Research Article


DOI :10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791   IUP :10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791    Full Text (PDF)

The effects of prochloraz on the levels of nuclear receptor genes expressions and global DNA methylation in human prostate carcinoma cells

Ecem Fatma KaramanEsma DoğanDilara AlgaSibel Özden

Background and Aims: Prochloraz (PCZ) is an imidazole fungicide which is used in agriculture and gardening. PCZ, with endocrine disrupting effect, disrupts reproductive and developmental functions. Previously, the effects of PCZ on the estrogen and androgen receptors have been shown in vitro and in vivo. Because of endocrine disrupting effects, PCZ could influence nuclear receptors which acted as ER and AR antagonists. Besides, PCZ has been thought to have no genotoxic effects. Therefore, we aimed to investigate possible effects of PCZ on nuclear receptor genes and epigenetic mechanisms in human prostate carcinoma (PC-3) cells. Methods: In the present study, MTT and LDH tests were applied to evaluate the cell viability. Expression levels of nuclear receptor genes such as AhR, PXR, PPARα, PPARγ were studied on real-time quantitative PCR. For global DNA methylation analysis, the levels of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC%) were measured by elisa kit. Results: According to MTT and LDH test results, IC50 value of PCZ has been determined as 144.19 and 116.65 μM, respectively. There were significant changes for the expression levels of AhR, PPARα and PPARγ genes after 5-50 μM of PCZ treatments. 5 and 50 μM of PCZ decreased the levels of 5-mC% in the rates of 22.6% and 26.9%, respectively. Conclusion: It has been suggested that PCZ may cause alterations on the expressions of nuclear receptor genes which could be related to endocrine disrupting effects and may have implications on global DNA methylation.


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APA

Karaman, E., Doğan, E., Alga, D., & Özden, S. (2021). The effects of prochloraz on the levels of nuclear receptor genes expressions and global DNA methylation in human prostate carcinoma cells. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, 51(2), 191-197. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791


AMA

Karaman E, Doğan E, Alga D, Özden S. The effects of prochloraz on the levels of nuclear receptor genes expressions and global DNA methylation in human prostate carcinoma cells. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy. 2021;51(2):191-197. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791


ABNT

Karaman, E.; Doğan, E.; Alga, D.; Özden, S. The effects of prochloraz on the levels of nuclear receptor genes expressions and global DNA methylation in human prostate carcinoma cells. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, [Publisher Location], v. 51, n. 2, p. 191-197, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Karaman, Ecem Fatma, and Esma Doğan and Dilara Alga and Sibel Özden. 2021. “The effects of prochloraz on the levels of nuclear receptor genes expressions and global DNA methylation in human prostate carcinoma cells.” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 51, no. 2: 191-197. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791


Chicago: Humanities Style

Karaman, Ecem Fatma, and Esma Doğan and Dilara Alga and Sibel Özden. The effects of prochloraz on the levels of nuclear receptor genes expressions and global DNA methylation in human prostate carcinoma cells.” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 51, no. 2 (Sep. 2021): 191-197. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791


Harvard: Australian Style

Karaman, E & Doğan, E & Alga, D & Özden, S 2021, 'The effects of prochloraz on the levels of nuclear receptor genes expressions and global DNA methylation in human prostate carcinoma cells', İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 191-197, viewed 24 Sep. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Karaman, E. and Doğan, E. and Alga, D. and Özden, S. (2021) ‘The effects of prochloraz on the levels of nuclear receptor genes expressions and global DNA methylation in human prostate carcinoma cells’, İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, 51(2), pp. 191-197. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791 (24 Sep. 2021).


MLA

Karaman, Ecem Fatma, and Esma Doğan and Dilara Alga and Sibel Özden. The effects of prochloraz on the levels of nuclear receptor genes expressions and global DNA methylation in human prostate carcinoma cells.” İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 51, no. 2, 2021, pp. 191-197. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791


Vancouver

Karaman E, Doğan E, Alga D, Özden S. The effects of prochloraz on the levels of nuclear receptor genes expressions and global DNA methylation in human prostate carcinoma cells. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy [Internet]. 24 Sep. 2021 [cited 24 Sep. 2021];51(2):191-197. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791 doi: 10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791


ISNAD

Karaman, Ecem Fatma - Doğan, Esma - Alga, Dilara - Özden, Sibel. The effects of prochloraz on the levels of nuclear receptor genes expressions and global DNA methylation in human prostate carcinoma cells”. İstanbul Journal of Pharmacy 51/2 (Sep. 2021): 191-197. https://doi.org/10.26650/IstanbulJPharm.2021.850791



TIMELINE


Submitted11.01.2021
Accepted26.05.2021
Published Online31.08.2021

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