Herbarium Turcicum, is a peer-reviewed, open-access scholarly journal of the Istanbul University Faculty of Science. Published twice a year in March and September, Herbarium Turcicum covers phylogenetic studies, modern herbarium techniques, computer-based plant identification including machine-learning and data-science-driven methods and morphometric studies. The publication languages of the journal are English and Turkish.

Processing and publication are free of charge with the journal. There is no article processing charges or submission fees for any submitted or accepted articles.
Editor-in-Chief
Osman Erol, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Levent Şık, Manisa Celâl Bayar Üniversitesi, Manisa, Turkiye

Co-Editor-in-Chief
Ahmet Emre Yaprak, Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkiye
Hasan Yıldırım, Ege Üniversitesi, Izmir, Turkiye

Honorary Editor
Tuğrul Körüklü, Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkiye
Burçin Çıngay, Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi Herbaryumu, Istanbul, Turkiye

Language Editor
Elizabeth Mary Earl, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Alan James Newson, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye

Editorial Assistant
Rachel Mollman, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye

Editorial Board Member
Adil Güner, Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanik Bahçesi Herbaryumu, Istanbul, Turkiye
Ayşe Feza Günergun, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Almila Çiftçi, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Çiğdem Erol, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Doerte Harpke, Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben, Germany
Emine Akalın Uruşak, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Evren Cabi, Namık Kemal Üniversitesi, Tekirdag, Turkiye
Gülnur Ekşi Bona, İstanbul Medipol Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Şeref Etker, T.C. The Ministry of Health, Ankara, Turkiye
Hasan Yıldırım, Ege Üniversitesi, Izmir, Turkiye
Irena Raca, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
Mecit Vural, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkiye
Gönenç Göçmengil, İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi, Istanbul, Turkiye
Robert Soreng, National Museum of Natural History, Washington, United-States
Ünal Akkemik, İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkiye
Mykyta Peregrym, Luhansk Taras Shevchenko National University, Starobilsk, Ukraine
Rami Arafeh, Palestine Polytechnic University, Hebron, Palestine
İraj Mehregan, İslami Azad University, Tehran, İran
Georgia Kamari, University of Patras, Patras, Greece
Vladimir Randjelovic, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia
Vladimir Dorofeyev, Komarov Botanical Institute, St.-Petersburg, Russia
Gregory Kenicer, Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United-Kingdom

The journal Herbarium Turcicum is devoted to phylogenetic studies, modern herbarium techniques, computer-based plant identification including machine-learning and data-science-driven methods and morphometric studies, in order to fill the current gap in this type of literature. The journal's purpose and scope are summarized below:

1. New taxa, synonyms, transfers, revisional studies, typification studies

2. Plant taxa previously deposited in herbaria but not later collected and those preserved in herbaria but endangered in the wild

3. Organizational and digitization activities of herbaria

4. Herbarium stories: new species described from herbarium specimens, scientific work resulting from international collaborations among scientists working in various herbaria,

5. Herbaria and their relationships with other disciplines, such as molecular phylogeny, plant anatomy, forensic biology and graphology studies using herbarium specimens

6. Herbarium pests: modern techniques and methods of control

7. Herbarium curators and their academic lives

8. Interesting and historical collections

9. Live plant collections

10. Historical and ancient place and region names on herbarium labels

11. Invalid names persisting on herbarium labels

12. Monumental trees and their presentation

13. Plants and history

14. Plants in culture and art

15. Stories of plant epithets

16. Ethical rules

17. Herbarium techniques and innovations

18. Fighting pests and physical conditions

19. Herbarium types

20. Archaeobotanical studies and collections

21. Technology and herbaria, machine learning and digital classification studies

The journal is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and pays regard to Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) on https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines-new/principles-transparency-and-best-practice-scholarly-publishing

The subjects covered in the manuscripts submitted to the Journal for publication must be in accordance with the aim and scope of the Journal. Only those manuscripts approved by every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Changing the name of an author (omission, addition or order) in papers submitted to the Journal requires written permission of all declared authors.

Plagiarism, duplication, fraud authorship/denied authorship, research/data fabrication, salami slicing/salami publication, breaching of copyrights, prevailing conflict of interest are unethical behaviors. All manuscripts not in accordance with the accepted ethical standards will be removed from the publication. This also contains any possible malpractice discovered after the publication.

Plagiarism
Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. If plagiarism/self-plagiarism will be found authors will be informed. Editors may resubmit manuscript for similarity check at any peer-review or production stage if required. High similarity scores may lead to rejection of a manuscript before and even after acceptance. Depending on the type of article and the percentage of similarity score taken from each article, the overall similarity score is generally expected to be less than 15 or 20%.

Double Blind Peer-Review
After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by the editors-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope. The editor provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles and hands over the papers matching the formal rules to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and gives green light for publication upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

The journal is an open access journal and all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Except for commercial purposes, users are allowed to read, download, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

The open access articles in the journal are licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license.

All expenses of the journal are covered by the Istanbul University. Processing and publication are free of charge with the journal. There is no article processing charges or submission fees for any submitted or accepted articles.

Authors publishing with the journal retain the copyright to their work licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International license (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ ) and grant the Publisher non-exclusive commercial right to publish the work. CC BY-NC 4.0 license permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Editor should consider publishing correction if minor errors that do not effect the results, interpretations and conclusions of the published paper are detected. Editor should consider retraction if major errors and/or misconduction that invalidate results and conclusions are detected.

Editor should consider issuing an expression of concern if there is evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors; there is evidence that the findings are not reliable and institutions of the authors do not investigate the case or the possible investigation seems to be unfair or nonconclusive.

The guidelines of COPE and ICJME are taken into consideration regarding correction, retractions or expression of concern.

To guarantee that all papers published in the journal are maintained and permanently accessible, articles are stored in Dergipark which serves as a  national archival web site and at the same time permits LOCKSS to  collect, preserve, and serve the content.

Additionally, authors are encouraged to self-archive the final PDF version of their articles in open electronic archives with  that conform to standards of Open Archives Initiative (https://www.openarchives.org/). Authors should provide a link from the deposited version to the URL of IUPress journal website.

Herbarium Turcicum is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and pays regard to Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing issued by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) on https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines-new/principles-transparency-and-best-practice-scholarly-publishing

All submissions must be original, unpublished (including as full text in conference proceedings), and not under the review of any other publication synchronously. Each manuscript is reviewed by one of the editors and at least two referees under double-blind peer review process. Plagiarism, duplication, fraud authorship/denied authorship, research/data fabrication, salami slicing/salami publication, breaching of copyrights, prevailing conflict of interest are unethical behaviours.

All manuscripts not in accordance with the accepted ethical standards will be removed from the publication. This contains any possible malpractice discovered after the publication.

Herbarium Turcicum adheres to the highest standards in research ethics and follows the principles of international research ethics as defined below. The authors are responsible for the compliance of the manuscripts with the ethical rules.

  • Principles of integrity, quality and transparency should be sustained in designing the research, reviewing the design and conducting the research.
  • The research team and participants should be fully informed about the aim, methods, possible uses and requirements of the research and risks of participation in research.
  • The confidentiality of the information provided by the research participants and the confidentiality of the respondents should be ensured. The research should be designed to protect the autonomy and dignity of the participants.
  • Research participants should participate in the research voluntarily, not under any coercion.
  • Any possible harm to participants must be avoided. The research should be planned in such a way that the participants are not at risk.
  • The independence of research must be clear; and any conflict of interest or must be disclosed.
  • In experimental studies with human subjects, written informed consent of the participants who decide to participate in the research must be obtained. In the case of children and those under wardship or with confirmed insanity, legal custodian’s assent must be obtained.
  • If the study is to be carried out in any institution or organization, approval must be obtained from this institution or organization.
  • In studies with human subject, it must be noted in the method’s section of the manuscript that the informed consent of the participants and ethics committee approval from the institution where the study has been conducted have been obtained.

It is authors’ responsibility to ensure that the article is in accordance with scientific and ethical standards and rules. Authors must ensure that submitted work is original. They must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere or is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere, in any language. Applicable copyright laws and conventions must be followed. Copyright material (e.g., tables, figures or extensive quotations) must be reproduced only with appropriate permission and acknowledgement. Any work or words of other authors, contributors, or sources must be appropriately credited and referenced.

All the authors of a submitted manuscript must have direct scientific and academic contribution to the manuscript. The author(s) of the original research articles is defined as a person who is significantly involved in “conceptualization and design of the study”, “collecting the data”, “analysing the data”, “writing the manuscript”, “reviewing the manuscript with a critical perspective” and “planning/conducting the study of the manuscript and/or revising it”. Fund raising, data collection or supervision of the research are not sufficient for being accepted as an author. The author(s) must meet all these criteria described above. The order of names in the author list of an article must be a co-decision and it must be indicated in the Copyright Agreement Form.

The individuals who do not meet the authorship criteria but contributed to the study must take place in the acknowledgement section. Individuals providing technical support, assisting writing, providing a general support, providing material or financial support are examples to be indicated in acknowledgement section.

All authors must disclose all issues concerning financial relationship, conflict of interest, and competing interest that may potentially influence the results of the research or scientific judgment. When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published paper, it is the author’s obligation to promptly cooperate with the Editor-in-Chief to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes.

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors. S/he provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles for publication and ensures that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential before publishing.

Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication. S/he must publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers. Only he has the full authority to assign a reviewer and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers must have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders. Their judgments must be objective.

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees must be ensured. In particular situations, the editor may share the review of one reviewer with other reviewers to clarify a particular point.

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by editor-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope.

The editor hands over the papers matching the formal rules to at least two national/international referees for double-blind peer review evaluation and gives green light for publication upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, sexual orientation, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors. He/She provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles for publication and ensures that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential before publishing.

Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication. He/She must publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers. Only he has the full authority to assign a reviewer and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers must have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders. Their judgments must be objective.

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees must be ensured. In particular situations, the editor may share the review of one reviewer with other reviewers to clarify a particular point.

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by editor-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope.  Editor-in-chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, sexual orientation, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors and ensures a fair double-blind peer review of the selected manuscripts.

The selected manuscripts are sent to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and publication decision is given by editor-in-chief  upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

Editor in chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers’ judgments must be objective. Reviewers’ comments on the following aspects are expected while conducting the review.

-    Does the manuscript contain new and significant information?

-    Does the abstract clearly and accurately describe the content of the manuscript?

-    Is the problem significant and concisely stated?

-    Are the methods described comprehensively?

-    Are the interpretations and consclusions justified by the results?

-    Is adequate references made to other Works in the field?

-    Is the language acceptable?

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees is important.

Language

The language of the journal is both Turkish and English.

Manuscript Submission

Manuscpript is to be submitted online via https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/hturcicum and it must be accompanied by a cover letter indicating that the manuscript is intended for publication, specifying the article category (i.e. research article, review etc.) and including information about the manuscript (see the Submission Checklist), title page, author form, and Copyright Agreement Form that has to be signed by all authors.

By submitting an article, the authors indicate that the work has not been previously published, nor is simultaneously being considered for publication elsewhere, and that it has been approved – tacitly or expressly – by all co-authors, as well as by the responsible authorities of unit where the work was produced. The publisher cannot be held legally responsible in the event of claims for compensation.

Permissions

Authors wishing to include figures, tables or text passages previously published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright holder for both print and online format and include evidence of such permission when submitting an article. Any material received without such evidence will be deemed the work of the authors.

Online Submission

Please follow the link “Submit manuscript” on the right and upload all relevant files following the instructions provided.

Ensure that you provide all relevant editable source files. Failing to submit these source files may lead to unnecessary delays in the review and production process.

Tables

All tables should be numbered using Arabic numerals.

Tables should always be referenced in the text in sequential numerical order.

Provide a title describing the components of each table.

For tables taken from other sources, provide the source as a reference at the end of the title.

Footnotes should be shown in superscript lowercase (or asterisks for significance values and other statistical data) and included at the bottom of the table.

Herbarium Turcicum encourages online-only publication of comprehensive tables that supplement the article but are more user-friendly in electronic form.

Visual Material

For the best end result, it is highly recommended that all work (including photos, drawings, etc.) is submitted in electronic format. Published work is a direct reflection of the quality of the visual material provided.

Electronic Figure Submission

Numbers and letters used in figures must be on a separate layer.

Specify the image editor used.

The preferred format for vector graphics is EPS. For black and white images, use the TIFF format. MS Office files are also acceptable.

Name Figure files "Figure" and the number.

Figure Numbering

Figures must be numbered using Arabic numerals.

All figures should be referenced in the text in sequential order.

Figure parts should be indicated with lowercase letters (a, b, c, etc.).

If an appendix appears in your article and contains one or more figures, continue with the sequential numbering of the main text. Do not number appendix figures "A1, A2, A3, etc." However, figures found only in the online appendices [Supplementary Information (SI)] should be numbered separately.

Figure Titles

Each figure should have a short title that describes exactly what it represents. Include subtitles in the text file, not the image file.

Figure titles begin with “Figure” followed by the figure number, both in bold.

Do not use punctuation after the figure number or at the end of the title.

Define all the figure elements in the title and use boxes, circles, etc. as coordinate points in images.

Identify any and all previously published material by citing the original source as a reference at the end of the figure title.

Herbarium Turcicum publishes original articles related to herbariums and live collections that take plant systematics as the main theme. The journal encourages the inclusion of original drawings and high-quality original photographs of rare and endangered species to accompany descriptions. The full spectrum of articles accepted by the journal is presented below. The topic should be original and of interest to our readers. Submitted texts should be written in either Turkish or English with the utmost attention paid to language and spelling rules.

Original Research Articles

Articles presenting the results of empirical and theoretical research that address questions or hypotheses regarding herbariums, living collections and plant systematics.

Review Articles

Articles dealing with herbariums, living collections and the latest significant developments and advances in plant systematics. Reviews should be of interest to a wide audience and are expected to both summarize current knowledge and propose new ideas and hypotheses for future research.

Letters To The Editor

Short Communications

These are short articles written in response or in addition to previously published research articles and provide additional scientific contributions, comments and criticism, and new findings that offer an alternative interpretation. A maximum of 3 pages (4,000 words) is recommended.

Title Page

Please ensure your title page contains the following information.

  • Title

The title should be concise and informative.

  • Author information

The name(s) of the author(s),

The affiliation(s) of the author(s), and their addresses,

A clear indication of the corresponding author and their active e-mail address.

  • Abstract

The abstract should be 150 to 250 words and should not contain any undefined abbreviations or unspecified references.

  • Keywords

Please provide 4 to 6 keywords to be used for indexing purposes.

  • Statements and Declarations

Competing Interests: Authors are required to disclose any and all financial or non-financial interests directly or indirectly related to the work submitted for publication.

Please note that the abstract should be available as a stand-alone document presenting the main results and conclusions of the article using simple, factual statements.

Manuscript Structure

The text of a research paper should be divided into: Title Page, Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Final Word (optional), Acknowledgments, and References.

Figure captions should follow the text. Tables, Figures and Electronic Supplementary Material must be uploaded as separate files.

Introduction

The introduction should state the reason for carrying out the study and the questions under consideration, and outline the essential background information. The introduction section typically ends with specific, testable hypotheses.

Materials and methods

The materials and methods section should describe applied methods and techniques in sufficient detail to allow replication of all parts of the study. Standard techniques and approaches need not be described in detail; use references to previously published work instead.

Note that for all plant material studied, a voucher specimen must be submitted to an herbarium registered with the Index Herbariorum (http://sweetgum.nybg.org/science/ih/).

Discussion and Conclusion

The Discussion section should describe and evaluate the findings in terms of the questions and hypotheses presented in the introduction and in the context of other relevant studies. The conclusion section should logically state the results, drawing attention to important details in the tables and figures.

Final Word (Optional)

In this section, the authors can briefly describe the main contributions and results of the research and make a clear statement about its importance and relevance.

Taxonomic Treatment

Descriptions and taxonomic innovations should be presented in separate paragraphs immediately after the "Discussion and Conclusion" section.

Text

Text Formatting

Manuscripts should be submitted in Word.

Regular 10-point Times New Roman font should be used for text. Use single-line spacing and 6 pt before and after paragraph spacing. Italics may be used for emphasis.

All page margins should be 2.5 cm.

The automatic page numbering function should be used to number the pages.

Tab stops or other commands should be used for indentations, not the spacebar.

Use the table function rather than spreadsheets to make tables.

Use the equation editor or MathType for equations.

Files should be submitted in .docx format (Word 2007 or higher) or .doc format (older Word versions).

Headings

Please use no more than three levels of displayed headings.

Abbreviations

Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter.

Footnotes

Footnotes should avoided except in special circumstances which require additional clarification for a reference not adequately described by a standard citation.

Acknowledgments

Acknowledgments of persons, donations, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section on the title page. The names of funding organizations should be written in full.

Scientific Style

  • Use SI units and internationally accepted signs and symbols.
  • Species and subspecies names should be italicized in normal text. Higher taxonomic levels should not be italicized.
  • It is sufficient to provide plant author names at first mention of the relevant taxon, except in special circumstances. We recommend www.ipni.org for plant authors. Please provide your source in the reference list as appropriate.
  • Herbarium Turcicum requires that supporting data be stored in an appropriate repository to facilitate reader access prior to final acceptance of the manuscript.

Genetic information, such as DNA, RNA, or protein sequences, should be sent to an appropriate database such as GenBank (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) or EMBL (www.ebi.ac.uk/embl/).

All sequences produced from next-generation sequencing techniques may be archived in an appropriate public repository such as the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra), ENA (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/about/sra_submissions) or Dryad (http://datadryad.org/).

TreeBase (http://www.treebase.org) and Dryad http://datadryad.org/) are public access and recommended for alignments used for phylogenetic work.

Papers accepted but not yet included in the issue are published online in the Early View section and they should be cited as “advance online publication”. Citing a “personal communication” should be avoided unless it provides essential information not available from a public source, in which case the name of the person and date of communication should be cited in parentheses in the text. For scientific articles, written permission and confirmation of accuracy from the source of a personal communication must be obtained.

Reference Style and Format

Herbarium Turcicum complies with APA (American Psychological Association) style 6th Edition for referencing and quoting. For more information:

- American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological

Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: APA.

http://www.apastyle.org

Accuracy of citation is the author’s responsibility. All references should be cited in text. Reference list must be in alphabetical order. Type references in the style shown below.

Citations in the Text

Citations must be indicated with the author surname and publication year within the parenthesis.

If more than one citation is made within the same paranthesis, separate them with (;).

Samples:

More than one citation;

(Esin et al., 2002; Karasar, 1995)

Citation with one author;

(Yıldırım, 2015)

Citation with two authors;

(Yıldırım & Erol 2013)

Citation with three, four, five authors;

First citation in the text: (Erol, Şık, & Kaya, 2011) Subsequent citations in the text: (Erol et al., 2011)

Citations with more than six authors;

(Çavdar et al., 2003)

Citations in the Reference

All the citations done in the text should be listed in the References section in alphabetical order of author surname without numbering. Below given examples should be considered in citing the references.

Basic Reference Types

Book

a) Turkish Book

Karasar, N. (1995). Araştırmalarda rapor hazırlama (8th ed.) [Preparing research reports]. Ankara, Turkey: 3A Eğitim Danışmanlık Ltd.

b) Book Translated into Turkish

Mucchielli, A. (1991). Zihniyetler [Mindsets] (A. Kotil, Trans.). İstanbul, Turkey: İletişim Yayınları.

c) Edited Book

Ören, T., Üney, T., & Çölkesen, R. (Eds.). (2006). Türkiye bilişim ansiklopedisi [Turkish Encyclopedia of Informatics]. İstanbul, Turkey: Papatya Yayıncılık.

d) Turkish Book with Multiple Authors

Tonta, Y., Bitirim, Y., & Sever, H. (2002). Türkçe arama motorlarında performans değerlendirme [Performance evaluation in Turkish search engines]. Ankara, Turkey: Total Bilişim.

e) Book in English

Çalışkan, M., Erol, O., & Cevahir Öz, G. (2020). The recent topics in genetic polymorphisms.

London: BoD – Books on Demand.

f) Chapter in an Edited Book

Erol, O. (2007). Crocus biflorus subsp. artvinensis, C. gargaricus subsp. herbertii, C. mathewii. In Ekim, T. (Ed.), The rare endemics of Turkey (ss 178-13). İstanbul, Turkey: Türkiye İş Bankası Kültür Yayınları.

g) Chapter in an Edited Book in Turkish

Erkmen, T. (2012). Örgüt kültürü: Fonksiyonları, öğeleri, işletme yönetimi ve liderlikteki önemi [Organization culture: Its functions, elements and importance in leadership and business management]. In M. Zencirkıran (Ed.), Örgüt sosyolojisi [Organization sociology] (pp. 233–263). Bursa, Turkey: Dora Basım Yayın.

h) Book with the same organization as author and publisher

American Psychological Association. (2009). Publication manual of the American psychological association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Article

a) Turkish Article

Mutlu, B., & Savaşer, S. (2007). Çocuğu ameliyat sonrası yoğun bakımda olan ebeveynlerde stres nedenleri ve azaltma girişimleri [Source and intervention reduction of stress for parents whose children are in intensive care unit after surgery]. Istanbul University Florence Nightingale Journal of Nursing, 15(60), 179–182.

b) English Article

Erol, O., Şık, L., Kaya, B.H., Tanyolaç, B., & Küçüker, O. (2011). Genetic diversity of Crocus antalyensis B. Mathew (Iridaceae) and a new subspecies from southern Anatolia. Plant Syst Evol 294, 281-287.

c) Journal Article with DOI and More Than Seven Authors

Lal, H., Cunningham, A. L., Godeaux, O., Chlibek, R., Diez-Domingo, J., Hwang, S.-J. ... Heineman, T. C. (2015). Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 372, 2087–2096. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1501184

d) Journal Article from Web, without DOI

Sidani, S. (2003). Enhancing the evaluation of nursing care effectiveness. Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 35(3), 26–38. Retrieved from http://cjnr.mcgill.ca

e) Journal Article wih DOI

Turner, S. J. (2010). Website statistics 2.0: Using Google Analytics to measure library website effectiveness. Technical Services Quarterly, 27, 261–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07317131003765910

f) Advance Online Publication

Smith, J. A. (2010). Citing advance online publication: A review. Journal of Psychology. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a45d7867

g) Article in a Magazine

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28–31.

Doctoral Dissertation, Master’s Thesis, Presentation, Proceeding

a) Dissertation/Thesis from a Commercial Database

Van Brunt, D. (1997). Networked consumer health information systems (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 9943436)

b) Dissertation/Thesis from an Institutional Database

Yaylalı-Yıldız, B. (2014). University campuses as places of potential publicness: Exploring the politicals, social and cultural practices in Ege University (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://library.iyte.edu.tr/tr/hizli-erisim/iyte-tez-portali

c) Dissertation/Thesis from Web

Tonta, Y. A. (1992). An analysis of search failures in online library catalogs (Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley). Retrieved from http://yunus.hacettepe.edu.tr/~tonta/yayinlar /phd/ickapak.html

d) Dissertation/Thesis abstracted in Dissertations Abstracts International

Appelbaum, L. G. (2005). Three studies of human information processing: Texture amplifica­tion, motion representation, and figure-ground segregation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B. Sciences and Engineering, 65(10), 5428.

e) Symposium Contribution

Krinsky-McHale, S. J., Zigman, W. B., & Silverman, W. (2012, August). Are neuropsychiatric symptoms markers of prodromal Alzheimer’s disease in adults with Down syndrome? In W. B. Zigman (Chair), Predictors of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and mortality in adults with Down syndrome. Symposium conducted at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

f) Conference Paper Abstract Retrieved Online

Liu, S. (2005, May). Defending against business crises with the help of intelligent agent based early warning solutions. Paper presented at the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems, Miami, FL. Abstract retrieved from http://www.iceis.org/iceis2005/abstracts_2005.htm

g) Conference Paper - In Regularly Published Proceedings and Retrieved Online

Herculano-Houzel, S., Collins, C. E., Wong, P., Kaas, J. H., & Lent, R. (2008). The basic nonuniformity of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 12593–12598. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0805417105

h) Proceeding in Book Form

Parsons, O. A., Pryzwansky, W. B., Weinstein, D. J., & Wiens, A. N. (1995). Taxonomy for psychology. In J. N. Reich, H. Sands, & A. N. Wiens (Eds.), Education and training beyond the doctoral degree: Proceedings of the American Psychological Association National Conference on Postdoctoral Education and Training in Psychology (pp. 45–50). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

i) Paper Presentation

Nguyen, C. A. (2012, August). Humor and deception in advertising: When laughter may not be the best medicine. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Orlando, FL.

Other Sources

a) Newspaper Article

Browne, R. (2010, March 21). This brainless patient is no dummy. Sydney Morning Herald, 45.

b) Newspaper Article with no Author

New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p. A12.

c) Web Page/Blog Post

Euro+Med (2014, March 1). Euro+Med PlantBase ‐ the information resource for Euro‐ Mediterranean plant diversity. Retrieved from http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/

d) Online Encyclopedia/Dictionary

Ignition. (1989). In Oxford English online dictionary (2nd ed.). Retrieved from http://dictionary.oed. com

Marcoux, A. (2008). Business ethics. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.). The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-business/

e) Podcast

Dunning, B. (Producer). (2011, January 12). inFact: Conspiracy theories [Video podcast]. Retrieved from http://itunes.apple.com/

f) Single Episode in a Television Series

Egan, D. (Writer), & Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate. [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer), House; New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.

g) Music

Fuchs, G. (2004). Light the menorah. On Eight nights of Hanukkah [CD]. Brick, NJ: Kid Kosher.

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