Research Article


DOI :10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866   IUP :10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866    Full Text (PDF)

Yunus Emre’s Use of Language for Spiritual Guidance and Tabligh

Reyhan Çorak

Yunus Emre, who lived in the 14th century, is one of Turkish literature’s foremost Sufi poets. With his Sufi style based on the Quran and Sunnah, he shaped Anatolians’ faith and wisdom, and with his effortless language, he created a Turkish literary tradition. In his poetry, he tried to explain the essence of being a perfect human, oneness of God, and the ways to reach the truth by interpreting previous Sufis’ thoughts and experiences within the frame of principles set up in the Quran-Al-Karim. When referring to his “words,” he sometimes elucidated that “words of Yunus are from poetry but in fact from the Book,” directly indicating that the resource of his “words” is the Quran-Al-Karim. Sometimes he would even indirectly say that “one who does not understand the meaning of the words thinks them my words,” referring to the original owner of his words. The style in his other poems follows this same theme. The Word/Kavl in the Quran-Al-Karim is generally described by features, such as “famous, soft, eloquent, right, generous, easy.” The style of utterance characterized here corresponds with his “word” verses, which both advise and preach. This study examines the meaning of “word” and the utterance style of Quran-Al-Karim. The poems of Yunus Emre are investigated based on the aforementioned descriptions, and the verses where the “word” is mentioned are classified and interpreted.

DOI :10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866   IUP :10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866    Full Text (PDF)

Yunus Emre’de Tebliğ ve İrşat Açısından Sözün Kullanımı

Reyhan Çorak

XIV. yüzyılda yaşayan Yunus Emre, Türk edebiyatının en mühim mutasavvıf şairlerinden birisidir. Temelini Kur’ân-ı Kerîm’den ve sünnetten alan tasavvufî üslubuyla Anadolu halkının imanını ve irfanını şekillendirmiş külfetsiz söyleyişiyle Türkçe’nin kullanıldığı edebî bir şiir dilinin oluşmasını sağlamıştır. Şiirlerinde insan-ı kâmil olabilmenin hususiyetlerini, tevhid akidesini ve hakikate ulaşabilmenin yollarını izah etmeye çalışmış, “söz”ünü kendinden önce yaşamış mutasavvıfların düşünce ve tecrübelerinden faydalanarak Kur’ân-ı Kerîm’in tayin ettiği kaideler içinde söylemiştir. “Söz”ün mahiyetine ilişkin beyitlerinde, kimi zaman, “Yunus’un sözi şi‘irden ammâ aslı(dur) kitâbdan” mısrasında olduğu gibi, “söz”ün kaynağının Kur’ân-ı Kerîm olduğunu doğrudan zikretmiş kimi zaman da “Söz aslını anlamayan sanur bu söz benden gelür” mısrasında görüldüğü gibi sözün asıl sahibine telmihde bulunmuştur. Ayrıca Yunus’un diğer şiirleri de kastedilen söz söyleme üslubuna uygun nazmedilmiştir. Kur’ân-ı Kerîm’de kavl/söz kelimesi, genel itibariyle, “mâruf, sedîd, belîğ, leyyin, kerîm ve meysûr” gibi vasıflarla nitelendirilmektedir. Bu sıfatlar kullanılarak tarif edilen söz söyleme biçimi, tespit edilebildiği kadarıyla, Yunus’un özellikle nasihat muhtevalı “söz” beyitleri ve tebliğ üslubu ile örtüşmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Kur’ân-ı Kerîm temel alınarak, “söz”ün mahiyeti ve söz söyleme üslubuna ilişkin bir değerlendirme yapılmış, bahsi geçen sıfatlar üzerinden, Yunus Emre’nin şiirleri incelenmiş ve içerisinde “söz” geçen beyitler tasnif edilip yorumlanmaya çalışılmıştır.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


The longest and the most prolific period of Turkish literature occurred under the influence of the Quran-el-Karim. Islam and dominant features of Islamic civilization became a key element in the content of literary works, and it shaped the styles of poets and writers. These rules were categorized as negative and positive in the relevant verses about the “utterance” in the Quran-el-Karim.

Positive description about the meaning of the Word is as follows:

Kavl-i hasen, which means eloquence in Arabic; kavl-i maruf, which means appropriate, positive, and legitimate; kavl-i sedid, which means solid and right; kavl-i tayyib, which means nice; kavl-i leyyin, which means soft, sweet, useful, and nice; kavl-i kerim, which means respectful; kavl-i beliğ, which means clear and effective; kavl-i meysur, which means facilitator; kavl-i sabit, which means firm. These classifications correspond with the implications for the Word in Yunus Emre’s poetry.

The Word concept, which has many definitions, is described as “a vocable made out of one or more syllables.” The “Word” is valuable because it ensures continuity of information and experiences and passing down the truth to next generations. The Word, which is the most important transmitting element, is a means to explain oneself with ethics, meaning, power, or to teach the essence of religion and morality. The Word, as it has been known since the earliest examples of Turkish literature, has been used, conforming to the essence of its description and being convenient with approbation, description, classification of the Quran-Al-Karim.

Kutadgu Bilig, which is one of the most important sources of Turkish culture history, includes information and merits for an ideal lifestyle and fair government organization and for human beings to live happily in this life and afterlife. Some parts relating to the Word give place to such expressions: “watch to your Words so that your head shall not get cut off, hold your tongue so that your tooth shall not be broken, if you know your word before you speak it would be knowledge; ignorant’s word turns back and troubles him, I didn’t gain from saying much words but saying words is not unnecessary.”

The first Turkish Dictionary, Dîvânü Lugāti’t-Türk, is an encyclopedia that includes information related to 11th century grammar, Turkish history, geography, mythology, folklore, and folk literature; opinions on medicine and treatment methods; and rich content relating to names, tribe, and place names. Proverbs and idioms related to Word and manner of speaking in the dictionary are “empty spoon does not suit mouth, just as plain words do not suit ears. You may sit on the table owing to your words.” 

Atebetü’l-Hakâyık is a moral and advisory book. In the work, Edib Ahmed Yükneki says “decency starts with holding tongue. The best word is the word of the man who thinks before speak. Right word is the treasure of mouth and tongue.”  

Words uttered during the first period of Turkish literature correspond to the things mentioned in the Quran-Al-Karim since it is the primary source. Yunus Emre’s hymns as continuation of this tradition comprise the same advice about the Word. Emre, who utters the truth and Oneness of God vigorously, changes his style to preaching to demonstrate the right path.

The essence of being a human is care and love in His creation. The love that makes up his shortcomings and makes him live a life that God wants is the reason for a human to exist. Emre mentioned this in all of his hymns through Turkish language in the best way. It is a conscious effort to write plain, sincere, and literarily powerful contexts. He examined the social and political society in which he lived and presented practical solutions to the problems. These solutions, according to the topic, sometimes are uttered with love and sometimes in an advisory manner. His manner of talking about language and statements and implications on “word” are primarily to provide information and advise the speaker about eloquence.

Regarding features of the classification of word in the Quran-Al-Karim and Yunus Emre’s verses about word, it is seen that advice in the same manner are versified. Advice that is essential for conducting guidance and religious preaching actions, when it is conducted timely and properly, would ensure agreement upon everything wherever a word is needed. Speaking of specific terms and concepts about any kind of topic, actually uttering words properly, prevents confusion, and uttering sweet and right things gently prevents hardness of heart. 


PDF View

References

  • Bilgin, A. Azmi. “Yunus Emre’de Sözün Gücü.” Vakıf İnsan Prof. Dr. Hikmet Özdemir Armağanı. (İstanbul, 2019), s. 215-224. google scholar
  • Bilgin, A. Azmi. “Yunus’un Sözü.” Türk Dili: Dil ve Edebiyat Dergisi. CXIX/819 (Ankara, 2020). s. 30-34. google scholar
  • Boynukalın, Mehmet. “Tebliğ.” DİA. C: 40 (İstanbul, 2011), s. 218-219. google scholar
  • Ceylan, Ömür. “Yunus Vardır Hep Yunus’tan İçeri” Yunus’ta “Söz”ün Derinliği.” X. Uluslararası Yunus Emre Sevgi Bilgi Şöleni Bildirileri (06-08 Mayıs 2010). (Eskişehir, 2011), s. 97-105. google scholar
  • Çakan, İsmail Lütfi. “Hitâbet ve İrşâd Açısından Kur’an-ı Kerim’de Söz Çeşitleri.” I. Din Şurası Tebliğ ve Müzakereleri. no. I (Ankara, 1995): s. 249-256. google scholar
  • Edip Ahmed b. Mahmud Yüknekî. Atebetü’l-Hakâyık. hzl: Reşit Rahmeti Arat. Ankara: TDK, 1992. google scholar
  • Görmez, Mehmet. “Kur’an-ı Kerim’in Işığında Söz ve Davranış Estetiği.” Diyanet: Aylık Dergi. no. 189 (Ankara 2006): s. 5-8. google scholar
  • Gülensoy, Tuncer. “Atebetü’l-Hakâyık.” DİA. C: 4 (İstanbul, 1991), s. 50. google scholar
  • Güneş, Mustafa. “Yunus Emre’nin Sözü.” X. Uluslararası Yunus Emre Sevgi Bilgi Şöleni Bildirileri (06-08 Mayıs 2010). (Eskişehir, 2011), s. 383-406. google scholar
  • Günvar, Ali. “Yunus İmdi Söz Yatından.” Sîreti Sûrette Görmek I-II, Çalıştay Tebliğler Kitabı [I-Kurmaca Dünyada Hz. Peygamber’i Yazmak; II-Modern Şiirde Hz. Peygamber’i Söylemek]. (İstanbul, 2018), s. 277-283. google scholar
  • Hacımüftüoğlu, Esra. “Kur’ân-ı Kerîm’de Mü’minlerin Ağız ve Söz Disiplini.” Atatürk Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi. no. 42 (Erzurum, 2014), s. 209-243. google scholar
  • İsmail Hakkı Bursevî, Niyâzî-i Mısrî, Şeyhzâde. Çıkdım Erik Dalına:Yunus Emre’nin Bir Şiirinin Üç Şerhi. İstanbul: Büyüyenay, 2017. google scholar
  • Kaçalin, Mustafa S.. “Dîvânü Lügâti’t-Türk.” DİA. C: 9 (İstanbul, 1994), s. 446-449. google scholar
  • Kaşgarlı Mahmud. Dîvânü Lügati’t-Türk Tercümesi. çev: Besim Atalay. Ankara: TDK, 1998, C: I-III. google scholar
  • Kavcar, Cahit. “Yunus’a Göre Sözün Değeri.” Uluslararası Yunus Emre Sempozyumu Bildirileri, 7-10 Ekim 1991. (Ankara, 1995), s. 443-452. google scholar
  • Koç, Ahmet. “Dînî İletişim Bağlamında Kur’an’da ‘Kavl’ (Söz) Çeşitleri.” Diyanet: İlmî Dergi. no. 44 (4) (Ankara 2008), s. 29-50. google scholar
  • Komisyon. “Kutadgu Bilig.” DİA. C: 26 (Ankara, 2002), s. 478-480. google scholar
  • Kubbealtı Lugatı. “Söz”, Erişim: 26.08.2021. http://lugatim.com/s/s%C3%B6z google scholar
  • es-Sâbûnî, Muhammed Ali. en-Nübüvve ve’l-enbiyâ. Dımeşk: Mektebetü’l-Gazâlî, 1405/1985. google scholar
  • Soysaldı, Mehmet. “Kur’an’da Tebliğ Yöntemleri ile İlgili Kavramların Analizi.” Diyanet: İlmi Dergi. no. 39 (3) (Ankara 2003), s. 43-64. google scholar
  • Tatçı, Mustafa. “Yunus Emre.” DİA. C: 43 (İstanbul, 2013), s. 600-606. google scholar
  • Tatçı, Mustafa. Yunus Emre Dîvânı. İstanbul: H Yayınları, 2020. google scholar
  • Topaloğlu, Bekir. “İrşad.” DİA. C: 22 (Ankara, 2020), s. 454-455. google scholar
  • Tunç, Semra. “Dede Ömer Rûşenî Dîvânı’nda Söz ve Konuşma Âdâbı ile İlgili Hususlar.” Türkiyat Araştırmaları Dergisi. (Konya, 2001). 10, s. 161-180. google scholar
  • Uğur, Mücteba. “Kur’ân-ı Kerîm ve Hadîslerde Hz. Peygamber’e Hitap Şekilleri.” Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı Dergisi. no. 13 (2) (Ankara ty.): s. 67-74. google scholar
  • Uzun, Mustafa İsmet. “Kur’ân (Edebiyat).” DİA. C: 24 (Ankara, 2002), s. 414-417. google scholar
  • Yûsuf Hâs Hâcib. Kutadgu Bilig, II Çeviri. hzl: Reşit Rahmeti Arat. Ankara: TTK, 1998. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Çorak, R. (2021). Yunus Emre’s Use of Language for Spiritual Guidance and Tabligh. darulfunun ilahiyat, 32(1), 67-87. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866


AMA

Çorak R. Yunus Emre’s Use of Language for Spiritual Guidance and Tabligh. darulfunun ilahiyat. 2021;32(1):67-87. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866


ABNT

Çorak, R. Yunus Emre’s Use of Language for Spiritual Guidance and Tabligh. darulfunun ilahiyat, [Publisher Location], v. 32, n. 1, p. 67-87, 2021.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Çorak, Reyhan,. 2021. “Yunus Emre’s Use of Language for Spiritual Guidance and Tabligh.” darulfunun ilahiyat 32, no. 1: 67-87. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866


Chicago: Humanities Style

Çorak, Reyhan,. Yunus Emre’s Use of Language for Spiritual Guidance and Tabligh.” darulfunun ilahiyat 32, no. 1 (Jun. 2022): 67-87. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866


Harvard: Australian Style

Çorak, R 2021, 'Yunus Emre’s Use of Language for Spiritual Guidance and Tabligh', darulfunun ilahiyat, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 67-87, viewed 30 Jun. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Çorak, R. (2021) ‘Yunus Emre’s Use of Language for Spiritual Guidance and Tabligh’, darulfunun ilahiyat, 32(1), pp. 67-87. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866 (30 Jun. 2022).


MLA

Çorak, Reyhan,. Yunus Emre’s Use of Language for Spiritual Guidance and Tabligh.” darulfunun ilahiyat, vol. 32, no. 1, 2021, pp. 67-87. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866


Vancouver

Çorak R. Yunus Emre’s Use of Language for Spiritual Guidance and Tabligh. darulfunun ilahiyat [Internet]. 30 Jun. 2022 [cited 30 Jun. 2022];32(1):67-87. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866 doi: 10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866


ISNAD

Çorak, Reyhan. Yunus Emre’s Use of Language for Spiritual Guidance and Tabligh”. darulfunun ilahiyat 32/1 (Jun. 2022): 67-87. https://doi.org/10.26650/di.2021.32.1023866



TIMELINE


Submitted15.11.2021
Accepted25.11.2021
Published Online29.12.2021

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.