Research Article


DOI :10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004   IUP :10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004    Full Text (PDF)

The assessment of in vitro cardiotoxic potentials for synthetic cannabinoid, AM-2201

Gül ÖzhanEsra NişikliMüzeyyen Çeliksöz Akar

Synthetic cannabinoid abuse has become more common in recent years, although knowledge about the risk of the relatively new synthetic cannabinoid molecules is not adequate. Data is limited and analytical methods and case reports related to the clinical effects of this substance are recent and new. The studies are generally related to the cardiac effects of first defined molecules rather than every molecule in the group. The cardiac clinical effects of synthetic cannabinoid abuse and its underlying mechanisms are not certain. In this regard, this study aims to investigate AM-2201, one of synthetic cannabinoids, because knowledge related to AM-2201 is less than the others in this group. The cardiotoxicity and underlying mechanisms of AM-2201 were assessed on cardiac cell culture. The half-maximal inhibition concentration (IC50) values were 101.49 and 63.33 µM by WST-1 and LDH assays. AM-2201 did not induced the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Correlatively, no change was observed in total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels. As to the measurements, Annexin V-FITC and acridine orange dye, AM-2201 did not induce apoptosis and the primary cell death was necrosis. According to our results, further studies such as mechanism on cell death and cancer pathways should be investigated.


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APA

Özhan, G., Nişikli, E., & Çeliksöz Akar, M. (2019). The assessment of in vitro cardiotoxic potentials for synthetic cannabinoid, AM-2201. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, 49(3), 121-124. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004


AMA

Özhan G, Nişikli E, Çeliksöz Akar M. The assessment of in vitro cardiotoxic potentials for synthetic cannabinoid, AM-2201. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy. 2019;49(3):121-124. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004


ABNT

Özhan, G.; Nişikli, E.; Çeliksöz Akar, M. The assessment of in vitro cardiotoxic potentials for synthetic cannabinoid, AM-2201. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, [Publisher Location], v. 49, n. 3, p. 121-124, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Özhan, Gül, and Esra Nişikli and Müzeyyen Çeliksöz Akar. 2019. “The assessment of in vitro cardiotoxic potentials for synthetic cannabinoid, AM-2201.” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 49, no. 3: 121-124. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004


Chicago: Humanities Style

Özhan, Gül, and Esra Nişikli and Müzeyyen Çeliksöz Akar. The assessment of in vitro cardiotoxic potentials for synthetic cannabinoid, AM-2201.” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 49, no. 3 (Sep. 2021): 121-124. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004


Harvard: Australian Style

Özhan, G & Nişikli, E & Çeliksöz Akar, M 2019, 'The assessment of in vitro cardiotoxic potentials for synthetic cannabinoid, AM-2201', İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 121-124, viewed 23 Sep. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Özhan, G. and Nişikli, E. and Çeliksöz Akar, M. (2019) ‘The assessment of in vitro cardiotoxic potentials for synthetic cannabinoid, AM-2201’, İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, 49(3), pp. 121-124. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004 (23 Sep. 2021).


MLA

Özhan, Gül, and Esra Nişikli and Müzeyyen Çeliksöz Akar. The assessment of in vitro cardiotoxic potentials for synthetic cannabinoid, AM-2201.” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 49, no. 3, 2019, pp. 121-124. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004


Vancouver

Özhan G, Nişikli E, Çeliksöz Akar M. The assessment of in vitro cardiotoxic potentials for synthetic cannabinoid, AM-2201. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy [Internet]. 23 Sep. 2021 [cited 23 Sep. 2021];49(3):121-124. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004 doi: 10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004


ISNAD

Özhan, Gül - Nişikli, Esra - Çeliksöz Akar, Müzeyyen. The assessment of in vitro cardiotoxic potentials for synthetic cannabinoid, AM-2201”. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 49/3 (Sep. 2021): 121-124. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2019.19004



TIMELINE


Accepted28.08.2019

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