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THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN VISUAL ARTS PRODUCTS ON THE PERSIAN PAINTING IN 17TH CENTURY

Bahman Razi Olyaei

The rapid change of the 17th century became the most prominent culture of Europe after the Renaissance revolution. This happened even in the eastern countries where the European population is intense. In this century, the Silk Road, which is the old route of the caravans, gradually lost importance. The sea routes to the eastern countries, intense trade relations, the frequent trips of Europeans to the Eastern countries and the fusion of Western and Eastern cultures seriously affected the local culture and arts in the regions. Western art products have come to the East largely through various; political, religious and commercial delegations from Europe. In particular, the groups that published Christianity had many pictorial books with themselves. Most of the gravures and western-based book pictures has been applied to the walls of the newly built palaces and 37 churches in Isfahan. The theme of the pictures from the West is mainly; the biblical scenes, European style clothes, classical landscapes, medallions and European portraits of kings and queens. The fascinating effect of these paintings attracted Safavid shahs. Many western products entering the palace archives have introduced Iranian artists closely with Western art. Painters brought from Europe, with their works in Iran, they transmitted the latest discoveries of Renaissance and later Baroque and Flemish art to Iran. It was recorded at least ten European painters that worked in the Safavid palaces. Western paintings were also of interest in society and art products of Western origin were sold at the Isfahan bazaar and circulated around the globe. In this period, Iranian painters focused more and more on naturalist paintings. The other phenomenon that caused western products to increase in Iran was related to India and the friendship of the Gurkani and Safavid shahs. There has been reciprocal artist exchange or service purchase between the two states and this situation caused intense artistic interaction between the two states. Shah I. and II. Abbas and Shah Suleiman’s artistic favors and admiration for European paintings have formalized the settlement of Western styles. After 1650, the traditional painting style lost its resistance power in front of western style and a new paint called “Ferengisazi” emerged. 

17. YÜZYIL’DA AVRUPA GÖRSEL SANAT ESERLERİNİN İRAN’IN GELENEKSEL RESMİNE ETKİSİ

Bahman Razi Olyaei

Avrupa’da Rönesans devriminden sonra tanık olunan hızlı değişim, 17. yüzyılda belirgin kültür haline gelmiştir. Bu olay Avrupalı nüfusunun yoğun olduğu Doğu ülkelerinde bile gerçekleşmiştir. Bu yüzyılda kervanların eski güzergâhı olan İpek yolu giderek önemini kaybetmiştir. Doğu ülkelerine açılan deniz yolları, yoğun ticaret ilişkileri, Avrupalıların sıklıkla Doğu ülkelerine yolculukları ve Batı ile Doğu kültürünün kaynaşması, bölgelerdeki yerel kültür ve sanatı ciddi şekilde etkilemiştir. Batı sanatı eserleri büyük oranda, Avrupa’dan gelen çeşitli siyasi, dini ve ticari gruplar aracılığıyla Doğu’ya ulaşmıştır. Özellikle misyonerler ve Hristiyanlığı yaymayı amaç edinen görevliler yanlarında pek çok resimli kitap bulundurmuşlardır. Gravürler ve Batı kaynaklı kitap resimlerinin çoğu İsfahan’da yeni yapılan saraylar ve 37 kilisenin duvarlarına uygulanmıştır. Batı’dan getirilen resimlerin konusunu, daha çok İncil’den alınmış sahneler, Avrupa tarzı kıyafetler, klasik manzaralar, madalyonlar ve Avrupalı kral ve kraliçe portreleri oluşturur. Bu resimlerin şatafatlı görüntüleri İran şahlarını cezbetmiştir. Saray arşivlerine giren çok sayıda Batı sanatı eserleri İranlı sanatçıları Batı sanatıyla yakınlaştırmış, Avrupa’dan getirilen ressamlar, İran’da yaptıkları çalışmalarla, Avrupa’da yaşanan Rönesans ve sonrasındaki Barok ve Flaman sanatının son buluşlarını İran’a taşımışlardır. En az on iki Avrupalı ressamın Safevi saraylarında çalıştığı kaydedilmiştir. Batı resimleri toplum içerisinde de ilgi görmüş ve Batı kökenli sanat ürünleri İsfahan pazarında satılıp, elden ele dolaşmıştır. Bu dönemde İranlı ressamların natüralist resimlere odaklanmaları artmıştır. Batı sanatı ürünlerinin İran’da artmasına sebebiyet veren diğer olgu, Hindistan’la ilişkiler ve Babürlü şahları ile Safevî şahlarının dostluğudur. Her iki devlet arasında karşılıklı sanatçı alışverişi veya hizmet alımı gerçekleşmiş, bu durum iki devlet arasında yoğun sanatsal etkileşime sebep olmuştur. Şah I. ve II. Abbas ve Şah Süleyman’ın sanatseverlikleri ve Avrupa resimlerine olan hayranlıkları, Batı üslubunun yerleşmesini resmileştirmiştir. 1650’den sonra geleneksel resim üslûbu, Batı resim üslûbu önünde direniş gücünü kaybetmiş ve “Ferengîsazi” adlı yeni tarz ortaya çıkmıştır.


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APA

Olyaei, B.R. (2018). THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN VISUAL ARTS PRODUCTS ON THE PERSIAN PAINTING IN 17TH CENTURY. Journal of Art History, 0(27), 217-274. https://doi.org/null


AMA

Olyaei B R. THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN VISUAL ARTS PRODUCTS ON THE PERSIAN PAINTING IN 17TH CENTURY. Journal of Art History. 2018;0(27):217-274. https://doi.org/null


ABNT

Olyaei, B.R. THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN VISUAL ARTS PRODUCTS ON THE PERSIAN PAINTING IN 17TH CENTURY. Journal of Art History, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 27, p. 217-274, 2018.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Olyaei, Bahman Razi,. 2018. “THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN VISUAL ARTS PRODUCTS ON THE PERSIAN PAINTING IN 17TH CENTURY.” Journal of Art History 0, no. 27: 217-274. https://doi.org/null


Chicago: Humanities Style

Olyaei, Bahman Razi,. THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN VISUAL ARTS PRODUCTS ON THE PERSIAN PAINTING IN 17TH CENTURY.” Journal of Art History 0, no. 27 (Dec. 2023): 217-274. https://doi.org/null


Harvard: Australian Style

Olyaei, BR 2018, 'THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN VISUAL ARTS PRODUCTS ON THE PERSIAN PAINTING IN 17TH CENTURY', Journal of Art History, vol. 0, no. 27, pp. 217-274, viewed 9 Dec. 2023, https://doi.org/null


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Olyaei, B.R. (2018) ‘THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN VISUAL ARTS PRODUCTS ON THE PERSIAN PAINTING IN 17TH CENTURY’, Journal of Art History, 0(27), pp. 217-274. https://doi.org/null (9 Dec. 2023).


MLA

Olyaei, Bahman Razi,. THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN VISUAL ARTS PRODUCTS ON THE PERSIAN PAINTING IN 17TH CENTURY.” Journal of Art History, vol. 0, no. 27, 2018, pp. 217-274. [Database Container], https://doi.org/null


Vancouver

Olyaei BR. THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN VISUAL ARTS PRODUCTS ON THE PERSIAN PAINTING IN 17TH CENTURY. Journal of Art History [Internet]. 9 Dec. 2023 [cited 9 Dec. 2023];0(27):217-274. Available from: https://doi.org/null doi: null


ISNAD

Olyaei, BahmanRazi. THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN VISUAL ARTS PRODUCTS ON THE PERSIAN PAINTING IN 17TH CENTURY”. Journal of Art History 0/27 (Dec. 2023): 217-274. https://doi.org/null



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Published Online30.06.2018

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