Research Article


DOI :10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250   IUP :10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250    Full Text (PDF)

Determinants of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Against Women in Türkiye According to Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors

Abdurrahman Keskin

The main objective of this study is to reveal the effects of the sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors that cause women between the ages of 15-59 to be exposed to sexual violence by their husbands or partners in Türkiye. This study uses the dataset from the National Research on Domestic Violence Against Women in Türkiye performed by the Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkStat, 2008 and 2014). The 2008 survey interviewed 17,168 households and 12,795 women, while the 2014 survey interviewed 11,247 households and 7,462 women. This study uses the chi-square independence test and multivariate logistic regression method to examine the factors affecting sexual violence. The dependent variable was determined as exposure to sexual violence. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic variables such as education, age group, region, and personal income were used as the independent variables. According to the results, educated women are less frequently exposed to sexual abuse. In addition, women with their own personal income are less exposed to sexual abuse than women who do not have their own personal income. As the education level of the partners of women who’ve been exposed to sexual violence increases, these partners become less prone to sexual violence; whereas partners with higher frequencies of alcohol use are more likely to commit sexual violence. Sexual violence against women was observed to have decreased between 2008-2014 in Türkiye. Sexual violence results in extremely serious consequences such as severe physical injury and death by murder or suicide and is less often the subject of research compared to other types of violence against women. Thus, further scientific research is required to better understand and address sexual violence against women.

DOI :10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250   IUP :10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250    Full Text (PDF)

Türkiye’de Kadına Yönelik Cinsel Şiddeti Etkileyen Sosyoekonomik ve Demografik Faktörler

Abdurrahman Keskin

Çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye’de 15-59 yaş aralığındaki kadınların eşleri/partnerleri tarafından cinsel şiddete maruz kalmasına sebep olan sosyodemografik ve sosyoekonomik faktörlerin etkisini ortaya koymaktır. Çalışma kapsamında Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu’nun (TÜİK) 2008 ve 2014 yıllarında yaptığı kadına yönelik aile içi şiddet araştırmasından elde edilen veriler kullanılmıştır. 2008 yılındaki araştırmada 17168 hane ve 12795 kadınla, 2014 yılındaki araştırmada ise 11247 hane ve 7462 kadınla görüşülmüştür. Cinsel şiddete etki eden faktörlerin incelenmesinde çok değişkenli lojistik regresyon ve Ki-Kare analizleri kullanılmıştır. Bağımlı değişken olarak cinsel şiddete maruz kalma durumu belirlenmiştir. Eğitim, yaş grubu, bölge, bireysel gelir gibi sosyodemografik ve sosyoekonomik değişkenler bağımsız değişken olarak kullanılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlar eğitim düzeyi yüksek olan kadınların cinsel istismara daha az maruz kaldığını göstermektedir. Ayrıca kişisel geliri olan kadınlar, olmayan kadınlara göre daha az cinsel istismara uğramaktadırlar. Cinsel şiddet gören kadınların partnerlerinin eğitim düzeyi arttıkça daha az cinsel şiddete eğilimli olmakta, alkol kullanım sıklığı arttıkça cinsel şiddet gösterme eğilimleri artmaktadır. Türkiye’de 2008 ve 2014 yılları arasında kadına yönelik cinsel şiddetin azaldığı görülmektedir. Ağır fiziksel yaralanma, cinayetle ölüm ve intihar gibi son derece ciddi sonuçlara yol açan cinsel şiddetin, kadına yönelik diğer şiddet türleriyle kıyaslandığında daha az araştırma konusu edildiği görülmektedir. Bu bağlamda kadına yönelik cinsel şiddete ilişkin daha fazla bilimsel araştırmaya ihtiyaç vardır.


PDF View

References

  • Abrahams, N., Jewkes, R., Hoffman, M. & Laubsher, R. (2004). Sexual violence against intimate partners in Cape Town: prevalence and risk factors reported by men. Bulletin of the world health organization, 82, 330-337. google scholar
  • Abrahams, N., Jewkes, R., Laubscher, R. & Hoffman, M. (2006). Intimate partner violence: prevalence and risk factors for men in Cape Town, South Africa. Violence Vict, 21, 247-264. google scholar
  • Abramsky, T., Lees, S., Stöckl, H., Harvey, S., Kapinga, I., RAnganathan, M., Mshana, G. & Kapiga, S. (2020). Women’s income and risk of intimate partner violence: secondary findings from the MAISHA cluster randomised trial in North-Western Tanzania. BMC Public Health, 19, 1108. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7454-1 google scholar
  • Ali, F. A., Israr, S. M., Ali, B. S. & Janjua, N. Z. (2009). Association of various reproductive rights, domestic violence and marital rape with depression among Pakistani women. BMC Psychiatry, 9(1), 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-9-77 google scholar
  • Allsworth, J. E., Anand, M., Redding, C. A., & Peipert, J. F. (2009). Physical and sexual violence and incident sexually transmitted infections. Journal of Womens Health, 18(4), 529-534. doi:10.1089/ jwh.2007.0757 google scholar
  • Alpar, R. (2020). Uygulamalı çok değişkenli istatistiksel yöntemler (6. bs). Ankara: Detay Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Antai, D. (2011). Controlling behavior, power relations within intimate relationships and intimate partner physical and sexual violence against women in Nigeria. BMC Public Health, 11(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-11-511 google scholar
  • Azziz-Baumgartner, E., Homaira N, Hamadani JD, Tofail, F., Dahlberg LL, Haque R, Luby SP, Naved RT. (2014). The prevalence and impact of intimate partner violence on maternal distress in a community of low-income Bangladeshi and displaced ethnic Bihari mothers: Dhaka, 2008-2009. Violence Against Women, 20:1, 59-73. doi: 10.1177/1077801213520579 google scholar
  • Barker, L. C., Stewart, D. E. & Vigod, S. N. (2019). Intimate partner sexual violence: an often overlooked problem. Journal of Women’s Health, 28(3), 363-374. https://doi.org/10.1089/ jwh.2017.6811 google scholar
  • Bartels, E. (2021) “He sees me as his possession and thinks he can do what he wants.” dependent stay and partner violence among moroccan marriage migrant women in the Netherlands, Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 41:3, 522-540, doi: 10.1080/13602004.2021.1999138 google scholar
  • Bartels, S. A., Scott, J. A., Mukwege, D., Lipton, R. I., VanRooyen, M. J., & Leaning, J. (2010). Patterns of sexual violence in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: reports from survivors presenting to Panzi Hospital in 2006. Conflict and Health, 4(1), 1-10. google scholar
  • Basile, Kathleen C., Chen, J., Black, Michele C., Saltzman, Linda E. (2007). Prevalence and characteristics of sexual violence victimization among U.S. adults, 2001-2003. Violence and Victims, 22(4), 437-448. doi:10.1891/088667007781553955 google scholar
  • Bennice, J. A., Resick, P. A., Mechanic, M. & Astin, M. (2003). The relative effects of intimate partner physical and sexual violence on post-traumatic stress disorder symptomatology. Violence and Victims, 18(1), 87-94. https://doi.org/10.1891/vivi.2003.18.1.87 google scholar
  • Breiding MJ, Black MC, Ryan GW. Prevalence and risk factors of intimate partner violence in eighteen U.S. states/territories, 2005. Am J Prev Med. 2008 Feb;34(2):112-8. doi: 10.1016/j. amepre.2007.10.001. google scholar
  • Briere, J., & Jordan, C. E. (2004). Violence against women: Outcome complexity and implications for assessment and treatment. Journal of Interpersonal Violence. Sage PublicationsSage CA: Thousand Oaks, CA. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260504269682 google scholar
  • Brown, L., Thurman, T., Bloem, J., & Kendall, C. (2006). Sexual violence in Lesotho. Studies in Family Planning, 34(4), 269-280. google scholar
  • Burgos-Soto, J., Orne-Gliemann, J., Encrenaz, G., Patassi, A., Woronowski, A., Kariyiare, B., K. Lawson-Evi, A., Leroy, V., Dabis, F., K. Ekouevi, D. & Becquet, R. (2014) Intimate partner sexual and physical violence among women in Togo, West Africa: Prevalence, associated factors, and the specific role of HIV infection, Global Health Action, 7:1, 23456, doi: 10.3402/gha.v7.23456 google scholar
  • Campbell, J. C. (1989). Women’s responses to sexual abuse in intimate relationships. Health Care for Women International, 10(4), 335-346. https://doi.org/10.1080/07399338909515860 google scholar
  • Campbell, J. C. (2002). Health consequences of intimate partner violence. The Lancet, 359(9314), 1331-1336. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08336-8 google scholar
  • Campbell, J. C., Glass, N., Sharps, P. W., Laughon, K., & Bloom, T. (2007). Intimate partner homicide. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 8(3), 246-269. https://doi.org/10.1177/1524838007303505 google scholar
  • Campbell, R., Greeson, M., Bybee, D. & Raja, S. (2008). The co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment: a mediational model of posttraumatic stress disorder and physic. Article in Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 76(2), 194-207. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.76.2.194 google scholar
  • Castro, R., Casique, I. & Brindis, C. D. (2008). Empowerment and physical violence throughout women’s reproductive life in Mexico. Violence Against Women, 14(6), 655-677. https://doi. org/10.1177/1077801208319102 google scholar
  • Cavanaugh, C. E., Messing, J. T., Del-Colle, M., O’Sullivan, C., & Campbell, J. C. (2011). Prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among adult female victims of intimate partner violence. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 41(4), 372-383. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1943-278X.2011.00035.x google scholar
  • Chen, P. H., Rovi, S., Vega, M., Jacobs, A. & Johnson, M. S. (2009). Relation of domestic violence to health status among Hispanic women. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 20(2), 569-582. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.0.0145 google scholar
  • Coll CVN, Ewerling F., Garcı'a- Moreno C., Hellwig, F. & Barros, A. (2020). Intimate partner violence in 46 low- income and middle- income countries: an appraisal of the most vulnerable groups of women using national health surveys. BMJ Global Health, 5:1. doi:10.1136/ bmjgh-2019-002208 google scholar
  • Cools, S. & Kotsadam, A. (2017). Resources and Intimate Partner Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Development, 95, 211-230. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.02.027 google scholar
  • Council of Europe. (2011). Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence. https://rm.coe.int/168046031c google scholar
  • de Campos Moreira, T., Ferigolo, M., Fernandes, S., Barros, X., Mazoni, C. G., Noto, A. R., ... Barros, H. M. T. (2011). Alcohol and domestic violence: a cross-over study in residences of individuals in Brazil. Journal of Family Violence, 26(6), 465-471. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-011-9381-5 google scholar
  • Devries, K. M., Child, J. C., Bacchus, L. J., Mak, J., Falder, G., Graham, K., . Heise, L. (2014, March 1). Intimate partner violence victimization and alcohol consumption in women: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Addiction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1111/add.12393 google scholar
  • Directorate General of Women’s Status & Hacettepe University Institute of Population and Studies. (2015). National research on domestic violence against women in Turkey. Ankara, Turkey: Elma Teknik Basım Matbaacılık. google scholar
  • Dunkle, K. L., Jewkes, R. K., Brown, H. C., Yoshihama, M., Gray, G. E., McIntyre, J. A. & Harlow, S. D. (2004). Prevalence and patterns of gender-based violence and revictimization among women attending antenatal clinics in Soweto, South Africa. American Journal of Epidemiology, 160(3), 230-239. https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwh194 google scholar
  • Dutton, M. A., Kaltman, S., Goodman, L. A., Weinfurt, K. & Vankos, N. (2005). Patterns of intimate partner violence: correlates and outcomes. violence and victims, 20(5), 483-497. https://doi. org/10.1891/vivi.2005.20.5.483 google scholar
  • Ergöçmen, B. A., Yüksel-Kaptanoğlu, I. & Jansen, H. A. F. M. Henriette. (2013). Intimate partner violence and the relation between help-seeking behavior and the severity and frequency of physical violence among women in Turkey. Violence Against Women, 19(9), 1151-1174. https:// doi.org/10.1177/1077801213498474 google scholar
  • Fals-Stewart, W. (2003). The occurrence of partner physical aggression on days of alcohol consumption: A longitudinal diary study. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 4152. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12602424 google scholar
  • Fals-Stewart, W., Leonard, K. E., & Birchler, G. R. (2005). The occurrence of male-to-female intimate partner violence on days of men’s drinking: The moderating effects of antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 239-248. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.73.2.239 google scholar
  • Feinstein, B. A., Humphreys, K. L., Bovin, M. J., Marx, B. P. & Resick, P. A. (2011). Victim-offender relationship status moderates the relationships of peritraumatic emotional responses, active resistance, and posttraumatic stress symptomatology in female rape survivors. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 3(2), 192-200. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021652 google scholar
  • Fenton, B. & Rathus, J. H. (2010). Men’s self-reported descriptions and precipitants of domestic violence perpetration as reported in intake evaluations. Journal of Family Violence, 25, 149-158. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-009-9278-8 google scholar
  • Fernbrant, C., Emmelin, M., Essen, B., Östergren, Per-Olof & Cantor-Graae, E. (2014) Intimate partner violence and poor mental health among Thai women residing in Sweden, Global Health Action, 7:1, 24991, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v7.24991 google scholar
  • Fernbrant, C., Essen, B., Östergren, Per-Olof & Cantor-Graae, E. (2011). Perceived threat of violence and exposure to physical violence against foreign-born women: a Swedish population-based study. Women’s Health Issues, 21:3, 206-213. google scholar
  • Field, C. A., Caetano, R., & Nelson, S. (2004). Alcohol and violence related cognitive risk factors associated with the perpetration of intimate partner violence. Journal of Family Violence, 19, 249-253. doi:10.1023/B: JOFV.0000032635.42145.66. google scholar
  • Fielding-Miller, R. & Dunkle, K. (2017). Constrained relationship agency as the risk factor for intimate partner violence in different models of transactional sex, African Journal of AIDS Research, 16:4, 283-293, DOI: 10.2989/16085906.2017.1345768 google scholar
  • Garcia-Moreno, C., Jansen, H. A. F. M., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L., Watts, C. H. (2006). Prevalence of intimate partner violence: Findings from the WHO multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence. Lancet, 368, 1260-1269. google scholar
  • Heise, L. & Garcia-Moreno, C. (2002). Violence by intimate partners. Geneva, Switzerland. google scholar
  • Honda, T., Wynter, K., Yokota, J., Tran, T., Ujiie, Y., Niwa, M., ... Kamo, T. (2018). Sexual violence as a key contributor to poor mental health among Japanese women subjected to intimate partner violence. Journal of Women’s Health, 27(5), 716-723. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2016.6276 google scholar
  • Jewkes, R. (2002). Intimate partner violence: Causes and prevention. The Lancet, 359, 1423-1429. google scholar
  • Jina, R., Jewkes, R., Hoffman, S., Dunkle, K. L., Nduna, M., & Shai, N. J. (2012). Adverse mental health outcomes associated with emotional abuse in young rural South African women: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 27(5), 862-880. https://doi. org/10.1177/0886260511423247 google scholar
  • Joachim, J. (2000). Shaping the human rights agenda. In El. Meyer, Mary k. Prügl (Ed.), American Journal of International Law (1st ed., Vol. 94, pp. 142-160). New York: Rowman & Littlefield. https://doi.org/10.2307/2555248 google scholar
  • Kabir, Z., Nasreen, Hashima-E & Edhborg, M (2014) Intimate partner violence and its association with maternal depressive symptoms 6-8 months after childbirth in rural Bangladesh, Global Health Action, 7:1, 24725, DOI: 10.3402/gha.v7.24725 google scholar
  • Karaoglu, L., Celbis, O., Ercan, C., Ilgar, M., Pehlivan, E., Gunes, G., ... & Egri, M. (2006). Physical, emotional and sexual violence during pregnancy in Malatya, Turkey. The European Journal of Public Health, 16(2), 149-156. google scholar
  • Keskin, A. (2023). Türkiye’de şiddete maruz kalan kadınlar (yardım arama davranışlarını engelleyen faktörler). Ankara: Berikan Yayınevi. google scholar
  • Keskin, A. & Karaman, F. (2021). Barriers to formal help-seeking behavior by battered turkish women according to sociodemographic factors. Sustainability (Switzerland), 13(1), 1-12. https://doi. org/10.3390/su13010165 google scholar
  • Kilpatrick, D. G. & Acierno, R. (2003). Mental health needs of crime victims: Epidemiology and outcomes. In Journal of Traumatic Stress (Vol. 16, pp. 119-132). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https:// doi.org/10.1023/A:1022891005388 google scholar
  • Kish, L. (1949). A procedure for objective respondent selection within the household. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 44(247), 380-387. https://doi.org/10.1080/01621459.1949.104 83314 google scholar
  • Kishor, S., & Johnson, K. (2004). Profiling Domestic Violence - A Multi-Country Study. Calverton, Maryland. google scholar
  • Koenig, M. A., Stephenson, R., Ahmed, S., Jejeebhoy, S. J. & Campbell, J. (2006). Individual and contextual determinants of domestic violence in North India. American Journal of Public Health, 96(1), 132-138. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.050872 google scholar
  • Koss, M. P., Bailey, J. A., Yuan, N. P., Herrera, V. M. & Lichter, E. L. (2003). Depression and PTSD in survivors of male violence: Research and training initiatives to facilitate recovery. Psychology of Women Quarterly. SAGE PublicationsSage CA: Los Angeles, CA. https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-6402.00093 google scholar
  • Krebs, C., Breiding, M. J., Browne, A. & Warner, T. (2011). The association between different types of intimate partner violence experienced by women. Journal of Family Violence, 26(6), 487-500. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-011-9383-3 google scholar
  • Lary, H., Maman, S., Katebalila, M., McCauley, A. & Mbwambo, J. (2004). Exploring the association between HIV and violence: young people’s experiences with infidelity, violence and forced sex in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Int Fam Plan Perspect, 30:4, 200-206. doi: 10.1363/3020004. google scholar
  • McFarlane, J., Malecha, A., Gist, J., Watson, K., Batten, E., Hall, I. & Smith, S. (2005). Intimate partner sexual assault against women and associated victim substance use, suicidality, and risk factors for femicide. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 26(9), 953-967. https://doi. org/10.1080/01612840500248262 google scholar
  • McFarlane, J., Malecha, A., Watson, K., Gist, J., Batten, E., Hall, I. & Smith, S. (2005). Intimate partner sexual assault against women: frequency, health consequences, and treatment outcomes. Obstetrics & Gynecology, 105(1), 99-108. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.AOG.0000146641.98665.b6 google scholar
  • Messing, J. T., Thaller, J. & Bagwell, M. (2014). Factors related to sexual abuse and forced sex in a sample of women experiencing police-involved intimate partner violence. Health and Social Work, 39(3), 181-191. https://doi.org/10.1093/hsw/hlu026 google scholar
  • Öberg, M., Skalkidou, A., Heimer, G., Lucas, S. (2021). Sexual violence against women in Sweden: Associations with combined childhood violence and sociodemographic factors. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 49(3), 292-300. doi:10.1177/1403494820939015 google scholar
  • Pierobon, M., Barak, M., Hazrati, S. & Jacobsen, K. H. (2013). Alcohol consumption and violence among Argentine adolescents.Jornal de Pediatria (Versöo Em Portugues), 89(1), 100-107. https:// doi.org/10.1016/j.jpedp.2012.08.011 google scholar
  • Puri, M., Frost, M., Tamang, J., Lamichhane, P., & Shah, I. (2012). The prevalence and determinants of sexual violence against young married women by husbands in rural Nepal. BMC research notes, 5(1), 1-13. google scholar
  • Rasoulian, M., Shirazi, M. & Nojomi, M. (2014). Primary health care physicians’ approach toward domestic violence in Tehran, Iran. Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 28(1), 148. Retrieved from http://mjiri.iums.ac.ir google scholar
  • Rehm, J., Baliunas, D., Borges, G. L. G., Graham, K., Irving, H., Kehoe, T., ... Taylor, B. (2010). The relation between different dimensions of alcohol consumption and burden of disease: An overview. Addiction, 105(5), 817-843. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.02899.x google scholar
  • Shorey, R. C., Sherman, A. E., Kivisto, A. J., Elkins, S. R., Rhatigan, D. L. & Moore, T. M. (2011). Gender differences in depression and anxiety among victims of intimate partner violence: The moderating effect of shame proneness. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 26(9), 1834-1850. https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260510372949 google scholar
  • Snow, D. L., Sullivan, T. P., Swan, S. C., Tate, D. C., & Klein, I. (2006). The role of coping and problem drinking in men’s abuse of female partners: Test of a path model. Violence and Victims, 21, 267285. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16761854. google scholar
  • Tabachnick, Barbara G. & Fidell, L. S. (2012). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Pearson. google scholar
  • Tarzia, L., Thuraisingam, S., Novy, K., Valpied, J., Quake, R. & Hegarty, K. (2018). Exploring the relationships between sexual violence, mental health and perpetrator identity: A cross-sectional Australian primary care study. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6303-y google scholar
  • Temple, J. R., Weston, R., Stuart, G. L., & Marshall, L. L. (2008). The longitudinal association between alcohol use and intimate partner violence among ethnically diverse community women. Addictive Behaviors, 33, 1244-1248. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.05.005 google scholar
  • Torres, S. (1991). A comparison of wife abuse between two cultures: Perceptions, attitudes, nature, and extent. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 12(1), 1 13-131. https://doi. org/10.3109/01612849109058213 google scholar
  • Townsend, L., Jewkes, R., Mathews, C., Johnston, L. G., Flisher, A. J., Zembe, Y., & Chopra, M. (2011). HIV risk behaviours and their relationship to intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have multiple female sexual partners in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS and behavior, 15(1), 132-141. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-010-9680-5 google scholar
  • UNDP. (2020). Human Development Report. Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/ indicators/137506 google scholar
  • Ünsal, A. & Sülkü, S. N. (2020). Bölgeler arası gelişmişlik düzeylerinin belirlenmesi ve karşılaştırılması: Türkiye örneği. Bilig, (95), 177-209. https://doi.org/10.12995/bilig.9508 google scholar
  • Wandera, S. O., Kwagala, B., Ndugga, P. & Kabagenyi, A. (2015). Partners’ controlling behaviors and intimate partner sexual violence among married women in Uganda Global health. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-015-1564-1 google scholar
  • Wandera, S. O., Kwagala, B., Ndugga, P., & Kabagenyi, A. (2015). Partners’ controlling behaviors and intimate partner sexual violence among married women in Uganda. BMC Public Health, 15(1), 1-9. google scholar
  • Wang, L. (2016). Factors influencing attitude toward intimate partner violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 29, 72-78. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2016.06.005 google scholar
  • Weaver, T. L., Allen, J. A., Hopper, E., Maglione, M. L., McLaughlin, D., McCullough, M. A., ... Brewer, T. (2007). Mediators of suicidal ideation within a sheltered sample of raped and battered women. Health Care for Women International, 28(5), 478-489. https://doi. org/10.1080/07399330701226453 google scholar
  • Were, E., Curran, K., Delany-Moretlwe, S., Nakku-Joloba, E., Mugo, N. R., Kiarie, J., Bukusi, E. A., Celum, C., Baeten, J. M., & Partners in Prevention HSVHIV Transmission Study Team (2011). A prospective study of frequency and correlates of intimate partner violence among African heterosexual HIV serodiscordant couples. AIDS (London, England), 25(16), 2009-2018. https:// doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0b013e32834b005d google scholar
  • WHO. (2002). World report on violence and health (Krug EG et al., eds.). Geneva: World Health Organization. google scholar
  • WHO. (2005). Multi-country study on women’s health and domestic violence against women (ed. Garcı'a-Moreno, C., Jansen, H. A. F. M., Ellsberg, M., Heise, L. & Watts, C.). Geneva: Switzerland. google scholar
  • WHO/London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. (2010). Preventing intimate partner and sexual violence against women: taking action and generating evidence. Geneva: World Health Organization. google scholar
  • Yates, F. & Grundy, P. M. (1953). Selection without replacement from within strata with probability proportional to size. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 15(2), 253261. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2517-6161.1953.tb00140.x google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Keskin, A. (2023). Determinants of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Against Women in Türkiye According to Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors. Istanbul Journal of Economics, 73(1), 587-614. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250


AMA

Keskin A. Determinants of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Against Women in Türkiye According to Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors. Istanbul Journal of Economics. 2023;73(1):587-614. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250


ABNT

Keskin, A. Determinants of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Against Women in Türkiye According to Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors. Istanbul Journal of Economics, [Publisher Location], v. 73, n. 1, p. 587-614, 2023.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Keskin, Abdurrahman,. 2023. “Determinants of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Against Women in Türkiye According to Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors.” Istanbul Journal of Economics 73, no. 1: 587-614. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250


Chicago: Humanities Style

Keskin, Abdurrahman,. Determinants of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Against Women in Türkiye According to Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors.” Istanbul Journal of Economics 73, no. 1 (Mar. 2024): 587-614. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250


Harvard: Australian Style

Keskin, A 2023, 'Determinants of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Against Women in Türkiye According to Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors', Istanbul Journal of Economics, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 587-614, viewed 4 Mar. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Keskin, A. (2023) ‘Determinants of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Against Women in Türkiye According to Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors’, Istanbul Journal of Economics, 73(1), pp. 587-614. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250 (4 Mar. 2024).


MLA

Keskin, Abdurrahman,. Determinants of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Against Women in Türkiye According to Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors.” Istanbul Journal of Economics, vol. 73, no. 1, 2023, pp. 587-614. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250


Vancouver

Keskin A. Determinants of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Against Women in Türkiye According to Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors. Istanbul Journal of Economics [Internet]. 4 Mar. 2024 [cited 4 Mar. 2024];73(1):587-614. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250 doi: 10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250


ISNAD

Keskin, Abdurrahman. Determinants of Intimate Partner Sexual Violence Against Women in Türkiye According to Socioeconomic and Sociodemographic Factors”. Istanbul Journal of Economics 73/1 (Mar. 2024): 587-614. https://doi.org/10.26650/ISTJECON2022-1267250



TIMELINE


Submitted18.03.2023
Accepted14.04.2023
Published Online26.06.2023

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.