideolojik ve politik temelini oluşturmuştur. V. Lenin, Pravda (Gerçek) adlı gazeteyi Rusya Sosyal Demokrat İşçi Partisi yayın organı olarak çıkarmaya başlamıştır. Pravda Gazetesi daha sonra Sovyetler Birliği Komünist Partisi’nin yayın organı olmuştur. Komünizm fikrinin yaydığı düşünce etrafında birleşen Rus halkı askeri birliklerin de katılımıyla 12 Mart 1917’de “İşçi ve Askerin Sovyeti” adı altında birleşmişlerdir. Nihayetinde baskılar sonucu Çar II. Nikola 16 Mart 1917’de istifa etmek zorunda kalmıştır. Böylece Rusya’da 300 yıllık Romanov hükümranlığı sona ermiştir. Ekim 1917’de Bolşevikler Petrograd’da yönetimi ele geçirmiş ve Lenin, Sovyet liderliğinin başına geçmiştir. Lenin’in emriyle 1918’de RSDİP, “Rusya Komünist Partisi” adını almıştır. Ancak bu partinin adı 1952 Ekim’inde Sovyetler Birliği Komünist Partisi olarak değiştirilmiştir. 21 Ocak 1924’te Lenin’in ölümünden sonra Josef Stalin (1878-1953), Sovyetler Birliği idaresinde yönetimi ele geçirmiştir. Stalin’in, iktidarını pekiştirmek ve komünizmi Sovyetler Birliği’nde etkin kılmak için yaptığı baskıcı uygulamaları sonucu binlerce kişi tutuklanmış, öldürülmüş, sürgün edilmiş, fabrika ve çalışma kamplarında karın tokluğuna çalışmaya mahkum edilmiştir. Büyük devletlerin desteğiyle Alman tehlikesini bertaraf eden Rusya askeri ve ideolojik olarak Avrupa içlerine kadar sokulmayı başarmıştır. Bu süreçte büyük devletler Stalinizm ve komünizmi Avrupa için bir tehdit olarak görmeye başlamışlardır. 5 Mart 1953’te Stalin’in ölümüyle Sovyetler Birliği’nde yeni bir dönem başlamıştır. Bu çalışmanın amacı Sovyetler Birliği’nde Stalinizm’in doğuşunu ve uygulamalarını bütün yönleriyle ortaya koymaktır.
Stalinism is a term derived from Stalin’s theory of nationalist socialism. According to the theory, Stalinism manifests itself as a dominant police regime, a society and state order that has devolved into a one-man dictatorship, and whose entire society serves Russia’s rapid industrialization. It was thought that such a goal, which was thought to be achievable in a short period, could only be attained through nationalist demagogy and by forcing the entire nation to work slavishly and without question. As a result, when Russia achieved advanced industrial status, socialism would have succeeded. The triumph of socialism would pave the way for the rise of Stalinism.
The Communist Party was the political pillar that held the road to Stalinism together. The Russian Social Democratic Labor Party (RSDLP), founded in Minsk in 1898, paved the way for the Communist Party’s formation. The party congresses held in 1903, first in Brussels and then in London, were unanimous in their belief that the only way to gain power was through a revolutionary struggle. Bolsheviks, meaning “majority” in Russian, were called to Lenin and his followers who held this viewpoint. The Communist Party, whose foundation phase was completed in 1903 by Vladimir Lenin (1870-1924), served as the ideological and political foundation of the Russian government. V. Lenin established the Pravda (Real) newspaper as the publication organ of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party. Pravda Newspaper later became the publication organ of the Soviet Communist Party.
The Communist Party, whose foundation phase was completed by Vladimir Lenin, served as the ideological and political foundation for the Russian government. The Russian people united under the title of the “Soviet of Workers and Soldiers’ “ with the participation of military units on March 12, 1917. As a result of the pressure, Tsar II. Nikola was forced to resign on March 16, 1917. As a result, Russia’s 300-year reign of the Romanovs came to an end. The Bolsheviks took power in Petrograd in October 1917. A government was formed under the leadership of Lenin, with Joseph Stalin appointed Minister of Local Affairs and Trotsky appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs. The Bolshevik Government’s military wing was formed with the formation of the Red Army on November 5.
After the government was formed, Lenin and Stalin promised that all peoples in Russia, including Muslims, would have national, political, cultural, and religious freedoms protected on the 17th of December. As a result, Lenin and Stalin pursued a moderate policy, encouraging other peoples in the Soviet Union to support the Red Army against the White Army.
On the proposal of Lenin and Stalin, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was established at the United Soviet Congress on December 30, 1922. For the administration of this structure, communism was chosen. Stalin took over the administration after Lenin, the Communist Party’s founder, and leader, deceased on January 21, 1924. Trotsky then took Zinoviev and Kamenev with him on December 31, 1925 and formed a new opposition group. Stalin attempted to eliminate people he saw as his opponents or who he thought could cause problems for him in the future in a variety of ways so as to consolidate his power. Trotsky and Zinoviev were expelled from the party as a result of Stalin’s efforts, as decided at a joint session of the Central Committee and the Central Control Commission on November 14, 1927. All of Stalin’s former opponents were resigned or exiled as a result of the decision made at the 15th Communist Party Union Congress on December 27, 1927. Because of their opposition, many notable scientists, writers, artists, and even the most experienced administrators in the industry were purged. The opposition government cadres of the national republics, as well as the dissidents in the Communist Party Central Committee cadres, were executed by firing squad. More than ten million Soviet citizens were also detained in concentration camps. In 1932-1933, nearly 7 million people died of hunger as a result of the policies put in place in Ukraine, Crimea, Belarus, and the North Caucasus. Between 1935 and 1938, 1,116,500 members of the party were suspended and arrested.
Private property was abolished as a result of collectivization, and people were forced to work for the state as slaves. Those who objected to political, military, or economic practices were punished in a variety of ways. Stalin’s repression policy had an impact on the entire Soviet people. Nevertheless, because the Balkars, Crimean Turks, Karachays, and Meskhetian Turks were clearly minorities, Stalinism’s liquidation process had a significant impact on almost all Caucasus peoples. Local authorities were disbanded at the start of 1938, and Turkish populated areas were taken over by the Russian Secret Intelligence Agency.
In conclusion, while creating a state of readiness for a great war in Russia on the eve of the Second World War, Stalin’s military, political, and economic policies caused other non-Slavic nations in the Soviet Union to form a front against Stalin, communism, and the Soviet Union on the other hand. The Second World War broke out around this time. Stalin attempted to assuage the resentments of other nations in the Soviet Union in this situation.
During World War II, Stalin required the military assistance of foreign states so as to establish Stalinism as the dominant ideology in Soviet Russia. Stalinism, which received American and British support against Hitler’s Germany during WWII, began to be perceived as a threat to America and Britain at the end of the war, because the threat of Communism had been introduced into Europe, which caused concern in these countries. This situation altered the perception of Stalin, the Soviet Union, and communism in the eyes of the other nations.
The present study addresses the birth and rise of Stalinism in the Soviet Union from all aspects. The facts that were experienced are presented objectively, the facts are evaluated in light of the conditions of the period in which they were experienced, and an attempt is made to shed light on the question of “what really happened?”