Research Article


DOI :10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770   IUP :10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770    Full Text (PDF)

Let Your Will be in Your Hand if I Don’t Come: The Provisions of Tafwīz al-Talaq Reflected in Fatwas in Ottoman Family Law and Its Function as an Intra-Madhhab Remedy

Muharrem Midilli

This study focuses on the provisions of the tafwīz al-talaq as reflected in the fatwas and the function of the tafwīz al-talaq as a remedy within the madhhab in Ottoman family law. It aims to demonstrate the practical forms of the tafwīz al-talaq, which is the husband’s delegation of the right to divorce his wife, and describe the functions it performed as an intra-madhhab way of resolving some family law problems. The strict implementation of Ottoman family law by the Hanafi madhhab has caused some problems in some cases, such as the absence of the husband, domestic violence, and polygamy. Numerous fatwas in the collections indicate that the delegation of the right to divorce serves to solve these problems within the madhhab. In the Ottoman fatwas, the phrase “Let your will be in your hand” is generally used to delegate the right to divorce. Muftis emphasize that the wife should accept and exercise the authority on time using appropriate words so that the delegated divorce leads to the separation. The most common problem that the delegation of the right to divorce solves within the boundaries of the madhhab is the absence of the husband. Many husbands who are about to go on a journey tell their wives that if they don’t come back by the promised time, their wives may exercise the right to divorce. In some cases, women require that the right to divorce be delegated to them to prevent their husbands from remarrying. In other instances, the right to divorce is requested by women who are worried about marital violence. This study, which uses the fatwas as the main data source, will improve and complement the extant doctrinal studies in the literature on historical family law practices.

DOI :10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770   IUP :10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770    Full Text (PDF)

Gelmezsem İrâdetin Elinde Olsun: Osmanlı Aile Hukukunda Tefvîz-i Talâkın Fetvalara Yansıyan Hükümleri ve Mezhep-içi Çözüm Yolu Olarak İşlevi

Muharrem Midilli

Bu çalışma Osmanlı aile hukukunda tefvîz-i talâkın fetvalara yansıyan hükümlerine ve mezhep içi çözüm yolu olarak işlevine odaklanmaktadır. Amaç kocanın boşama yetkisini karısına devretmesi anlamına gelen tefvîz-i talâkın gerçek hukuki hayattaki görünümlerini tasvir etmek ve bazı aile hukuku sorunlarının giderilmesinde mezhep içi bir yol olarak icra ettiği fonksiyonu göstermektir. Osmanlı aile hukukunun Hanefî mezhebi tarafından sıkı bir şekilde kontrol edilmesi kocanın gaipliği, evlilik içi şiddet ve çok eşlilik gibi durumlarda bazı sorunların yaşanmasına neden olmuştur. Mecmularda yer alan pek çok fetva tefvîz-i talâkın bu sorunların mezhep içinde giderilmesine hizmet ettiğini göstermektedir. Osmanlı fetvalarında boşama yetkisini devretmek üzere genellikle “İrâdetin elinde olsun” ifadesi kullanılır. Müftüler devredilen yetkinin boşama hükmü meydana getirmesi için kabulün zamanında ve uygun lafızlarla yapılmasını önemle vurgularlar. Yetki devrinin mezhep sınırları içinde halletmek üzere en fazla yöneldiği sorun kocanın gaipliğidir. Yolculuğa çıkmak üzere olan birçok kişi karısına söz verdiği süreye kadar dönmezse boşama yetkisini kullanabileceğini söyler. Bazı kadınlar kocalarının nikâhtan sonra yeni bir eş almasına mani olmak için boşama yetkisinin kendilerine tevdi edilmesini şart koşar. Boşama yetkisi evlilik içi şiddete uğrama endişesi bulunan kadınlar tarafından da talep edilir. Temel veri kaynağı olarak müftülere bizzat sorulmuş fetvaları kullanan bu çalışmanın literatürdeki mevcut doktrin incelemelerini tarihsel hukuk uygulamaları yönünden geliştireceği ve tamamlayacağı ümit edilmektedir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


It is widely known that Ottoman legal life was largely controlled by the Hanafi madhhab. Fatwas and court decisions indicate that the madhhab was practiced very strictly since the second half of the 16th century in Anatolia and Rumelia. This strict practice has caused some problems in various fields of law, especially in family law. The Ottoman woman who does not have the right to divorce and has very limited power to file a divorce case, suffered from adverse marital situations, such as absence of the husband and failure to provide alimony, the husband being too ill to fullfil the requirements of the marriage, violence perpetrated by the husband on the wife, and the husband remarrying. At the beginning of the 20th century, there were attempts to resolve these problems by implementing the opinions of other madhhabs. However, in the Hanafi legal tradition, there were already some remedies to solve these problems. The tafwīz al-talaq, which is the delegation by the husband of the right to divorce to his wife, is one of the most widely used remedies. This study focuses on the provisions on tafwīz al-talaq as reflected in the fatwas and the performance of the tafwīz al-talaq as a legal remedy within the madhhab. This study aims to demonstrate the practical forms of the tafwīz al-talaq and to describe its functions as an intra-madhhab way of resolving some family law problems. Numerous fatwas in the collections indicate that the tafwīz al-talaq has practical importance in the daily legal life. The most common form for the delegation of the right to divorce that is used in the Ottoman fatwas is al-amr bi al-yad. This form is often expressed as “İradetin elinde olsun,” which means “Let your will be in your hand.” The Ottoman muftis state that the husband cannot withdraw the right to divorce that he delegates, and the wife who exercise the right to divorce can receive her dowry. The woman has no obligation to exercise the authority to divorce transferred to her. Certainly, in many fatwas, it is noticed that the woman does not exercise her authority to divorce. In the fatwas, it is stated that the women should exercise of the authority to divorce with the suitable formulas in terms of quality and quantity. A constant reminder is that the power to divorce should be exercised timely. These constant reminders indicate that there are common problems in the exercise of the power of the delegated divorce.

Many fatwas in the collections indicate that tafwīz al-talaq has been used as a solution in some family law problems arising from the strict practice of the Hanafi madhhab. The most common problem that fatwas tend to solve is the absence of the husband. In the Hanafi/ Ottoman family law, the husband’s absence or failure to provide alimony is not a ground for divorce. The woman can apply to the court for alimony. However, she cannot remarry unless she receives news of the death her husband or a divorce. Women were able to apply to Shāfii judges for divorce owing to the absence of alimony but only until the first half of the 16th century. Morever, the divorce oath played an important role in the elimination of grievances. The husband who was about to go on a journey, took an oath that his wife would be divorced if he did not come back until a certain time. If the deadline had arrived and the husband had not returned, his wife was considered divorced. In addition, numerous fatwas in the collections mention that some husbands who were about to go on a journey transferred the right to divorce to their wives, contingent on not returning within a certain period. When the period expires and the husband had not returned, the wife may exercise the right to divorce. However, in many fatwas, it is observed that the delegations become null and void owing to the inability of the women to timely exercise their right to divorce. In the Ottoman family law, some women who are worried about their husbands remarrying request the power to divorce even before the marriage. The woman who obtains such power may exercise it if her husband enters into a new marriage. In some instances, the delegation of the authority to divorce is requested by women who are concerned about marital violence. This request is not surprising in a legal system that does not consider marital violence as a ground for divorce. Further, some women request the right to divorce before the marriage, with a provision that they may exercise it if they are not happy with the marriage or whenever they wish. In such cases, the already fragile marital union becomes twice as fragile owing to the one-sided, groundless, and the verbal right of divorce given by the husband to his wife. 


PDF View

References

  • Abdurrahman Efendi b. Hacı Mustafa. Sefînetü’l-fetâvâ. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Kütüphanesi, Yazma Eserler, nr. 1330, 1, vr. 0b-410b. google scholar
  • Abdüsselâm Efendi. Fetâvâ-yı Abdüsselâm. Kütahya Tavşanlı Zeytinoğlu İlçe Halk Kütüphanesi, nr. 154, vr. 0b-399b. google scholar
  • Acar, Halil İbrahim. İslâm Aile Hukuku. İstanbul: Ensar Yayınları, 2017. google scholar
  • Ali Efendi, Çatalcalı. Fetâvâ-yı Ali Efendi. İstanbul: Matbaa-i Âmire, 1311. google scholar
  • Ankaravî, Süleyman b. Veli. Tercümetü’l-Gurer ve’d-Dürer. İstanbul: Dârü’t-Tıbâati’l-Âmire, 2. Basım, 1292. google scholar
  • Ansay, Sabri Şakir. “Aile Hukuku”, Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi 1/2-3 (1952), 20-32. google scholar
  • Aydın, Mehmet Akif. Osmanlı Aile Hukuku. İstanbul: Klasik Yayınları, 1. Basım, 2017. google scholar
  • Bakkaloğlu, Abdussamet. “Tefvîz”. Türkiye Diyanet Vakfı İslam Ansiklopedisi. 40/310-311. Ankara: TDV Yayınları, 2011. google scholar
  • Bezzâzî, Hâfızüddin Muhammed b. Muhammed. el-Fetâva’l-Bezzâziyye. (el-Fetâva’l-Hindiyye kenarında). Bulak: el-Matbaatü’l-Kübra el-Emîriyye, 2. Basım, 1310. google scholar
  • Bilmen, Ömer Nasuhi. Hukuk-i İslâmiyye ve Istılahât-ı Fıkhıyye Kamusu. İstanbul: Bilmen Yayınevi, 1976. google scholar
  • Bozanzâde. Fetâvâ-yı Ebussuûd Efendi. İstanbul: Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Şehid Ali Paşa, nr. 1028, vr. 0b-360a. google scholar
  • Boyabâdî, Sağır Mehmed Efendi. Mecmûatü’l-fetâvâ. İstanbul: Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Şehid Ali Paşa, nr. 1067, vr. 0b-481b. google scholar
  • Buhari, İftiharüddin Tâhir b. Ahmed. Hulâsatü’l-Fetâva. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi, Yazma Eserler, nr. 0673, vr. 0b-332b. google scholar
  • Cebeci, İsmail. Ceride-i İlmiyye Fetvaları. İstanbul: Klasik Yayınları, 2009. google scholar
  • Çeşmizâde, Efendizâde Mehmed Hâlis. Hulâsatü’l-ecvibe. İstanbul: Derviş Matbaası, 1325. google scholar
  • Çorlulu Sinan b. Ramazan, Mecmûatü’l-fetâvâ, Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı Kütüphanesi, Yazma Eserler, nr. 3407, vr. 1b-338a. google scholar
  • Dalgın, Nihat. İslâm Hukukunda Boşama Yetkisi. İstanbul: MÜ İlahiyat Fakültesi Vakfı Yayınları, 2001. google scholar
  • Debbağzâde Numân Efendi. Fetâva’n-Nu‘mâniyye. İstanbul: Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Esad Efendi, nr. 1080, vr. 1b-407a. google scholar
  • Esad Efendi, Hocazâde. Fetâvâ-yı Esad Efendi, İstanbul: İstanbul Müftülüğü, nr. 157, I-II, vr. 273 + 98. (Makalede Şeyhülislam’ın aynı mecmuada bulunan birinci şeyhülislamlık dönemine ait fetvalar I, ikinci dönemine ait fetvalar II olarak gösterilmiştir.) google scholar
  • Esad Efendi, Hocazâde. Fetâvâ-yı Müntehabe. İstanbul: Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Kasidecizâde, nr. 277, vr. 1b-184a. google scholar
  • Fetâvâ-yı Yapışdırma, İstanbul: Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Fatih, nr. 2419, vr. 1b-84a. google scholar
  • Gürkan, Menderes. “İslâm Aile Hukukunda Karıya Tanınan Boşama Yetkisi: Tefvîzü’t-Talâk”, İslâm Hukuku Araştırmaları Dergisi 18 (2011): 275-310. google scholar
  • Halebî, İbrahim b. Muhammed. Mülteka’l-ebhur. thk. Vehbi Süleyman Gavecî, Dımaşk: Dârü’l-Beyrûtî, 2. Basım, 2005. google scholar
  • İbn Âbidîn, Muhammed Emin b. Ömer. Reddü’l-Muhtâr ale’d-Dürri’l-Muhtar şerhi Tenvîri’l-Ebsar. thk. Adil Ahmed Abdülmevcûd, Ali Muhammed Muavvaz. Riyad: Dârü Âlemi’l-Kütüb, 2004. google scholar
  • İbn Nüceym, Zeynüddin Zeyd b. İbrahim. el-Bahrü’r-râik şerhu Kenzi’d-dekâik. Beyrut: Şirketü Alâüddin, t.y. İbnü’l-Hümâm, Kemâleddin Muhammed b. Abdülvâhid. Şerhu Fethü’l-kadîr. Dârü’l-Kütübi’l-İlmiyye, Beyrut, 2003. google scholar
  • Ebû Zehre, Ahmed b. Muhammed Mustafa. el-Ahvâlü’ş-şahsiyye. Kahire, Dârü’l-Fikri’l-Arabî, 3. Basım, 1957. google scholar
  • Karaçelebizâde Abdülaziz Efendi. Fetâvâ-yı Karaçelebizâde. İstanbul: Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Şehid Ali Paşa, nr. 1048, vr. 1b-169b. google scholar
  • Karahisârî, Mehmed. Fetâvâ-yı Karahisârî. İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi Merkez Kütüphanesi, Nadir Eserler-Türkçe, nr. 924, vr. 6b-285b. google scholar
  • Kâsânî, Alâüdddin Ebû Bekir b. Mes‘ûd. Bedâi‘ü’s-sanâi‘ fî tertîbi’ş-şerâi‘. Beyrut: Darü’l-Kütübi’l-İlmiyye, 1986. google scholar
  • Kayserî, Hasan b. Ali, Semhatü’l-ebrâr fî beyân-i gumûzi’l-esrâr. İsanbul: İstanbul Müftülüğü Kütüphanesi, nr. 384, vr. 1b-575a. google scholar
  • Kitâb-ı Fetâva’s-Sivâsiyye. Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Kılıç Ali Paşa, nr, 487, vr. 0b-174b. google scholar
  • Manisalı Evliyazâde Ali b. İbrahim. Melceü’l-müftîn fî vâkıâti’l-müsteftîn. İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi Merkez Kütüphanesi, Nadir Eserler-Türkçe, nr. 3218, vr. 1b-427a. google scholar
  • Mecmûatü’l-fevâid ve’l-fetâvâ. İstanbul: Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Esad Efendi, nr. 914, vr. 1b-383a. google scholar
  • Menteşzâde, Abdürrahim Efendi. Fetâvâ-yı Abdürrahîm. İstanbul: Dârü’t-Tıbâati’l-Ma‘mûre, 1243. google scholar
  • Mevkûfatî Mehmed Efendi. Mülteka Tercümesi Mevkûfât. Dersaadet: Matbaa-i Osmaniyye, 1312. google scholar
  • Mevlânâ Molla Arab, Fetâvâ-yı Mevlânâ Arab. Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Bağdatlı Vehbi, nr. 585, vr. 1b-107b. google scholar
  • Mevlânâ Pîrî Efendi, Süverü’l-fetâvâ. Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Amcazâde Hüseyin Paşa, nr. 243, vr. 1b-245a. google scholar
  • Midilli, Muharrem. “Osmanlı Toplumunda Evlilik İçi Şiddetin Fetvalara Yansıyan Suretleri ve Müftülerin Lazım Gördüğü Müeyyideler”, İslâm Hukuku Araştırmaları Dergisi 38 (2021): 129-159. google scholar
  • Minkârîzâde, Yahyâ Efendi. Fetâvâ-yı Minkârîzâde. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Kütüphanesi, Yazma Eserler, nr. 0854, vr. 1b-431a. google scholar
  • Serahsî, Ebu Bekr Muhammed b. Ahmed. el-Mebsût. Beyrut: Dârü’l-Ma‘rife, t.y. google scholar
  • Seyyid Ahmed - Hâfız Mehmed b. Ahmed el-Gedûsî. Netîcetü’l-Fetâva. İstanbul Üniversitesi Merkez Kütüphanesi, Nadir Eserler-Türkçe, nr. 1267, vr. 1b-208b. google scholar
  • Seyyid Feyzullah Efendi. Fetâvâ-yı Feyziyye mea’n-nukûl. İstanbul: Dârü’t-Tıbâati’l-Âmire, 1266. google scholar
  • Seyyid İbrahim Edhem b. Kadızade Muhammed Ârif. Nehriyyetü’l-fetâvâ. İstanbul Üniversitesi Merkez Kütüphanesi, Nadir Eserler-Türkçe, nr. 1590, vr. 0b-307a. google scholar
  • Şeyhîzâde, Damad Abdurrahman Gelibolulu. Mecmau’l-enhur fi şerhi Mülteka’l-ebhur. Beyrut: Dârü’l-Kütübi’l-İlmiyye, 2016. google scholar
  • Seydişehrî, Mahmud Esad. Kitâb-ı nikâh ve talâk. Matbaa-i Hayriyye, Dersaadet, 1326-1328. google scholar
  • Veli b. Yûsuf (Yegan) el-İskilibî, Mecmau’l-fetâvâ, Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Çelebi Abdullah, nr. 151, vr. 1b-422b. google scholar
  • Velvâlicî, Ebü’l-Feth Zahirüddin Abdürreşîd b. Ebî Hanîfe. el-Fetâva’l-Velvâliciyye. thk. Mikdad b. Musa Firyevî, Beyrut: Dârü’l-Kütübi’l-İlmiyye, 2003. google scholar
  • Yahyâ Efendi, Zekeriyyâzâde. Fetâvâ-yı Yahyâ Efendi. İstanbul: Süleymaniye Kütüphanesi, Serez, nr. 1116, vr. 0b-290b. google scholar
  • Yenişehirli. Abdullah b. Mehmed, Behcetü’l-fetâvâ. İstanbul: İstanbul Üniversitesi Merkez Kütüphanesi, Nadir Eserler-Türkçe, nr. 1583, vr. 1b-310b. google scholar
  • Zeylaî, Fahrüddîn Osman b. Ali. Tebyînü’l-hakâik şerhu Kenzi’d-dekâik. Bulak: el-Matbaatü’l-Kübrâ el-Emîriyye, 1. Basım, 1313. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Midilli, M. (2022). Let Your Will be in Your Hand if I Don’t Come: The Provisions of Tafwīz al-Talaq Reflected in Fatwas in Ottoman Family Law and Its Function as an Intra-Madhhab Remedy. Journal of Islamic Review, 12(1), 1-27. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770


AMA

Midilli M. Let Your Will be in Your Hand if I Don’t Come: The Provisions of Tafwīz al-Talaq Reflected in Fatwas in Ottoman Family Law and Its Function as an Intra-Madhhab Remedy. Journal of Islamic Review. 2022;12(1):1-27. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770


ABNT

Midilli, M. Let Your Will be in Your Hand if I Don’t Come: The Provisions of Tafwīz al-Talaq Reflected in Fatwas in Ottoman Family Law and Its Function as an Intra-Madhhab Remedy. Journal of Islamic Review, [Publisher Location], v. 12, n. 1, p. 1-27, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Midilli, Muharrem,. 2022. “Let Your Will be in Your Hand if I Don’t Come: The Provisions of Tafwīz al-Talaq Reflected in Fatwas in Ottoman Family Law and Its Function as an Intra-Madhhab Remedy.” Journal of Islamic Review 12, no. 1: 1-27. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770


Chicago: Humanities Style

Midilli, Muharrem,. Let Your Will be in Your Hand if I Don’t Come: The Provisions of Tafwīz al-Talaq Reflected in Fatwas in Ottoman Family Law and Its Function as an Intra-Madhhab Remedy.” Journal of Islamic Review 12, no. 1 (Oct. 2022): 1-27. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770


Harvard: Australian Style

Midilli, M 2022, 'Let Your Will be in Your Hand if I Don’t Come: The Provisions of Tafwīz al-Talaq Reflected in Fatwas in Ottoman Family Law and Its Function as an Intra-Madhhab Remedy', Journal of Islamic Review, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1-27, viewed 2 Oct. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Midilli, M. (2022) ‘Let Your Will be in Your Hand if I Don’t Come: The Provisions of Tafwīz al-Talaq Reflected in Fatwas in Ottoman Family Law and Its Function as an Intra-Madhhab Remedy’, Journal of Islamic Review, 12(1), pp. 1-27. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770 (2 Oct. 2022).


MLA

Midilli, Muharrem,. Let Your Will be in Your Hand if I Don’t Come: The Provisions of Tafwīz al-Talaq Reflected in Fatwas in Ottoman Family Law and Its Function as an Intra-Madhhab Remedy.” Journal of Islamic Review, vol. 12, no. 1, 2022, pp. 1-27. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770


Vancouver

Midilli M. Let Your Will be in Your Hand if I Don’t Come: The Provisions of Tafwīz al-Talaq Reflected in Fatwas in Ottoman Family Law and Its Function as an Intra-Madhhab Remedy. Journal of Islamic Review [Internet]. 2 Oct. 2022 [cited 2 Oct. 2022];12(1):1-27. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770 doi: 10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770


ISNAD

Midilli, Muharrem. Let Your Will be in Your Hand if I Don’t Come: The Provisions of Tafwīz al-Talaq Reflected in Fatwas in Ottoman Family Law and Its Function as an Intra-Madhhab Remedy”. Journal of Islamic Review 12/1 (Oct. 2022): 1-27. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2022.1039770



TIMELINE


Submitted22.12.2021
Accepted14.02.2022
Published Online30.03.2022

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.