Research Article


DOI :10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490   IUP :10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490    Full Text (PDF)

The Nexus Between Economic Freedom and Tourist Arrivals: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries

Oğuz ÖcalBuket AltınözAlper Aslan

Mediterranean countries are indispensable places of tourism with their world-famous shores, wonderful climate and impressive historical places. The aim of this paper is to investigate the relationship between tourist arrivals and economic freedom indicators such as government integrity, tax burden, government spending, business freedom and trade freedom. For this purpose, the panel vector autoregression (PVAR) method was used for a Mediterranean countries sample covering the period from 1996 to 2016. The results of causality testing showed that the tourist arrivals have a bidirectional causality relationship with each explanatory variable, while the coefficient estimates showed that an increase in economic freedom indices affected tourist arrivals negatively in Mediterranean countries. That is, economic freedoms do not mean an advantage for tourists without supportive public policies for tourism. The test results suggest that policymakers should take into account the various aspects of the tourism sector, particularly natural resources and environmental factors, while making policies that increase economic freedom in Mediterranean countries.

JEL Classification : B22 , C23 , L83

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APA

Öcal, O., Altınöz, B., & Aslan, A. (2020). The Nexus Between Economic Freedom and Tourist Arrivals: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries. Istanbul Journal of Economics, 70(2), 287-301. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490


AMA

Öcal O, Altınöz B, Aslan A. The Nexus Between Economic Freedom and Tourist Arrivals: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries. Istanbul Journal of Economics. 2020;70(2):287-301. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490


ABNT

Öcal, O.; Altınöz, B.; Aslan, A. The Nexus Between Economic Freedom and Tourist Arrivals: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries. Istanbul Journal of Economics, [Publisher Location], v. 70, n. 2, p. 287-301, 2020.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Öcal, Oğuz, and Buket Altınöz and Alper Aslan. 2020. “The Nexus Between Economic Freedom and Tourist Arrivals: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries.” Istanbul Journal of Economics 70, no. 2: 287-301. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490


Chicago: Humanities Style

Öcal, Oğuz, and Buket Altınöz and Alper Aslan. The Nexus Between Economic Freedom and Tourist Arrivals: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries.” Istanbul Journal of Economics 70, no. 2 (Jun. 2021): 287-301. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490


Harvard: Australian Style

Öcal, O & Altınöz, B & Aslan, A 2020, 'The Nexus Between Economic Freedom and Tourist Arrivals: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries', Istanbul Journal of Economics, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 287-301, viewed 17 Jun. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Öcal, O. and Altınöz, B. and Aslan, A. (2020) ‘The Nexus Between Economic Freedom and Tourist Arrivals: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries’, Istanbul Journal of Economics, 70(2), pp. 287-301. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490 (17 Jun. 2021).


MLA

Öcal, Oğuz, and Buket Altınöz and Alper Aslan. The Nexus Between Economic Freedom and Tourist Arrivals: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries.” Istanbul Journal of Economics, vol. 70, no. 2, 2020, pp. 287-301. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490


Vancouver

Öcal O, Altınöz B, Aslan A. The Nexus Between Economic Freedom and Tourist Arrivals: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries. Istanbul Journal of Economics [Internet]. 17 Jun. 2021 [cited 17 Jun. 2021];70(2):287-301. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490 doi: 10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490


ISNAD

Öcal, Oğuz - Altınöz, Buket - Aslan, Alper. The Nexus Between Economic Freedom and Tourist Arrivals: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries”. Istanbul Journal of Economics 70/2 (Jun. 2021): 287-301. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2020-825490



TIMELINE


Submitted13.11.2020
Accepted08.12.2020
Published Online31.12.2020

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