Research Article


DOI :10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983   IUP :10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983    Full Text (PDF)

The Examination of Convergence Regarding to Inclusive Growth between the Nuts Level 1 Regions In Turkey

Semanur SoyyiğitSevgi Elverdi

Fair distribution of opportunities enabled by economic growth to different parts of society is as important as the quantitative increase in growth. It is possible to mention the inclusiveness of growth and an increase in social welfare only if in case of growth accompanied by equal access to these opportunities. It is required to provide sustainable growth by generating and extending new economic opportunities to let each member of the society attend and utilize economic growth. This becomes possible with inclusive growth. Inclusive growth has recently become a core issue in the development strategies of the countries. Each member of the society is enabled to contribute to and make use of economic growth using inclusive growth. The study is important within this scope. Based on this, in this study, the inclusive growth in Turkey is examined in a general and regional framework for the period 2006-2019. In terms of the literature reviewed in this study, it has been observed that there is no study examining convergence in terms of inclusive growth for NUTS Level 1 regions in Turkey. In this sense, it is thought that the study will make an important contribution to the literature. It is aimed in the present study that to observe how inclusiveness of growth has evolved and to examine the situation of NUTS Regions. Based on this, first, the inclusiveness of growth is examined with the method developed by Ali and Son (2007), and then the existence of convergence between regions in terms of equity index of opportunity is tested with the panel unit root test. The findings regarding the country, in general, reveal that there is a decrease in the inclusiveness of growth especially after 2016. According to the equity index of opportunity, TR4 East Marmara Region performs the best, while the worst performance belongs to TR1 Istanbul Region. The convergence results for the equity index of opportunity indicate that the TRC Southeast Anatolia Region converges to the TR4 East Marmara Region, which has the best performance. The results show that real production activities have an increasing effect on equality of opportunity. The findings that inclusive growth occurs unevenly across regions are in line with other studies in the literature.

DOI :10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983   IUP :10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983    Full Text (PDF)

Türkiye'de İBBS Düzey 1 Bölgelerinde Kapsayıcı Büyüme Açısından Yakınsamanın İncelenmesi

Semanur SoyyiğitSevgi Elverdi

Ekonomik büyümenin toplumun farklı kesimlerine sunduğu fırsatların adil bölüşümü, en az büyümenin sayısal artışı kadar önemlidir. Ancak fırsatlara eşit erişimin eşlik ettiği büyüme durumunda büyümenin kapsayıcılığından ve sosyal refah artışından söz etmek mümkündür. Toplumun her bir üyesinin büyümeye katılabilmesi ve büyümeden yararlanabilmesi için, yeni ekonomik fırsatların oluşturularak ve genişletilerek sürdürülebilir büyümenin sağlanması gerekmektedir. Bu da ancak kapsayıcı büyüme ile mümkün olacaktır. Kapsayıcı büyüme bugün birçok ülkenin kalkınma stratejilerinde merkezi bir konu haline gelmiştir. Kapsayıcı büyüme ile toplumdaki her bireyin, büyüme sürecine katkıda bulunması ve büyümeden yararlanması mümkün olmaktadır. Çalışma bu açıdan önem arz etmektedir. Buna dayanarak, bu çalışmada 2006-2019 dönemi için Türkiye’de büyümenin kapsayıcılığı genel ve bölgesel çerçevede incelenmektedir. Bu çalışmada incelenen literatür itibariyle, Türkiye’de İstatistiki Bölge Birimleri Sınıflandırması (İBBS) Düzey 1 bölgeleri için kapsayıcı büyüme açısından yakınsamanın incelendiği bir çalışma olmadığı görülmüştür. Çalışmanın bu anlamda, literatüre önemli bir katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir. Çalışma ile amaçlanan, büyümedeki kapsayıcılığın yıldan yıla hangi yönde değiştiğini gözlemlemek ve bu bağlamda İBBS Düzey-1 bölgelerindeki durumu analiz etmektir. Buradan hareketle öncelikle Ali ve Son (2007)’un geliştirdikleri yöntemle büyümenin kapsayıcılığı incelenmekte, sonrasında ise İmkân Eşitliği İndeksi açısından bölgeler arası yakınsama panel birim kök testi ile sınanmaktadır. Ülke geneline ilişkin bulgular, 2016 yılı sonrasında büyümenin kapsayıcılığında bir azalış olduğunu ortaya koymaktadır. İmkân Eşitliği İndeksine göre en iyi performansı TR4 Doğu Marmara Bölgesi gerçekleştirirken, en kötü performans TR1 İstanbul Bölgesine aittir. İmkân Eşitliği İndeksinin bölgelerarası yakınsama sonuçları ise TRC Güneydoğu Anadolu Bölgesinin en iyi performansa sahip olan TR4 Doğu Marmara Bölgesine yakınsadığını göstermektedir. Sonuçlar göstermektedir ki, reel üretim faaliyetlerinin imkân eşitliğini artırıcı bir etkisi vardır. Kapsayıcı büyümenin bölgeler arasında eşitsiz biçimde gerçekleştiği yönündeki bulgular ise literatürdeki diğer çalışmalarla paralellik göstermektedir.  


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Improvement of the living standards and increase in the wealth of the members of the society in a country is mounting evidence of the existence of strong growth. On the other hand, the distribution of this wealth among the various social groups in a society is an important sign of inclusiveness of growth. Inclusive growth, differentiating based on the structural properties of the countries, is a kind of growth that distribute the wealth to all layers of the society and that poses all elements of wealth in a fairyway. In inclusive growth, each member of society associates the growth process regardless of individual properties. Hence, it becomes necessary to adopt growth strategies that include equal opportunities for everyone to attend the growth process and to make use of this growth. Thus, the benefit will be distributed equally among all parts of the of society.

In the present study, the inclusiveness of growth in Turkey is examined the 2006- 2019 period. The study aims to observe the change of inclusiveness of the growth and analyze the current situation of NUTS regions in terms of inclusive growth. In the present study, social opportunity functions developed by Ali and Son (2007) are used to measure the inclusiveness of the growth. Ali and Son (2007) explain the social opportunity function an analogy of social welfare functions. Hereunder, inclusive growth is the maximization of social opportunity function. Thus, we calculated the equity index of opportunity by following the methodology developed by Ali and Son (2007) and analyzed the convergence of this index with panel unitroot tests for NUTS Regions. Within this scope, we first obtained ‘Distribution of annual equivalised household disposable income by deciles ordered by equivalised household disposable income’ data for Turkey and NUTS Level 1 Regions for the 2006-2019 periods. Afterward, we deflated the data which is in current values, and applied the method developed by Ali and Son (2007). As a result of this method, we obtained an equity index of opportunities for Turkey in general and 12 regions of NUTS Level 1. First of all, we tested the existence of cross-section dependency in the series and confirmed it. Then, we applied Cross-section Augmented Dickey-Fuller (CADF) unit-root test, a second-generation unit-root test used in case of cross-section dependency, to test the existence of convergence. We tested the convergence of ‘the equity index of opportunities series of each region’ both to Turkey level and also to TR4 East Marmara region, which has the highest performance. 

First, we aimed to reveal how inclusiveness of growth changes from year to year by examining opportunity curves. Accordingly, the opportunity curve of the year 2008, which is the first year of global crisis, is completely below the opportunity curve of 2007. We observed a rise in the opportunity curve of 2009, but this rise is associated with an increase in average income but a decrease in equity of opportunities. We especially observed deterioration in opportunity curves after 2016.

The equity index of opportunity for Turkey, in general, has an increasing trend. As a result of the convergence analysis of NUTS level 1 regions to Turkey level, we found no convergence. There is an increasing trend in the equity index of opportunity in NUTS Level 1 regions with two exceptions: TR1 Istanbul and TR2 West Marmara regions. The equity index of opportunity has decreasing trend within these two regions. The highest index values among 12 regions belong to the TR4 East Marmara region and the TR9 East Blacksea region follows it. As a result of the convergence analysis to the TR4 East Marmara region, we found that the TRC South-East Anatolian region converges to the TR4 East Marmara region in terms of equity index of opportunity. 


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APA

Soyyiğit, S., & Elverdi, S. (2021). The Examination of Convergence Regarding to Inclusive Growth between the Nuts Level 1 Regions In Turkey. Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, 0(35), 59-81. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983


AMA

Soyyiğit S, Elverdi S. The Examination of Convergence Regarding to Inclusive Growth between the Nuts Level 1 Regions In Turkey. Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics. 2021;0(35):59-81. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983


ABNT

Soyyiğit, S.; Elverdi, S. The Examination of Convergence Regarding to Inclusive Growth between the Nuts Level 1 Regions In Turkey. Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 35, p. 59-81, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Soyyiğit, Semanur, and Sevgi Elverdi. 2021. “The Examination of Convergence Regarding to Inclusive Growth between the Nuts Level 1 Regions In Turkey.” Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics 0, no. 35: 59-81. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983


Chicago: Humanities Style

Soyyiğit, Semanur, and Sevgi Elverdi. The Examination of Convergence Regarding to Inclusive Growth between the Nuts Level 1 Regions In Turkey.” Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics 0, no. 35 (May. 2022): 59-81. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983


Harvard: Australian Style

Soyyiğit, S & Elverdi, S 2021, 'The Examination of Convergence Regarding to Inclusive Growth between the Nuts Level 1 Regions In Turkey', Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, vol. 0, no. 35, pp. 59-81, viewed 27 May. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Soyyiğit, S. and Elverdi, S. (2021) ‘The Examination of Convergence Regarding to Inclusive Growth between the Nuts Level 1 Regions In Turkey’, Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, 0(35), pp. 59-81. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983 (27 May. 2022).


MLA

Soyyiğit, Semanur, and Sevgi Elverdi. The Examination of Convergence Regarding to Inclusive Growth between the Nuts Level 1 Regions In Turkey.” Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics, vol. 0, no. 35, 2021, pp. 59-81. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983


Vancouver

Soyyiğit S, Elverdi S. The Examination of Convergence Regarding to Inclusive Growth between the Nuts Level 1 Regions In Turkey. Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics [Internet]. 27 May. 2022 [cited 27 May. 2022];0(35):59-81. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983 doi: 10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983


ISNAD

Soyyiğit, Semanur - Elverdi, Sevgi. The Examination of Convergence Regarding to Inclusive Growth between the Nuts Level 1 Regions In Turkey”. Ekoist: Journal of Econometrics and Statistics 0/35 (May. 2022): 59-81. https://doi.org/10.26650/ekoist.2021.35.967983



TIMELINE


Submitted09.07.2021
Accepted13.12.2021
Published Online31.12.2021

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