Research Article


DOI :10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738   IUP :10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738    Full Text (PDF)

Devoted to the Master: The Case of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr as an Example of Patronage Among Scholars During the Mamluk Dynasty

Halit Özkan

In this study, I examine the use and function of the patronage system by and among scholars during the Mamluk dynasty with the example of Ibn Hajar al-Asqalānī’s famous disciple and lifelong devotee Ibn Khidr al-Qusūrī. Based on tabaqāt, biographic and autobiographic sources of the period, as well as the extant manuscripts of Ibn Hajar’s works that were copied during his lifetime, I examine how Ibn Khidr, who was a very important figure of the time in Ibn Hajar’s circle but has now been practically forgotten, helped his master in various matters and was protected by his master in return. My aim is to show that Ibn Hajar was a very successful organizer who was thus able to achieve great accomplishments both in his administrative and scholarly activities by how he perfectly operated the patronage and substitution system, while at the same time making an appraisal of Ibn Khidr and his hardly recognized efforts.

DOI :10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738   IUP :10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738    Full Text (PDF)

Hocaya Adanmış Bir Ömür: İbn Hacer ve İbn Hızır Bağlamında Memlüklerde Ulema Arası Himaye İlişkileri

Halit Özkan

Bu çalışmada Memlükler döneminde ulema arasındaki himaye ilişkilerini İbn Hacer el-Askalânî ile başlıca talebelerinden olup kendisini ona adayan İbn Hızır el-Kusûrî örneği üzerinden inceliyorum. Birçok vasfı ve özellikle metin okuyuculuğu (kârîlik) sebebiyle yaşadığı dönemde çok önemli bir figür olduğu hâlde bugün neredeyse unutulmuş olan İbn Hızır’ın, yirmi yaşına girmek üzereyken tanışıp halkasına katıldığı hocası İbn Hacer’e kırk yıl boyunca nasıl mülazemet ettiğini, çeşitli konularda ona nasıl yardımcı olduğunu ve onun tarafından nasıl kollanıp gözetildiğini, dönemin tabakat, biyografi ve otobiyografi kaynaklarının yanı sıra İbn Hacer’e ait eserlerin her iki ismin de hayatta olduğu dönemde, yani 852/1449 öncesinde istinsah edilmiş nüshalarını esas almak suretiyle inceliyorum. Amacım bir yandan Memlük ilmî hayatının zirve isimlerinden olan İbn Hacer’in çok önemli bir organizatör olduğunu gerek idari gerek ilmî faaliyetlerinde himaye ilişkilerini ve niyabet sistemini mükemmel biçimde işleterek büyük işler başarabildiğini göstermek bir yandan da bu sistemin önemli bir parçası olmasına rağmen unutulup giden İbn Hızır’ı tanıtıp hak ettiği değeri kendisine vermektir.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


In this study, I examine the use and function of the patronage system by and among scholars during the Mamluk dynasty through the example of Ibn Hajar al-Asqalānī and Ibn Khidr al-Qusūrī, one of his main disciples and lifelong devotees. Based on tabaqāt, biographic and autobiographic sources of the period, as well as the extant manuscripts of Ibn Hajar’s works that were copied during his lifetime, I examine how Ibn Khidr, who was a very important figure of the time in Ibn Hajar’s circle but who has been practically forgotten today, helped his master in various matters and was protected by his master in return. My aim is to show that Ibn Hajar was a very successful organizer who was thus able to achieve great accomplishments both in his administrative and scholarly activities through his perfect operation of the patronage and substitution system, while at the same time making an appraisal of Ibn Khidr and his hardly recognized efforts.

When addressing patronage relations in scholarly life during the Mamluk dynasty (648- 923/1250-1517), the primary focus is on wealthy individuals such as sultans, amirs, and prominent merchants who supported the ulama by establishing foundations, providing direct financial support, or appointing the ulama to certain positions. At first glance, the members of the ulama protecting one another does not attract as much attention, despite the fact that this was an important type of patronage that ensured the continuation of scholarly activities. However, when the right environment and the right people are present, the ulama’s protection of one another was a type of relationship that could yield more beneficial results than those with other influential people.

With the aim of examining the various dimensions of patronage relations among scholars during the Mamluk dynasty through an example, this study focuses on the relationship between Ibn Hajar al-Asqalanī (d. 852/1449), probably the most famous figure of the period, and Ibn Khidr al-Qusūrī (d. 852/1448), one of his foremost students and lifelong devotee. As will be explained in detail below, Ibn Khidr was a very important figure of his time, despite now being practically unknown, and he is not mentioned as much as he deserves. Although his name has been brought up in some contemporary studies on Ibn Hajar and Fath al-Bārī and his place in the eyes of his teacher has been pointed out, because Ibn Khidr was not the focus of these studies, his person and service to Ibn Hajar cannot be said to have been sufficiently scrutinized. My aim is not to make a reassessment of the already limited contemporary literature on this subject, but rather to show that Ibn Hajar was a very successful organizer who was thus able to achieve great accomplishments both in his administrative and scholarly activities by operating the patronage and substitution system perfectly, while simultaneously giving Ibn Khidr the value he deserves. By getting to know Ibn Khidr, who seems to have consciously chosen to remain in Ibn Hajar’s shadow, one can better understand the duration of the relationship that had begun between the two scholars as teacher and student, the stages it passed through over time, its value as a patronage relationship, its place in the eyes of other scholars of the period, its meaning in terms of how it mutually benefited both of them, its material and spiritual returns, and its reflections in their works. Providing information about Ibn Hajar’s life is considered unnecessary, as I assume that he is already known to the reader.

The first group of sources I use here predominantly are the manuscript copies of some of Ibn Hajar’s works, in particular Fath al-Bārī and Hady al-Sārī, which were copied when both scholars were alive (i.e. pre-852/1449). The glosses, gloss records, samāʿ and muqābala records, and ijāzas of these manuscripts contain remarkable data on Ibn Khidr. As for the two mentioned works, Ibn Khidr played a very important role in the writing of Fath al-Bārī and in the reading and reproduction of Hady al-Sārī. In particular, Ibn Khidr’s contribution to Fath al-Bārī should be carefully analyzed in terms of the role played not only by him but also by his colleagues. The second group of sources involve the biographies, autobiographies, and tabaqāts written by scholars such as Shams al-Dīn al-Sahāwī (d. 902/1497) and Burhan al-Dīn al-Biqāʿī (d. 885/1480), who knew the two names personally. Without the information provided by al-Sahāwī, who was a student of both Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr, to see Ibn Khidr in today’s printed literature and to recognize his importance would be almost impossible.


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APA

Özkan, H. (2024). Devoted to the Master: The Case of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr as an Example of Patronage Among Scholars During the Mamluk Dynasty. Journal of Islamic Review, 14(1), 1-32. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738


AMA

Özkan H. Devoted to the Master: The Case of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr as an Example of Patronage Among Scholars During the Mamluk Dynasty. Journal of Islamic Review. 2024;14(1):1-32. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738


ABNT

Özkan, H. Devoted to the Master: The Case of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr as an Example of Patronage Among Scholars During the Mamluk Dynasty. Journal of Islamic Review, [Publisher Location], v. 14, n. 1, p. 1-32, 2024.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Özkan, Halit,. 2024. “Devoted to the Master: The Case of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr as an Example of Patronage Among Scholars During the Mamluk Dynasty.” Journal of Islamic Review 14, no. 1: 1-32. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738


Chicago: Humanities Style

Özkan, Halit,. Devoted to the Master: The Case of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr as an Example of Patronage Among Scholars During the Mamluk Dynasty.” Journal of Islamic Review 14, no. 1 (Apr. 2024): 1-32. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738


Harvard: Australian Style

Özkan, H 2024, 'Devoted to the Master: The Case of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr as an Example of Patronage Among Scholars During the Mamluk Dynasty', Journal of Islamic Review, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 1-32, viewed 23 Apr. 2024, https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Özkan, H. (2024) ‘Devoted to the Master: The Case of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr as an Example of Patronage Among Scholars During the Mamluk Dynasty’, Journal of Islamic Review, 14(1), pp. 1-32. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738 (23 Apr. 2024).


MLA

Özkan, Halit,. Devoted to the Master: The Case of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr as an Example of Patronage Among Scholars During the Mamluk Dynasty.” Journal of Islamic Review, vol. 14, no. 1, 2024, pp. 1-32. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738


Vancouver

Özkan H. Devoted to the Master: The Case of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr as an Example of Patronage Among Scholars During the Mamluk Dynasty. Journal of Islamic Review [Internet]. 23 Apr. 2024 [cited 23 Apr. 2024];14(1):1-32. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738 doi: 10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738


ISNAD

Özkan, Halit. Devoted to the Master: The Case of Ibn Hajar and Ibn Khidr as an Example of Patronage Among Scholars During the Mamluk Dynasty”. Journal of Islamic Review 14/1 (Apr. 2024): 1-32. https://doi.org/10.26650/iuitd.2023.1341738



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Submitted11.08.2023
Accepted30.11.2023
Published Online15.01.2024

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