Research Article


DOI :10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011   IUP :10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011    Full Text (PDF)

Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge Course Curriculum for Children with Autism: A Study on the Debates on the Possibility of Religion and Religious Education

Sümeyra Bilecik

Autism is a development disorder that appears in social behaviors, communication disorder and obsessive behaviors. This disorder which cause cannot be determined, may decrease within the life of the individual and even its effects may be completely eliminated. Autistic individuals can be educated according to their autism and development levels. In this way, can be reduced negative effects of autism. While the possibility of education of autistic people in other areas is not open to debate, the religious perceptions and the possibility of religious educations of autistic people are discussed. The issue has raised with the inclusion of religious culture and ethics courses in special education programs in 2010 in Turkey. In this study, the possibility of religious and religious education in autistic people was discussed in the light of research which gave different results in literature and religious culture and ethics curricula were examined in scope of these results. Thus, it is aimed to shed light on the qualities of programs that may be more effective for autistic individuals. 

DOI :10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011   IUP :10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011    Full Text (PDF)

Otizmli Çocuklar için İlköğretim Din Kültürü ve Ahlak Bilgisi Dersi Öğretim Programı: Otizmlilerde Din ve Din Eğitiminin İmkânı Tartışmaları Çerçevesinde Bir İnceleme

Sümeyra Bilecik

Otizm, sosyal davranış, iletişim bozukluğu ve tekrarlanan takıntılı davranışlarla kendisini gösteren bir gelişim bozukluğudur. Nedeni tespit edilemeyen bu bozukluk, bireyin yaşamı içerisinde azalabilmekte hatta etkileri tamamen ortadan kalkabilmektedir. Otizmli bireyler otizm ve gelişim düzeylerine göre eğitim alabilmektedirler ve bu sayede otizmin olumsuz etkileri en aza indirilebilmektedir. Otizmli bireylerin diğer alanlardaki eğitiminin imkânı tartışmaya mahal vermeyecek biçimde açıkken din algıları ve din eğitiminin imkânı tartışılmıştır. Türkiye’de 2010 yılında özel eğitim programlarında DKAB dersinin yer almasıyla konu gündeme gelmiştir. Bu çalışmada otizmlilerde din ve din eğitiminin imkânı, literatürde farklı sonuç veren araştırmalar ışığında tartışılmış ve otizmli bireyler için hazırlanmış DKAB programı bu sonuçlar kapsamında incelenmiştir. Böylelikle otizmli bireyler için daha etkili olabilecek programların niteliklerine ışık tutmak amaçlanmıştır. 


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


Autism is defined as the inability to establish relations with people and situations, the inability to use the language in an adequate and accurate manner, an obsessive repetition of the same behavior, and a developmental problem in which various obsessions are observed. There is no absolute treatment for this developmental problem, which manifests itself in the first or second years of life. However, individuals who have autism are brought into society through education.

In Turkey, the education of individuals who have autism is carried out in special education schools, in Inclusive Classes at schools, and in private training centers after the diagnosis is made with individual tests. In these centers, education is carried out with many different disciplines. The Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge (RCMK) courses took their place in special education curricula as a compulsory course for the first time in 2010. This decision brought with it many debates on the existence and teaching of religious courses in autistic individuals. When the literature is reviewed on the possibility of religion and religious education in autistic individuals, it is seen that there are some opinions arguing that autistic individuals cannot perceive religion, and therefore, it is not possible for them to receive any religious education. 

The basis of these views is that individuals with autism are not able to perceive abstract concepts, metaphorical discourses and symbolic expressions and are insufficient in socializing. The basic arguments of the previous studies are that religions include abstract and symbolic expressions and the participation to congregations is compulsory, which do not comply with the aforementioned characteristics of the autistic individuals. On the other hand, there are also several viewpoints in the literature arguing that autistic individuals are able to perceive religion, create their own image of God, and in case appropriate conditions are prepared, can worship. On the basis of these viewpoints, there is the idea that abstract religious concepts may be explained by using appropriate methods and techniques, and positive contributions may be made to autistic individuals by making use of the socializing sphere of the religion when appropriate conditions are prepared.

The different viewpoints on this subject in the literature may affect the legitimacy of the existence of religious courses that are prepared for autistic individuals; and may also be important in determining whether the subjects in the curriculum are suitable for individuals with autism. Based on this, in the present study, previous studies conducted on the possibility of religion and religious education in autistic individuals were examined, and the Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge curricula that were prepared for autistic individuals were evaluated in the light of the data reported by these studies. As a result of the study, it was determined that all of previous studies on religious education in autistic individuals were conducted with individuals who had religions other than Islam or with their families. However, the unique structure of the Islamic religion differs from other religions with the teaching and perception form of it. Based on this, it was decided that the current studies should also be conducted with children of Muslim families in Turkey. In addition, in the literature review, it was also determined in previous studies reporting positive results that practical subjects were focused on in religious education. It was also emphasized that individuals should participate to rituals in an applicable way, Allah should be perceived as a “being” that the individual should feel an attachment and pray to, and religious expressions should be used in everyday life. In this context, it was observed that the RCMK curriculum was based on cognitive acquisitions, and that there were very limited acquisitions on affective and psychomotor fields.

In this context, it is possible to argue that the current curriculum does not overlap with the relevant literature at an adequate level. Another interesting point about the RCMK is that the curriculum was prepared for students who had moderate-to-severe mental disabilities and autism spectrum disorder. However, in actual fact, autistic individuals with high-functioning may show different developmental characteristics that are specific to autism, and they may also have normal intelligence function or some superior abilities. The current curriculum does not address high-functioning autism, and there are no other separate curricula prepared for them. In this case, it may be recommended to conduct curriculum development studies for individuals with high-functioning autism. In addition, it was also determined as a result of the present study that the needs of the individuals with autism in terms of religion and religious education must be determined; and subjects, contents and learning-teaching activities must be prepared in line with these needs. 

It is considered that this study, which was conducted with the Literature Review and Content Analysis Method will shed light on the religious education issue in autistic individuals, which has emerged as a new field of application in our country; and will contribute to curriculum development studies for Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge courses.


PDF View

References

  • “Camide 8’i Otistik, 4’ü Engelli 12 Çocuğa Gönüllü Eğitim.” Diyanet Haber, 7 Ekim 2018. Erişim 5 Kasım 2018. https://www.diyanethaber.com.tr/gundem/camide-8-i-otistik-4-u-engelli-12cocuga-gonullu-egitim-h1857.html. google scholar
  • “Otistik Çocuklara Din Dersi Geldi.” Milliyet Gazetesi, 17.10.2010. Erişim 31 Ekim 2019, http:// www.milliyet.com.tr/otistik-cocuklara-din-dersi-geldi-gundem-1302823. google scholar
  • “Otizm Bir Hastalık Değil, Farklılıktır!.” Genç Dergisi, 14 Ekim 2013. Erişim 5 Kasım 2018, http:// gencdergisi.com/6354-otizm-bir-hastalik-degil-farkliliktir.html. google scholar
  • “Otizmli Çocukların Din Dersi ile İmtihanı.” İnternet Haber, 04 Aralık 2014. Erişim 31 Ekim 2018, http://www.internethaber.com/otizmli-cocuklarin-din-dersiyle-imtihani-614318h.htm. google scholar
  • “Otizmli Çocukların Kaliteli Eğitime İhtiyacı Var, Din Dersine Değil.” Bağımsız İletişim Ağı, 22.04.2013. Erişim 31 Ekim 2018. https://m.bianet.org/bianet/toplum/146051-otizmlicocuklarin-kaliteli-egitime-ihtiyaci-var-din-dersine-degil google scholar
  • “Otsimo Özel Çocuklar için Özel Eğitim.” Erişim 2 Ekim 2018, https://otsimo.com/tr/turkiyedeotizmli-cocuk-sayisi/ google scholar
  • Baker, Jed. The Autism Social Skills Picture Book Teaching Play, Emotion and Communication to Children with Autism. Arlington: Future Horizons, 2003. google scholar
  • Balçık, Behre ve Tekinarslan, İlknur. google scholar
  • “Otizmli Çocuklara Sosyal Beceri Öğretiminde Sosyal Öykülerin Etkilerinin İncelenmesi.” Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi 45, no. 1 (2012): 165-190. google scholar
  • Brereton, Avril ve Bruce Tonge. Pre-Schoolers with Autism An Education and Skills Training Programme for Parents. Londra: Jessica Kingsley Publishers, 2005. google scholar
  • Brezis, Rachel. “Autism as a Case for Neuroanthropology: Delineating the Role of Theory of Mind in Religious Development.” The Encultured Brain An Introduction to Neuroanthropology, editörler D. Lende ve G. Downey. Londra: The MIT Press, 2012. google scholar
  • Caldwell-Haris, Catherine, Caitlin Fox Muprhy, Tessa Velazquez, ve Patrick McNamara. “Religious Belief Systems of Persons with High Functioning Autism.” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society 33, no. 33 (2011): 3362-3366. google scholar
  • Darıca, Nilüfer, Ülkü Abidoğlu, ve Şebnem Gümüçcü. Otizm ve Otistik Çocuklar. İstanbul: Özgür Yay., 2017. google scholar
  • Demir, Rıdvan. “Özel Gereksinimli Öğrencilerin Din Eğitiminde Karşılaşılan Problemler ve Çözüm Önerileri.” II. Uluslarası Multidisipliner Çalışmaları Kongresi Bildiri Kitabı Ed.: Münir Yıldırım, 14-32. Ankara: Akademisyen Yayınevi, 2018. google scholar
  • Ekblad, Leif, ve Lluis Oviedo. “Religious Cognition Among Subjects with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Defective or Different?.” Clinical Neuropsychiatry 14, no. 4 (2017): 287-296. google scholar
  • Ekici, Barış. Otizm Hayatı Kolaylaştırma Kılavuzu. İstanbul: Ekinoks Yayın Grubu, 2018. google scholar
  • Erden, Gülsen, Serel Akdur, Esra Angın, Elçin Er, ve Büşra Aslan. Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu. Ankara: Aile ve Sosyal Politikalar Bakanlığı Yay., bs. yılı yok. google scholar
  • Goldstein, Penina, ve Melinda Ault. “Including Individuals with Disabilities in a Faith Community: A Framework and Example.” Journal of Disability & Religion 19, no. 1 (2015): 1-14. https://doi. org/10.1080/23312521.2015.992601. google scholar
  • Gün, Ayşegül. “İşitme Engelliler Ortaokulunda Okuyan Öğrencilerin Din Kültürü ve Ahlak Bilgisi Dersine Yönelik Tutum ve Değerlendirmeleri: Amasya ve Samsun Örneği.” Hitit Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 14, no. 28 (2015): 61-92. google scholar
  • Howell, Erica, ve Melinda Pierson. “Parents’ Perspectives on the Participation of Their Children with Autism in Sunday School.” Journal of Religion, Disability & Health 14, no. 2 (2010): 153166. https://doi.org/10.1080/15228961003622302. google scholar
  • Karaaslan, Özcan, ve Metehan Kutlu. “Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Olan Bireylerde Sosyal Öykü Kullanımı: Alanyazın Taraması.” Ç. Ü. Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi 19, no. 2 (2010): 1-17. google scholar
  • Karasu, Teceli, ve Eyüp Şimşek. “Zihinsel Engelli Kaynaştırma Öğrencilerine Yönelik Din Eğitimi: Yarı Deneysel Bir Çalışma Destek Eğitim Odası.” Cumhuriyet İlahiyat Dergisi 22, no. 3 (2018): 1579-1606. google scholar
  • Kaysılı, Bahar. “Zihin Kuramı: Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Olan ve Normal Gelişen Çocukların Performanslarının Karşılaştırılması.” Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Özel Eğitim Dergisi 14, no. 1 (2013): 83-103. google scholar
  • Korkmaz, Barış. Ah Şu Otizm. İstanbul: Aba Yayın, 2017. Kumaş, Ali. İslam Engelliler Hukuku. Ankara: Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı Yayınları, 2018. google scholar
  • Liu, Eleanor X., Erik Carter, Thomas L. Boehm, Naomi H. Annandale, ve Courtney E. Taylor. “In Their Own Words: The Place of Faith in the Lives of Young People With Autism and Intellectual Disability.” Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 52, no. 5 (2014): 388–404. https://doi. org/10.1352/1934-9556-52.5.388. google scholar
  • McGee, Diane. “Widening the Door of Inclusion for Children with Autism through Faith Communities.” Journal of Religion, Disability & Health 14, no. 3 (2010): 279-292. https://doi. org/10.1080/15228961003622351. google scholar
  • Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı. Otistik Çocukların Eğitiminde Aile El Kitabı. Ankara: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Yayınları, Basım yılı yok. google scholar
  • Norenzayan, Ara, Will M. Gervais, ve Kali H. Trzesniewski. “Mentalizing Deficits Constrain Belief in a Personal God.” PLoS ONE 7, no. 5. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036880, google scholar
  • Özdemir, Saadettin, ve Mustafa Başkonak. Özel Eğitimde Din Eğitimi El Kitabı. Ankara: Grafiker Yay., 2018. google scholar
  • Özel Öğretim Genel Müdürlüğü. Orta-Ağır Zihinsel Engeli ve Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Olan Öğrenciler için Din Kültürü ve Ahlak Bilgisi Dersi Öğretim Programı 1. Kademe (4. Sınıf). Ankara: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Yay. 2018. google scholar
  • Özel Öğretim Genel Müdürlüğü. Orta-Ağır Zihinsel Engeli ve Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Olan Öğrenciler için Din Kültürü ve Ahlak Bilgisi Dersi Öğretim Programı 2. Kademe (5, 6, 7 ve 8. Sınıf). Ankara: Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı Yay. 2018. google scholar
  • Quinn, Campion. 100 Soruda Otizm Aileler ve Uzmanlar için El Kitabı, çeviren. Ümit Şahbaz. Ankara: Anı Yayıncılık, 2017. google scholar
  • Rakap, Salih, Bünyamin Birkan, ve Sinan Kalkan. Türkiye’de Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu ve Özel Eğitim. İstanbul: Tohum Otizm Vakfı. 2017. google scholar
  • Reddish, Paul, Penny Tok, ve Radek Kundt. “Religious Cognition and Behaviour in Autism: The Role of Mentalizing.” The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 26, no. 2 (2016): 95-112. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2014.1003518. google scholar
  • Schaap-Jonker, Hanneke, Bram Sizoo, Jannine van Schothorst-van Roekel, ve Jozef Corveleyn. “Autism Spectrum Disorders and the Image of God as a Core Aspect of Religiousness.” International Journal for the Psychology of Religion 23, no. 2 (2013): 145-160. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/10508619.2012.688005. google scholar
  • Swanson, Susan. “Experiential Religion: A Faith Formation Process for Children with Autism.” Journal of Religion, Disability & Health 14, no. 3 (2010): 238-255. https://doi. org/10.1080/15228961003622393. google scholar
  • Tohum Otizm Vakfı. Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Şimdi Ne Olacak?. Ankara: Tohum Otizm Vakfı Yay., 2015. google scholar
  • Turhan, Ceyda, Sezgin Vuran. “Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğu Gösteren Çocuklara Sosyal Beceri Öğretiminde Sosyal Öykü ve Video Model Uygulamalarının Etkinlik ve Verimlilikleri.” International Journal of Early Childhood Special Education 7, no. 2 (2015): 294-315. google scholar
  • Üzümcü, Muzaffer. “Din Öğretiminde Özel Gereksinimli Öğrenciler için Uyarlamalar.” Turkish Studies 13, no. 11 (2018): 1437-1460. google scholar
  • Visuri, Ingela. “Could Everyone Talk to God? A Case Study on Asperger’s Syndrome.” Religion, and Spirituality, Journal of Religion, Disability & Health 16, 4 (2012): 352-378. https://doi.org /10.1080/15228967.2012.731888. google scholar
  • Walsh, Mary. “Autism, Culture, Church: From Disruption to Hope.” Journal of Disability & Religion 20, 4 (2016): 343-351. https://doi.org/10.1080/23312521.2016.1239916. google scholar
  • Yelçe, Ayşegül Domaniç. “Otistik Çocuklar Genelde Ne Herhangi Bir Dini Seçerler, Ne De Ateist Doğarlar.” Hürriyet Gazetesi, 24 Nisan 2014. Erişim 31 Ekim 2018, http://www.hurriyet.com.tr/ otistik-cocuklar-genelde-ne-herhangi-bir-dini-secerler-ne-de-ateist-dogarlar-23120939. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Bilecik, S. (2019). Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge Course Curriculum for Children with Autism: A Study on the Debates on the Possibility of Religion and Religious Education. darulfunun ilahiyat, 30(1), 79-109. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011


AMA

Bilecik S. Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge Course Curriculum for Children with Autism: A Study on the Debates on the Possibility of Religion and Religious Education. darulfunun ilahiyat. 2019;30(1):79-109. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011


ABNT

Bilecik, S. Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge Course Curriculum for Children with Autism: A Study on the Debates on the Possibility of Religion and Religious Education. darulfunun ilahiyat, [Publisher Location], v. 30, n. 1, p. 79-109, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Bilecik, Sümeyra,. 2019. “Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge Course Curriculum for Children with Autism: A Study on the Debates on the Possibility of Religion and Religious Education.” darulfunun ilahiyat 30, no. 1: 79-109. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011


Chicago: Humanities Style

Bilecik, Sümeyra,. Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge Course Curriculum for Children with Autism: A Study on the Debates on the Possibility of Religion and Religious Education.” darulfunun ilahiyat 30, no. 1 (Jan. 2022): 79-109. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011


Harvard: Australian Style

Bilecik, S 2019, 'Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge Course Curriculum for Children with Autism: A Study on the Debates on the Possibility of Religion and Religious Education', darulfunun ilahiyat, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 79-109, viewed 17 Jan. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Bilecik, S. (2019) ‘Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge Course Curriculum for Children with Autism: A Study on the Debates on the Possibility of Religion and Religious Education’, darulfunun ilahiyat, 30(1), pp. 79-109. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011 (17 Jan. 2022).


MLA

Bilecik, Sümeyra,. Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge Course Curriculum for Children with Autism: A Study on the Debates on the Possibility of Religion and Religious Education.” darulfunun ilahiyat, vol. 30, no. 1, 2019, pp. 79-109. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011


Vancouver

Bilecik S. Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge Course Curriculum for Children with Autism: A Study on the Debates on the Possibility of Religion and Religious Education. darulfunun ilahiyat [Internet]. 17 Jan. 2022 [cited 17 Jan. 2022];30(1):79-109. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011 doi: 10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011


ISNAD

Bilecik, Sümeyra. Religious Culture and Moral Knowledge Course Curriculum for Children with Autism: A Study on the Debates on the Possibility of Religion and Religious Education”. darulfunun ilahiyat 30/1 (Jan. 2022): 79-109. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2019.30.1.0011



TIMELINE


Submitted06.04.2019
Accepted28.05.2019
Published Online21.06.2019

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.