An Evaluation of The Hadith Literature During The Mamluk PeriodFerhat Gökçe
The second golden age in the history of Islamic sciences after the third century AH is the period of the Mamluks, whose rule lasted about two and a half centuries (648-923/1250-1517). The 7th-10th centuries AH, when the Mamluks dominated the Islamic world, was a period in which the science of hadith was relatively advanced, and scholarly works were compiled in almost every field of hadith literature. The period of Mamluks is quite rich in terms of hadith scholars and the works written by hadith scholars. This study focuses on the reasons that brought about this wealth, and it provides an overview of the hadith literature within the geographical boundaries reached by the Mamluks, whose rule lasted over 250 years, corresponding to the seventh and tenth centuries of Islamic history. In this study, a list of the hadith scholars of the Mamluk period was drawn up, and the general characteristics of the hadith classification of the period were examined based on the distribution of the works that these scholars wrote in various types of hadith literature. This study investigated the main areas of focus in the hadith literature, basic features of the hadith literature of the period, the examination of the hadith literature by dividing it into subbranches of hadith science, the importance of the works written in the Mamluks period in terms of hadith science, and the contribution of these works to the development of this science. However, compiling a list of the hadith literature of the Mamluk period is beyond the scope of this study. Commonly known as the period of “commentary (sharh) and annotation (hashiyah)”, the 7th-10th centuries of the Islamic history, when the Mamluks dominated the Islamic world, is scientifically described as the “regression period” in terms of hadith literature. The present study critically evaluated this period through the lens of hadith science by taking into account the related hadith literature.
Memlükler Dönemi Hadis Literatürü Üzerine Bazı DeğerlendirmelerFerhat Gökçe
İslâmî ilimler tarihinin hicrî üçüncü asırdan sonra ikinci altın çağı, yaklaşık iki buçuk asır (648-923/1250-1517) hüküm süren Memlükler dönemine tekabül etmektedir. Memlükler’in İslâm dünyasında hâkim olduğu zaman dilimini kapsayan hicrî VII-X. asırlar özellikle hadis ilminin oldukça geliştiği, hadis literatürünün hemen her alanında çalışmaların telif edildiği bir dönem olmuştur. Memlükler dönemi, hadis âlimleri ve bu âlimler tarafından yazılmış eserler bakımından son derece zengindir. Çalışmamızda bu zenginliği oluşturan sebepler üzerinde durulmuş, İslâm tarihinin hicrî yedinci asırla onuncu asırlarına tekabül eden ve 250 yıldan fazla hüküm süren Memlüklerin ulaştığı sınırlar içerisindeki hadis literatürü ana hatlarıyla ele alınmıştır. Bu makalede, Memlükler dönemi hadis âlimlerinin listesi çıkarılmış ve bu âlimlerin telif ettikleri eserlerin hadis edebiyatının çeşitli türlerine dağılımından hareketle dönemin hadis tasnifinin genel karakteristiği üzerinde bir takım değerlendirmelerde bulunulmuştur. Hadis literatürünün yoğunlaştığı alanlar, dönemin hadis literatürünün temel hususiyetleri ve hadis ilminin alt dallarına ayrılarak incelenmesi, hadis ilmi açısından Memlükler döneminde telif edilen eserlerin önemi, bu eserlerin hadis ilminin gelişimine katkısı araştırmamızda ele alınan ve tartışılan konular olmuştur. Çalışmamızda Memlükler döneminin hadis literatürünü sıralamak gibi bir niyetimiz söz konusu değildir. Bu makalede zaman zaman bir genellemeyle İslâm tarihinin hicrî VII–X. asırlarına tekabül eden, ilmî bakımdan “şerh ve hâşiye dönemi” olarak nitelendirilen, İslâm dünyasında Memlükler’in hâkim olduğu dönemin “gerileme dönemi” olarak nitelendirilmesinin hadis edebiyatı göz önünde bulundurularak hadis ilmi açısından kritiği yapılmıştır.
In our study of 118 (103 + 15) muhaddith of the Mamluk period, we identified 1,201 works. Some of the 1,201 works that we identified remain in the manuscript form and some of them are the works whose names have been mentioned and compared in the sources. These 1,201 works on the science of hadith during the Mamluk period are on the subjects of “hadith texts/compilations” (459), “hadith methodology” (85), “hadith rijal” (247), “hadith commentaries” (157), “hadith sciences” (35), and “other miscellaneous subjects” (218). It is understood that the studies of the period focused on hadith compilations, hadith requests, and hadith commentaries. It is demonstrated that the hadith literature of the Mamluk period concentrated on the fields of “hadith commentaries” (90), “hadith methodology” (85), “hadith compilations” (71), “single hadith commentaries” (67), “rijal” (60), “takhrij” (58), “ahkam” (48), “tabakat” (45)), “erbaun (forty hadiths)” (40), “turuku’l-hadith” (36), “vefeyat” (27), “zawaid” (26), “city history” (26), “mawduat” (19), and “atraf” (17). The study revealed that the most common type of hadith literature was hadith commentaries, with 157 works in the compilation focusing on them. Some 90 works on hadith sources and 67 works comprising one or more hadith commentaries were identified. Subsequently, it was observed that the “hadith method” with 85 works, “hadith compilations” with 71 works, and “forty hadith” with 60 works could be evaluated under hadith compilations. It is a definite sign of the period in which the Mamluks were assessed, with the period being identified as one of “compilation and commentary.” Factually, a study conducted by this author on the sixth century Hijri showed that the century proceeding the Mamluk period was mainly a compilation period. As the next stage after compilations were commentaries, the number of commentaries gradually increased since the sixth century and peaked during the Mamluk period. The most remarkable and successful work found in the hadith literature of the Mamluk period is the commentaries. During this period, many commentaries and summaries were produced, especially on Bukhari and Muslim. As far as we determined in our study, 34 “commentary and summary” studies were conducted on Bukhari’s al-Câmi, 15 on Muslim’s al-Cami, 4 on al-Muvatta, 17 on Abu Davud’s as-Sunan, 7 on Tirmidhi’s as-Sunan, 6 on Begavi’s Mesabihu’s-sunna, and 1 on his Sarhu’s-sunna and 1 on Ahmad b. Hanbal’s al-Musnad during the Mamluk period.
If we consider the hadith literature in two parts as works based on a script and text, we can say that researches and studies on the text are predominant, although studies are conducted in the sciences related to the isnād in the Mamluk period. Conversely, the commentary activity, which has developed since the fourth century of the hijra, in other words, the explanation (tafsir), understanding, and interpretation of the hadiths included in the commentary, seems to be the most fundamental issue of the period.
Only the work of jurist and muhaddith al-Nawawi (d. 676/1277), whose full name was “el-Minhâc fi şerh-i Sahih-i Muslim b. Haccac,” which is considered to be one of the most important and best of the Muslim commentaries, commentary on Bukhari’s Sahih by Mogultay b. Kilic (d. 762/1360), a jurist, historian, linguist, and critic; the commentary of Kirmani (d. 786/1384), who is described as a jurist, methodologist, theologian, commentator, and linguist, the commentaries of Ibn Hajar (d. 852/1449), an expert on fiqh, history, and biography, and Aynî (d. 855/1451), historian, jurist, and scholar exceed 100 volumes in total. When these commentaries are examined, it is clear that they are mainly focused on “ilm dirayeti’l-hadith.” Each of these works has taken its place among the rich encyclopedic hadith studies, reflecting that their authors are versatile scholars. The hadith commentaries written during the Mamluk period are sufficient to show how “text-oriented” hadithism became the center of attraction for the field of hadith. The first examples of many classification types that had not been seen in previous periods were written in the Mamluk period.
The foremost of these new classifications were the zawaids. Considering the intense studies on zawaid literature, some hadith historians described this period as the zawaid period. In fact, in the work named Hadith History of İzmirli İsmail Hakkı, which deals with the history of hadith in eight periods and is known as the first hadith history book in Turkey, the last two periods of the history of hadith were designated “the era of zawaid type works” and “the period after zawaid”. In this period, numerous studies were conducted in the field of rijal and tabakat. We identified 60 works on hadith rijal, 84 works on mu’jamu’ş-suyuh, 45 on tabakat, and 27 on the field of history and vefayat. This indicates that hadith scholars were also interested in studies on the science of rijal, which was related to isnād, in this period. An essential part of the 40 works we identified comprises studies on the rijal of the main hadith sources, especially Bukhari and Muslim’s al-Jami’s. Rijal studies conducted during the Mamluk period show that “dirayetü’l-hadith” was performed alongside isnād studies, although the work was mainly textual in this period.