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DOI :10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202   IUP :10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202    Full Text (PDF)

Economics: From Modernism to Postmodernism

Hasan BakırGörkem Bahtiyar

The dominant form of theory in the world of economics today, namely, the Neoclassical economics, claims its theories are universal, scientific and rational. Relying on the positivist methodology, the claim that humanity will be able to dominate the environment through positive analysis, which is one of the tenets of the enlightenment and hence modernism has an important place in the development of this perspective in economics. However, the idea that the social environment of man could easily be manipulated with positive inferences like those in the natural sciences seems problematic. The debate over whether it is possible to mention of single positive facts in economic life started long ago and more pluralistic points of view flourished later. Within this process, diversity and difference replaces the single fact positivism, and methodological individualism is replaced by a more holistic approach. At the same time individuals’ thoughts and emotions as well as cultural norms of different societies are subjects of scrutiny again. In this vein, the Original Institutional Economics and the Heuristic approach to economics and mentality came into the fore again. The aim of this study is to present the evolution of economics from modernism to postmodernism as a disciplined thought process.

JEL Classification : B10 , B13 , N01
DOI :10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202   IUP :10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202    Full Text (PDF)

Modernizmden Postmodernizme İktisat

Hasan BakırGörkem Bahtiyar

Neoklasik iktisat, günümüzün hâkim iktisat anlayışıdır. Pozitivist bir metodoloji üzerine temellenen Neoklasik iktisat, ortaya attığı teorilerin bilimsel, evrensel ve rasyonel olduğunu iddia etmektedir. Aydınlanma düşüncesinin temelinde yer alan, olgucu analiz ile insanın çevresine hâkim olacağı iddiası ve dolayısıyla modernizm, bu bakış açısının gelişmesinde önemli bir yere sahiptir. Ancak, modernizmin kişilerden bağımsız ve gözlemlenebilir olgularla açıklanan gerçek dünya görüşünü ifade eden pozitivist yönteme dayanan bu hâkim iktisat anlayışı, karşı argümanlarını da beraberinde getirmiştir. İnsanın sosyal çevresinin de doğal çevre gibi pozitif çıkarımlar ile kolaylıkla şekillendirilmesi düşüncesi sorunlu görülmektedir. İktisatta tek bir doğrudan söz edilemeyeceği tartışması başlatılmış ve farklı yaklaşımları da içeren çoğulcu bir bakış açısı daha sonra gündeme gelmiştir. Bu süreçle birlikte tek doğrunun yerini çeşitleme ve farklılık, temsili bireyin yerini holistik yaklaşım almakta, bireylerin duygu, düşünce dünyaları ve kültürel bağlam tekrar analiz konusu edilmektedir. Postmodernist bir ton taşıyan bu itirazın da dikkate alınması, iktisadın kendisine ilişkin kavrayışımızı kuvvetlendirmesi açısından önemlidir. Bu süreçte, holistik yaklaşımı savunan Orijinal Kurumsal İktisadın özellikle evrim vurgusuyla birlikte ön plana çıkması söz konusudur. Kurumsalcılığın yanında, yine ahlak-zihniyet-iktisat ilişkisini inceleyen Yorumsamacı yaklaşımın da tekrar ele alınması gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı da modernizmden postmodernizme bir süreç olarak iktisadın serüvenini ortaya koymaktır.

JEL Classification : B10 , B13 , N01

EXTENDED ABSTRACT


From Classical Economic Thought of the 18th century to today’s New Consensus, the science of economics has come a long way. There are various colors in the pallet of the discipline and they all represent different methodological frameworks. At this point in time, Neoclassical economics, which is the dominant form of theory building in the world of economics today bases its arguments on a positivist methodology, claiming its theories are universal, scientific and rational. However, the struggle for mathematical modelling which is one of the most profound features of the Neoclassical view, came with sacrifices. For instance, one can observe that in its pursuit of formalization, economics reduces relations in a society to mere man-object level, thus, mostly excluding the social side of economic transactions. An economic argumentation must encompass the relation of man to man, and man with the society. It is evident that under this quest for formalization lies the methodological understanding which has its roots in modernist thinking. That is the claim that humanity will be able to dominate its environment through positive analysis, which is one of the tenets of the enlightenment and hence modernism has an important place in the development of this perspective in economics. However, with this economic mentality, came some counter arguments, too. Because of the devastating wars, economic crises, poverty, inequality, famines etc. the reign of this modernist thinking was challenged from a number of points of view. It was seen that modernism was not the answer to the problems that are faced by humanity. Furthermore, it brought with it a new set of problems, some of them are still waiting to be solved. For once, the idea that the social environment of man could easily be manipulated From Classical Economic Thought of the 18th century to today’s New Consensus, the science of economics has come a long way. There are various colors in the pallet of the discipline and they all represent different methodological frameworks. At this point in time, Neoclassical economics, which is the dominant form of theory building in the world of economics today bases its arguments on a positivist methodology, claiming its theories are universal, scientific and rational. However, the struggle for mathematical modelling which is one of the most profound features of the Neoclassical view, came with sacrifices. For instance, one can observe that in its pursuit of formalization, economics reduces relations in a society to mere man-object level, thus, mostly excluding the social side of economic transactions. An economic argumentation must encompass the relation of man to man, and man with the society. It is evident that under this quest for formalization lies the methodological understanding which has its roots in modernist thinking. That is the claim that humanity will be able to dominate its environment through positive analysis, which is one of the tenets of the enlightenment and hence modernism has an important place in the development of this perspective in economics. However, with this economic mentality, came some counter arguments, too. Because of the devastating wars, economic crises, poverty, inequality, famines etc. the reign of this modernist thinking was challenged from a number of points of view. It was seen that modernism was not the answer to the problems that are faced by humanity. Furthermore, it brought with it a new set of problems, some of them are still waiting to be solved. For once, the idea that the social environment of man could easily be manipulated.


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APA

Bakır, H., & Bahtiyar, G. (2021). Economics: From Modernism to Postmodernism. Istanbul Journal of Economics, 71(2), 341-366. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202


AMA

Bakır H, Bahtiyar G. Economics: From Modernism to Postmodernism. Istanbul Journal of Economics. 2021;71(2):341-366. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202


ABNT

Bakır, H.; Bahtiyar, G. Economics: From Modernism to Postmodernism. Istanbul Journal of Economics, [Publisher Location], v. 71, n. 2, p. 341-366, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Bakır, Hasan, and Görkem Bahtiyar. 2021. “Economics: From Modernism to Postmodernism.” Istanbul Journal of Economics 71, no. 2: 341-366. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202


Chicago: Humanities Style

Bakır, Hasan, and Görkem Bahtiyar. Economics: From Modernism to Postmodernism.” Istanbul Journal of Economics 71, no. 2 (Sep. 2022): 341-366. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202


Harvard: Australian Style

Bakır, H & Bahtiyar, G 2021, 'Economics: From Modernism to Postmodernism', Istanbul Journal of Economics, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 341-366, viewed 28 Sep. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Bakır, H. and Bahtiyar, G. (2021) ‘Economics: From Modernism to Postmodernism’, Istanbul Journal of Economics, 71(2), pp. 341-366. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202 (28 Sep. 2022).


MLA

Bakır, Hasan, and Görkem Bahtiyar. Economics: From Modernism to Postmodernism.” Istanbul Journal of Economics, vol. 71, no. 2, 2021, pp. 341-366. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202


Vancouver

Bakır H, Bahtiyar G. Economics: From Modernism to Postmodernism. Istanbul Journal of Economics [Internet]. 28 Sep. 2022 [cited 28 Sep. 2022];71(2):341-366. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202 doi: 10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202


ISNAD

Bakır, Hasan - Bahtiyar, Görkem. Economics: From Modernism to Postmodernism”. Istanbul Journal of Economics 71/2 (Sep. 2022): 341-366. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2021-932202


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Submitted03.05.2021
Accepted22.11.2021
Published Online31.12.2021

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