Research Article


DOI :10.26650/experimed.1192592   IUP :10.26650/experimed.1192592    Full Text (PDF)

Determination of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Levels in Wastewater Samples

Mansur AkçayPerihan Seda Ateş KalkanÜnsal Veli Üstündağİsmail ÜnalDerya CansızEbru Emekli AlturfanAhmet Ata Alturfan

Objective: The use of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as bisphenol A (BPA) in plastics manufacturing, agriculture, livestock, and paint manufacturing increas daily. The water treated in wastewater treatment plants is used in many areas such as irrigation of parks and gardens, and reinforcement of underground water resources. However, whether the treatment process eliminates EDCs in wastewater is not exactly known, and determining this as well as the amounts of these chemicals in treated water are important in terms of protecting the environment and human health. The aim of the study was to determine BPA and phthalate concentrations in the influent and effluent flow samples obtained from wastewater treatment plants. Materials and Methods: BPA and phthalate concentrations were measured in influent and effluent flow samples using the enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. BPA and phthalate measurements were performed as competitive measurements of BPA and total phthalates in samples using specific monoclonal antibodies. Results: BPA and phthalate levels were measured respectively as 7.69 μg/L and 78.27 μg/L in the influent water samples and 3.17 μg/L and 25.56 μg/L in the effluent water samples. The concentration of BPA and phthalates in the effluent samples decreased significantly compared to the influent water samples. Conclusion: This study is believed to shed light on the importance of monitoring BPA and phthalate concentrations in wastewater treatment plants and inspections for detecting other EDCs in wastewater.


PDF View

References

  • 1. Dağlı H. İçmesuyu kalitesi ve insan sağlığına etkileri. Bizim İller. İller Bankası Aylık Yayın Organı 2005; 3: 16-21. google scholar
  • 2. Atalık A. Küresel isınmanın su kaynakları ve tarım üzerine etkileri. Bilim ve Ütopya 2006; 139: 18-21. google scholar
  • 3. Toze S. Reuse of effluent water-benefits and risks. J Agricultural Manage 2006; 80: 147-59. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 4. Haviland WA. Kültürel Antropoloji: Hüsamettin İnaç, Seda Çiftçi, editors. Kaktüs Yayınları: Sosyoloji Serisi No:3. İstanbul 2002; 143. google scholar
  • 5. Nasr FA, Doma HS, Abdel Halim HS, El-Shafai SA. Chemical 18. industry wastewater treatment. Environmentalist 2007; 27: 27586. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 6. Kukul YS, Ünal Çalışkan AD, Anaç S. Arıtılmış atıksuların tarımda kullanılması ve insan sağlığı yönünden riskler. Ege Üniversitesi 19. Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 2007; 44(3): 101-16. google scholar
  • 7. Gultekin I, Ince NH. Synthetic endocrine disruptors in the environment and water remediation by advanced oxidation processes. J Environ Manage 2007; 85: 816-32. [CrossRef] 20. google scholar
  • 8. Wu Q, Lam JCW, Kwok KY, Tsui MMP, Lam PKS. Occurrence and fate of endogenous steroid hormones, alkylphenol ethoxylates, bisphenol A and phthalates in municipal sewage treatment Systems. J Environ Sci 2017; 61: 49-58. [CrossRef] 21. google scholar
  • 9. Klecka GM, Gonsior SJ, West RJ, Goodwin PA, Markham DA. Biodegradation of bisphenol A in aquatic environments: River die-away. Environ Toxicol Chem 2001; 20: 2725-35. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 10. Flint S, Markle T, Thompson S, Wallace E. Bisphenol A Exposure, 22. effects, and policy: A wildlife perspective. J Environ Manage 2012; 104: 19-34. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 11. Kuch HM, Ballschmiter K. Determination of endocrine-disrupting phenolic compounds and estrogens in surface and drinking 23. water by Hrgc-(Nci)-Ms in the picogram per liter range. Environ Sci Technol 2001; 35: 3201-06. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 12. Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, 24. Barber LB, et al. Pharmaceuticals, hormonesand other organic wastewater contaminants in U.S. Streams 1999-2000: A national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 2002; 36: 1202-11. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 13. Quednow K, Püttmann W. Endocrine Disruptors in freshwater 25. streams of Hesse, Germany: Changes in concentration levels in the time span from 2003 to 2005. Environ Pollut 2008; 152: 47683. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 14. Khim JS, Lee KT, Villeneuve DL, Giesy JP, Koh CH. Trace organic 26. contaminants in sediment and water from Ulsan Bay and its vicinity, Korea. Arch. Environ Contam Toxicol 2001; 40: 141-50. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 15. Kitada Y, Kawahata H, Suzuki A, Omori T. Distribution of pesticides and BPA in sediments collected from rivers adjacent to coral reefs. Chemosphere 2008; 71: 2082-2090. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 16. Lui Y, Guan Y, Tam NFY, Tsuno H, Zhu W. influence of rainfall and basic water quality parameters on the distribution of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in coastal area. Water Air Soil Pollut 2010; 209: 333-43. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 17. Dargnat C, Blanchard M, Chevreuil M, Teil MJ. Occurrence of phthalate esters in the Seine River Estuary (France). Hydrol Process 2009; 23: 1192-201. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 18. Huang PC, Tien CJ, Sun YM, Hsieh CY, Lee CC. Occurrence of phthalates in sediment and biota: Relationship to aquatic factors and the biota-sediment accumulation factor. Chemosphere 2008; 73: 539-44. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 19. Fatoki OS, Bornman M, Ravandhalala L, Chimuka L, Genthe B, Adeniyi A. Phthalate ester plasticizers in freshwater systems of Venda, South Africa and potential health effects. Water Sa 2010; 36: 1. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 20. Tran BC, Teil MJ, Blanchard M, Alliot F, Chevreuil M. BPA and phthalate fate in a sewage network and an elementary river of France. Influence of hydroclimatic conditions. Chemosphere 2015; 119: 43-51. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 21. Sanchez-Avila J, Tauler R, Lacorte S. Determination and occurrence of phthatlates. alkylphenols. BPA, PBDEs, PCBs and PHAs in an industrial sewage grid discharging to a municipal wastewater treatment. Plant Sci Total Environ 2009; 407: 4157-67. [CrossRef] Clara M, Windhofer G, Hartl W, Braun K, Simon M, Gans O, et al. Occurrence of phthalates in surface runoff, untreated and treated wastewater and fate during wastewater treatment. Chemosphere 2010; 78: 1078-84. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 22. Marttinen S, Kettunen R, Rintala J. Occurrence and removal of organic pollutants in sewages and landfill leachates. Sci Total Environ 2003; 301: 1-12. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 23. Vethaak AD, Lahr J, Schrap SM, Belfroid AG, Rij GBJ, et al. An integrated assessment of estrogenic contamination and biological effects in the aquatic environment of the Netherlands. Chemosphere 2005; 59: 511-24. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 24. Höhne C, Pütmann W. Occurrence and temporal variations of xenoestrogens bisphenol a, 4-tert-octylphenol, and tech. 4-nonylphenol in two German wastewater treatment plants. Environ Sci Pollut Res 2008; 15: 405-16. [CrossRef] google scholar
  • 25. Sousa A, Schönenberger R, Jonkers N, Suter MJ, Tanabe S, Barroso CM. Chemical and biological characterization of estrogenicity in effluents from WTPs in Ria De Aveiro (Nw Portugal). Arch Environ Contam Toxicology 2010; 58 (1): 1-8. [CrossRef] google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Akçay, M., Ateş Kalkan, P.S., Üstündağ, Ü.V., Ünal, İ., Cansız, D., Emekli Alturfan, E., & Alturfan, A.A. (2022). Determination of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Levels in Wastewater Samples. Experimed, 12(3), 134-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/experimed.1192592


AMA

Akçay M, Ateş Kalkan P S, Üstündağ Ü V, Ünal İ, Cansız D, Emekli Alturfan E, Alturfan A A. Determination of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Levels in Wastewater Samples. Experimed. 2022;12(3):134-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/experimed.1192592


ABNT

Akçay, M.; Ateş Kalkan, P.S.; Üstündağ, Ü.V.; Ünal, İ.; Cansız, D.; Emekli Alturfan, E.; Alturfan, A.A. Determination of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Levels in Wastewater Samples. Experimed, [Publisher Location], v. 12, n. 3, p. 134-138, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Akçay, Mansur, and Perihan Seda Ateş Kalkan and Ünsal Veli Üstündağ and İsmail Ünal and Derya Cansız and Ebru Emekli Alturfan and Ahmet Ata Alturfan. 2022. “Determination of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Levels in Wastewater Samples.” Experimed 12, no. 3: 134-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/experimed.1192592


Chicago: Humanities Style

Akçay, Mansur, and Perihan Seda Ateş Kalkan and Ünsal Veli Üstündağ and İsmail Ünal and Derya Cansız and Ebru Emekli Alturfan and Ahmet Ata Alturfan. Determination of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Levels in Wastewater Samples.” Experimed 12, no. 3 (Jul. 2024): 134-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/experimed.1192592


Harvard: Australian Style

Akçay, M & Ateş Kalkan, PS & Üstündağ, ÜV & Ünal, İ & Cansız, D & Emekli Alturfan, E & Alturfan, AA 2022, 'Determination of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Levels in Wastewater Samples', Experimed, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 134-138, viewed 21 Jul. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/experimed.1192592


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Akçay, M. and Ateş Kalkan, P.S. and Üstündağ, Ü.V. and Ünal, İ. and Cansız, D. and Emekli Alturfan, E. and Alturfan, A.A. (2022) ‘Determination of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Levels in Wastewater Samples’, Experimed, 12(3), pp. 134-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/experimed.1192592 (21 Jul. 2024).


MLA

Akçay, Mansur, and Perihan Seda Ateş Kalkan and Ünsal Veli Üstündağ and İsmail Ünal and Derya Cansız and Ebru Emekli Alturfan and Ahmet Ata Alturfan. Determination of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Levels in Wastewater Samples.” Experimed, vol. 12, no. 3, 2022, pp. 134-138. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/experimed.1192592


Vancouver

Akçay M, Ateş Kalkan PS, Üstündağ ÜV, Ünal İ, Cansız D, Emekli Alturfan E, Alturfan AA. Determination of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Levels in Wastewater Samples. Experimed [Internet]. 21 Jul. 2024 [cited 21 Jul. 2024];12(3):134-138. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/experimed.1192592 doi: 10.26650/experimed.1192592


ISNAD

Akçay, Mansur - Ateş Kalkan, PerihanSeda - Üstündağ, ÜnsalVeli - Ünal, İsmail - Cansız, Derya - Emekli Alturfan, Ebru - Alturfan, AhmetAta. Determination of Bisphenol A and Phthalate Levels in Wastewater Samples”. Experimed 12/3 (Jul. 2024): 134-138. https://doi.org/10.26650/experimed.1192592



TIMELINE


Submitted21.10.2022
Accepted23.11.2022
Published Online29.12.2022

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.