Methods of Asking and Answering Questions in Jadal Works Written by Fiqh ScholarsAbdurrahim Bilik
After the death of the Prophet, Muslims began to investigate the legal rulings of Islam and apply them to the legal issues they faced. Consequently, different methods have emerged about how to approach the Qur’an and the Sunna, the main sources of Islam and Islamic tradition, and various views have emerged about the issues encountered. Exponents of these different views saw the need to test their conclusions in many contexts and compare them with other viewpoints. As a result, debates were held frequently on disputed issues, especially in the fields of Theology and Fiqh. These debates allowed both the systematic research steps to be followed to reach the truth to be revealed and opinions on disputed issues to be criticized and tested by the advocates of other views. Jadal works, which deal with the methods required to reveal the truth in debates also came to be seen as important by fiqh scholars and from the hijrī fourth century onwards, they began to compile works in this field. The obvious feature of these works is that they provide information on the manners and methods for carrying out debates and systematic research on controversial fiqh issues through legal examples while explaining some terms such as fard and binā'. In this article, the methods for asking and answering questions, which constitute one of the basic elements of the works of jadal written by fiqh scholars, will be examined through various prominent works, and the relevant terms will be explained. This study aims to reveal some of the basic principles that should be followed in systematic research and in debates among scholars using the question and answer method adopted by the fiqh scholars who compiled most jadal works.
Fıkıh Âlimleri Tarafından Telif Edilen Cedel Eserlerinde Soru Sorma ve Cevap Verme YöntemiAbdurrahim Bilik
Peygamber Efendimizin (sav) irtihalinden sonra Müslümanlar karşılaştıkları meselelerde İslam’ın hükmünün ne olduğunu araştırmaya başlamış ve bunun sonucunda İslam’ın temel kaynaklarına nasıl yaklaşılacağı konusunda farklı yöntemler ortaya çıkmıştır. Farklı görüş sahipleri, kendi ulaştıkları sonuçları birçok açıdan teste tabi tutma ve diğer görüşler ile karşılaştırma ihtiyacı hissetmiş ve bunun sonucunda sıklıkla münazaralar gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bu münazaralar aracılığı ile hem hakikate ulaşmak için takip edilmesi gereken ilmî araştırma adımları ortaya konulmuş hem de ihtilaf edilen meselelerde bir görüş diğer görüş müntesipleri tarafından eleştiriye tabi tutularak sınanma imkânına kavuşmuştur. Münazaralarda hakikatin ortaya çıkarılabilmesi için uyulması gereken yöntemleri ele alan cedel alanında, hicri IV. asırdan itibaren fıkıh âlimleri eserler telif etmeye başlamıştır. Bu eserlerin bariz özelliği, ilmî bir araştırmanın nasıl gerçekleşmesi gerektiğinin yöntemini fıkhî örnekler üzerinden ortaya koyması ve farz ve bina gibi bazı ıstılahları açıklaması olmuştur. Bu makalede fıkıh âlimleri tarafından kaleme alınan cedel eserlerinin temel bölümlerinden birini oluşturan soru sorma ve cevap verme âdabı, öne çıkan eserler üzerinden ortaya konulmaya ve ilgili ıstılahlar açıklanmaya çalışılacaktır. Böylelikle hem ilmî araştırmalarda hem de münazaralarda uyulması gereken temel ilkelerin bir kısmının ortaya konulması amaçlanmaktadır.
After the death of the Prophet, Muslims began to investigate the existing legal rulings of Islam and apply them to the new legal issues they faced. As this process developed, different methods emerged about how to approach the Qur’an and the Sunna, the main sources of Islam. Different views have emerged about the issues encountered. Proponents of these different views saw the need to test their conclusions in many respects and compare them with other views. As a result, debates were frequently held on disputed issues, especially in the fields of Theology and Fiqh. These debates allowed both the systematic research steps to be followed to reach the truth, to be revealed, and opinions on disputed issues to be criticized and tested by the advocates of other opinions. Jadal works, which deal with the methods that should be followed to reveal the truth in debates, began to be seen as important by fiqh scholars at the same time. From the hijrī fourth century onward, these scholars began to compile works in this field. The most prominent feature of these works is that they provide information on the manners and methods of carrying out debates and scientific research on controversial fiqh issues through legal examples while explaining some terms such as farḍ and bināʾ.
In this article, the author will reveal the manner of asking and answering questions, which constitutes one of the central facets of the works of jadal written by fiqh scholars, through the notable works of such scholars and the relevant terms explained. This study aims to reveal some of the basic principles that should be followed both in scientific research and in debates between scholars through the question and answer method developed by fiqh scholars.
In order to achieve this aim, this paper will first consider the where of the question and answer method mentioned in the works of Jadal. It will examine works compiled by the fiqh scholars that revealed the method. It will be demonstrated that the question and the answer, together with relevant evidences and objections, were the main subjects of Jadal.
In these Jadal works, the related concepts/terms are explained first, and then the questionanswer method is put forward. In addition, in some Jadal works, the basic Interrogatives are explained as similar to those in logic works. Finally, under the heading of evidences and objections, the works illustrate how the method can be adapted to the fiqh proofs through examples.
Later in this article, Shirazi and Bacî were taken to the center and what the parts of the question were and which questions should be asked in what order were revealed.
Accordingly, the questions that needed to be asked in discussions were as follows: asking whether the person being questioned had an opinion on the relevant issue; asking, if so, the nature of the opinion; asking for the evidence supporting the opinion; asking how the relevant evidence explains the relevant opinion; and testing the accuracy of the evidence by questioning the aspects of the evidence that are more likely to be criticized.
The last question to be considered is the accuracy of the evidence by asking the following questions: questions asked to test whether the evidence is presented correctly and completely, questions regarding the aspects of the evidence thought to be wrong, questions about how the evidence can be reconciled with the basic principles believed to be contradictory, questions asked with the claim that the respondent is inconsistent in handling the evidence put forward by the respondent, and finally, questions about how to explain the evidence presented by the claimant. The different evidence supporting different claims is listed. For any item of evidence to be accepted as true, it must be able to produce answers to these basic questions.
Later in this article, possible mistakes emerged in the questions revealed based on Ghazali’s relevant explanations. Accordingly, the errors in any given question may be caused by one or more of the following: the person asking the question, the question itself, the person being questioned, and the subject sought to be understood. Based on these, the issue considered in the discussion should not be one of the commonly known topics. Nor should the question be asked ambiguously or in combination with other issues. The person to whom the question is addressed should be competent to respond to the relevant issue, and the question asked should not be one of the issues that cannot be known.
After discussing the subjects of questions and answers, two issues that are particularly relevant to the answer are discussed: fard and bināʾ. In the relevant jadal works, fard is explained as meaning answering a general question by explaining only one of the issues covered by the question, or as presenting evidence for only one of the issues covered by the answer after giving a general answer. The question of whether it is legitimate to make a fard while answering was in the works of Jadal, and different answers have been put forward. Bināʾ, which also means to explain an issue from the basis of procedural principles or from another issue, is used to explain the other issues covered by the question aside from the specific answer or specific evidence after giving a specific answer regarding the fard in the relevant Jadal works. In the answer, different opinions have been put forward based on different reasoning regarding whether it is necessary for the person who makes the “fard” to make “bināʾ “ or not.
The question-answer methods explained in Jadal’s works not only reveal the rules of how systematic debates should be conducted, but also contain rules that should be taken into account to reach correct conclusions about aspects of the issue examined during systematic research and how to test the answers found. In this respect, it is possible to say that the principles and methods explained in the works of Jadal should be taken into account, especially in research methods in the field of social sciences.
On the other hand, it is absolutely necessary to know the rules laid down in the works of Jadal in order to understand the works compiled in the field of ilmu’l-khilaf and the relevant references to the concept of jadal in the works of Fiqh and the Theology.