Journal of Child is an international, scientific, open acces, peer-reviewed official publication of Istanbul University, Institute of Child Health. It is a triannual journal published in April, August and December. The publication languages of the journal are Turkish and English.
Honorary Editor
Prof. Işık Yalçın, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Gülbin Gökçay, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Editor-in-Chief
Prof. Ayper Somer, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Editor
Prof. Zeynep Tamay, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Alev Yılmaz, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Associate Editor
Prof. Cevdet Özdemir, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Res. Assist. Özge Kaba, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Res. Assist. Ayşe Pınar Göksu Çetinkaya, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Res. Assist. Zeynep Hızlı Demirkale, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Res. Assist. Sevgi Sipahi Çimen, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

English Language Editor
Lecturer Elizabeth Mary Earl, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Lecturer Alan James Newson, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Editorial Board Member
Prof. Arzu Bakırtaş, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkey
Prof. Indi Benarjee, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital, Manchester, United-Kingdom
Prof. Perran Boran, Marmara Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Ahmet Çelebi, Siyami Ersek Göğüs Kalp ve Damar Cerrahisi Eğitim ve Araştırma Hastanesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Merih Çetinkaya, Sağlık Bilimleri Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Fatma Feyza Darendeliler, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Anibh Martin Das, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover, Germany
Prof. Mübeccel Demirkol, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Özlem Durmaz, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Gülden Gökçay, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Ateş Kara, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ankara, Turkey
Prof. Mehmet Fatih Okcu, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas, United-States
Prof. Nick Spencer, University of Warwick, Coventry, United-Kingdom
Prof. Mustafa Sulemanji, Aga Khan University, Nairobi, Kenya
Assist. Prof. Ana Manuela Fernandes Teixeira França, Universitário do Porto, Porto, Portugal
Prof. Ayşegül Ünüvar, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Pietro Vajro, University of Salerno, Baronissi, Italy

Advisory Board Member
Prof. Harika Alpay, Marmara Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Nur Aydınlı, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Firdevs Baş, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Seher Başaran, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Rüveyde Bundak, Girne Üniversitesi, Kyrenia, Cyprus
Prof. Tiraje Celkan, İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Meliha Mine Çalışkan, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Salim Çalışkan, İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Agop Çıtak, Acıbadem Mehmet Ali Aydınlar Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Asuman Çoban, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Haluk Cezmi Çokuğraş, İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Demet Demirkol, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Aygün Dindar, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Ener Çağrı Dinleyici, Eskişehir Osmangazi Üniversitesi, Eskisehir, Turkey
Prof. Ahmet Ergin, Pamukkale Üniversitesi, Denizli, Turkey
Prof. Muazzez Garipağaoğlu, Fenerbahçe Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Nermin Güler, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Elmas Zeynep İnce, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Zeynep Karakaş, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Serap Karaman, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Birsen Karaman, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Özgür Kasapçopur, İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Erbuğ Keskin, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Ayşe Kılıç, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Ahmet Nevzat Nayır, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Kemal Nişli, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Neslihan Önenli Mungan, Çukurova Üniversitesi, Adana, Turkey
Prof. Rukiye Eker Ömeroğlu, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Mustafa Özçetin, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Tülin Ayşe Özden, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Şükran Poyrazoğlu, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Nuran Salman, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Nihat Sapan, Bursa Uludağ Üniversitesi, Bursa, Turkey
Prof. Feryal Gün Soysal, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Semra Şardaş, İstinye Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Engin Tutar, Marmara Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Zehra Oya Uyguner, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Ayşegül Ünüvar, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Zekeriyya Mehmet Vural, İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey
Prof. Mehtap Yazıcıoğlu, Trakya Üniversitesi, Edirne, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Nuray Aktay Ayaz, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Çiğdem Aktuğlu Zeybek, İstanbul Üniversitesi-Cerrahpaşa, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Fatmahan Atalar, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Leyla Bilgin, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Asuman Gedikbaşı, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Yasemin Gökdemir, Marmara Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Selda Hançerli Törün, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Gonca Keskindemirci, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assist. Prof. Edibe Pembegül Yıldız, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Deniz Tuğcu, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Metin Uysalol, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Aylin Yetim Şahin, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Zeynep Nagehan Yürük Yıldırım, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assoc. Prof. Zerrin Önal, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assist. Prof. Esra Özek Yücel, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Specialist Bağdagül Aksu, Sağlık Bilimleri Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey
Assist. Prof. Melek Yıldız, İstanbul Üniversitesi, Istanbul, Turkey

Journal of Child aims to contribute to the literature by publishing high quality original articles, reviews focusing on key subjects and contemporary developments, and case reports in the field of child health and diseases. The journal welcomes articles about internal and surgical medicine as well, provided that these are related to child health and diseases. The target group of the journal consists of academicians, researchers, professionals, students, related professional and academic bodies and institutions.

EBSCO Academic Search Complate

TÜBİTAK-ULAKBİM TR Dizin



The editorial and publication processes of the journal are shaped in accordance with the guidelines of the International Council of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), the Council of Science Editors (CSE), the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the European Association of Science Editors (EASE), and National Information Standards Organization (NISO). The journal conforms to the Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing (doaj.org/bestpractice).

The subjects covered in the manuscripts submitted to the Journal for publication must be in accordance with the aim and scope of the journal. The journal gives priority to original research papers submitted for publication.

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by editor-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope.

Short presentations that took place in scientific meetings can be referred if indicated in the article. The editor hands over the papers matching the formal rules to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and gives green light for publication upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

Changing the name of an author (omission, addition or order) in papers submitted to the Journal requires written permission of all declared authors.

Journal of Child is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Except for commercial purposes, users are allowed to read, download, copy, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.

The articles in Journal of Child are open access articles licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0) (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/deed.en/)

All expenses of the journal are covered by the Istanbul University. Processing and publication are free of charge with the journal. There is no article processing charges or submission fees for any submitted or accepted articles.

Authors publishing with Journal of Child retain the copyright to their work, licensing it under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International (CC BY-NC 4.0) license and grant the publisher non-exclusive right to publish the work.

Journal of Child is committed to upholding the highest standards of publication ethics and pays regard to Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing published by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), the Open Access Scholarly Publishers Association (OASPA), and the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME) on https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines-new/principles-transparency-and-best-practice-scholarly-publishing

All parties involved in the publishing process (Editors, Reviewers, Authors and Publishers) are expected to agree on the following ethical principles.

All submissions must be original, unpublished (including as full text in conference proceedings), and not under the review of any other publication synchronously. Authors must ensure that submitted work is original. They must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere or is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere, in any language. Applicable copyright laws and conventions must be followed. Copyright material (e.g. tables, figures or extensive quotations) must be reproduced only with appropriate permission and acknowledgement. Any work or words of other authors, contributors, or sources must be appropriately credited and referenced.

Each manuscript is reviewed by at least two referees under double-blind peer review process. Plagiarism, duplication, fraud authorship/denied authorship, research/data fabrication, salami slicing/salami publication, breaching of copyrights, prevailing conflict of interest are unethical behaviors.

All manuscripts not in accordance with the accepted ethical standards will be removed from the publication. This also contains any possible malpractice discovered after the publication.

Journal of Child adheres to the highest standards in research ethics and follows the principles of international research ethics as defined below. The authors are responsible for the compliance of the manuscripts with the ethical rules.

- Principles of integrity, quality and transparency should be sustained in designing the research, reviewing the design and conducting the research.

- The research team and participants should be fully informed about the aim, methods, possible uses and requirements of the research and risks of participation in research.

- The confidentiality of the information provided by the research participants and the confidentiality of the respondents should be ensured. The research should be designed to protect the autonomy and dignity of the participants.

- Research participants should participate in the research voluntarily, not under any coercion.

- Any possible harm to participants must be avoided. The research should be planned in such a way that the participants are not at risk.

- The independence of research must be clear; and any conflict of interest or must be disclosed.

- In experimental studies with human subjects, written informed consent of the participants who decide to participate in the research must be obtained. In the case of children and those under wardship or with confirmed insanity, legal custodian’s assent must be obtained.

- If the study is to be carried out in any institution or organization, approval must be obtained from this institution or organization.

- In studies with human subject, it must be noted in the method’s section of the manuscript that the informed consent of the participants and ethics committee approval from the institution where the study has been conducted have been obtained.

Journal of Child takes as principle to comply with the ethical standards of World Medical Association (WMA) Declaration of Helsinki – Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects revised in 2003 and WMA Statement on Animal Use in Biomedical Research revised in 2016.

An approval of research protocols by the Ethics Committee in accordance with international standards mentioned above is required for experimental, clinical, and drug studies and for some case reports. If required, ethics committee reports or an equivalent official document will be requested from the authors. For manuscripts concerning experimental research on humans, a statement should be included that shows that written informed consent of patients and volunteers was obtained following a detailed explanation of the procedures that they may undergo. For studies carried out on animals, the measures taken to prevent pain and suffering of the animals should be stated clearly. Information on patient consent, the name of the ethics committee, and the ethics committee approval number should also be stated in the Materials and Methods section of the manuscript. It is the authors’ responsibility to carefully protect the patients’ anonymity. For photographs that may reveal the identity of the patients, signed releases of the patient or of their legal representative should be enclosed.

It is authors’ responsibility to ensure that the article is in accordance with scientific and ethical standards and rules. And authors must ensure that submitted work is original. They must certify that the manuscript has not previously been published elsewhere or is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere, in any language. Applicable copyright laws and conventions must be followed. Copyright material (e.g. tables, figures or extensive quotations) must be reproduced only with appropriate permission and acknowledgement. Any work or words of other authors, contributors, or sources must be appropriately credited and referenced.

All the authors of a submitted manuscript must have direct scientific and academic contribution to the manuscript. The author(s) of the original research articles is defined as a person who is significantly involved in “conceptualization and design of the study”, “collecting the data”, “analyzing the data”, “writing the manuscript”, “reviewing the manuscript with a critical perspective” and “planning/conducting the study of the manuscript and/or revising it”. Fund raising, data collection or supervision of the research group are not sufficient roles to be accepted as an author. The author(s) must meet all these criteria described above. The order of names in the author list of an article must be a co-decision and it must be indicated in the Copyright Agreement Form. The individuals who do not meet the authorship criteria but contributed to the study must take place in the acknowledgement section. Individuals providing technical support, assisting writing, providing a general support, providing material or financial support are examples to be indicated in acknowledgement section.

All authors must disclose all issues concerning financial relationship, conflict of interest, and competing interest that may potentially influence the results of the research or scientific judgment.

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published paper, it is the author’s obligation to promptly cooperate with the Editor to provide retractions or corrections of mistakes.

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, sexual orientation, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors. He/She provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles for publication and ensures that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential before publishing.

Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication. He/She must publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers. Only he has the full authority to assign a reviewer and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers must have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders. Their judgments must be objective.

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees must be ensured. In particular situations, the editor may share the review of one reviewer with other reviewers to clarify a particular point.

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by editor-in-chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope.

The editor hands over the papers matching the formal rules to at least two national/international referees for double-blind peer review evaluation and gives green light for publication upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors. Editor-in-Chief provides a fair double-blind peer review of the submitted articles for publication and ensures that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential before publishing.

Editor-in-Chief is responsible for the contents and overall quality of the publication. He/She must publish errata pages or make corrections when needed.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers. Only he has the full authority to assign a reviewer and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers must have no conflict of interest with respect to the research, the authors and/or the research funders. Their judgments must be objective.

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees must be ensured. In particular situations, the editor may share the review of one reviewer with other reviewers to clarify a particular point.

Only those manuscripts approved by its every individual author and that were not published before in or sent to another journal, are accepted for evaluation.

Submitted manuscripts that pass preliminary control are scanned for plagiarism using iThenticate software. After plagiarism check, the eligible ones are evaluated by Editor-in-Chief for their originality, methodology, the importance of the subject covered and compliance with the journal scope.

Editor-in-Chief evaluates manuscripts for their scientific content without regard to ethnic origin, gender, citizenship, religious belief or political philosophy of the authors and ensures a fair double-blind peer review of the selected manuscripts.
The selected manuscripts are sent to at least two national/international referees for evaluation and publication decision is given by Editor-in-Chief upon modification by the authors in accordance with the referees’ claims.

Editor-in-Chief does not allow any conflicts of interest between the authors, editors and reviewers and is responsible for final decision for publication of the manuscripts in the Journal.

Reviewers’ judgments must be objective. Reviewers’ comments on the following aspects are expected while conducting the review.

- Does the manuscript contain new and significant information?

- Does the abstract clearly and accurately describe the content of the manuscript?

- Is the problem significant and concisely stated?

- Are the methods described comprehensively?

- Are the interpretations and consclusions justified by the results?

- Is adequate references made to other Works in the field?

- Is the language acceptable?

Reviewers must ensure that all the information related to submitted manuscripts is kept as confidential and must report to the editor if they are aware of copyright infringement and plagiarism on the author’s side.

A reviewer who feels unqualified to review the topic of a manuscript or knows that its prompt review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself from the review process.

The editor informs the reviewers that the manuscripts are confidential information and that this is a privileged interaction. The reviewers and editorial board cannot discuss the manuscripts with other persons. The anonymity of the referees is important.

The manuscripts should be prepared in accordance with ICMJE-Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals (updated in December 2015 - http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf). Author(s) are required to prepare manuscripts in accordance with the CONSORT guidelines for randomized research studies, STROBE guidelines for observational original research studies, STARD guidelines for studies on diagnostic accuracy, PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analysis, ARRIVE guidelines for experimental animal studies, and TREND guidelines for non-randomized public behavior.

Manuscripts can only be submitted through the journal’s online manuscript submission and evaluation system, available at https://dergipark.org.tr/en/pub/jchild   Manuscripts submitted via any other medium will not be evaluated.

Manuscripts submitted to the journal will first go through a technical evaluation process where the editorial office staff will ensure that the manuscript has been prepared and submitted in accordance with the journal’s guidelines. Submissions that do not conform to the journal’s guidelines will be returned to the submitting author with technical correction requests.

Author(s) are required to submit the following documents together with the manuscript and must ensure that the abstract and keywords are in line with the standards explained in below.

Copyright Agreement Form

Author Form and ICMJE Potential Conflict of Interest Disclosure Form

• Ethics Committee Approval

• Cover Letter to the Editor

Title Page: A separate title page should be submitted with all submissions and this page should include:

- The full title of the manuscript as well as a short title (running head) of no more than 50 characters,

- Name(s), affiliations, academic degree(s) and ORCID ID(s) of the author(s),

- Grant information and detailed information on the other sources of support,

- Name, address, telephone (including the mobile phone number) and fax numbers, and email address of the corresponding author,

- Acknowledgment of the individuals who contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but who do not fulfil the authorship criteria.

Abstract: A Turkish and an English abstract should be submitted with all submissions except for Letters to the Editor. Submitting a Turkish abstract is not compulsory for international authors. The abstract of Original Articles should be structured with subheadings (Objective, Materials and Methods, Results, and Conclusion). Abstracts of Case Reports and Reviews should be unstructured. Abstracts should be 250 words. Extended abstract of 650-800 words is required for articles in Turkish.

Keywords: Each submission must be accompanied by a minimum of 3 to a maximum of 6 keywords for subject indexing at the end of the abstract. The keywords should be listed in full without abbreviations. The keywords should be selected from the National Library of Medicine, Medical Subject Headings database (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/mesh/MBrowser.html) .

Original Articles:  The main text of original articles should be structured with Introduction, Material and Method, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion subheadings.
Statistical analysis to support conclusions is usually necessary. Statistical analyses must be conducted in accordance with international statistical reporting standards (Altman DG, Gore SM, Gardner MJ, Pocock SJ. Statistical guidelines for contributors to medical journals. Br Med J 1983: 7; 1489-93). Information on statistical analyses should be provided with a separate subheading under the Materials and Methods section and the statistical software that was used during the process must be specified.

Units should be prepared in accordance with the International System of Units (SI).

Review Articles: Reviews prepared by authors who have extensive knowledge on a particular field and whose scientific background has been translated into a high volume of publications with a high citation potential are welcomed. These authors may even be invited by the journal. Reviews should describe, discuss, and evaluate the current level of knowledge of a topic in clinical practice and should guide future studies. The main text should contain Introduction, Clinical and Research Consequences, and Conclusion sections.

Case Reports: There is limited space for case reports in the journal and reports on rare cases or conditions that constitute challenges in diagnosis and treatment, those offering new therapies or revealing knowledge not included in the literature, and interesting and educative case reports are accepted for publication. The text should include Introduction, Case Presentation, Discussion, and Conclusion subheadings.

Letters to the Editor: This type of manuscript discusses important parts, overlooked aspects, or lacking parts of a previously published article. Articles on subjects within the scope of the journal that might attract the readers’ attention, particularly educative cases, may also be submitted in the form of a “Letter to the Editor.” Readers can also present their comments on the published manuscripts in the form of a “Letter to the Editor.” Abstract, Keywords, and Tables, Figures, Images, and other media should not be included. The text should be unstructured. The manuscript that is being commented on must be properly cited within this manuscript.

Tables should be included in the main document, presented after the reference list, and they should be numbered consecutively in the order they are referred to within the main text. A descriptive title must be placed above the tables. Abbreviations used in the tables should be defined below the tables by footnotes (even if they are defined within the main text). Tables should be created using the “insert table” command of the word processing software and they should be arranged clearly to provide easy reading. Data presented in the tables should not be a repetition of the data presented within the main text but should be supporting the main text.

Figures, graphics, and photographs should be submitted as separate files (in TIFF or JPEG format) through the submission system. The files should not be embedded in a Word document or the main document. When there are figure subunits, the subunits should not be merged to form a single image. Each subunit should be submitted separately through the submission system. Images should not be labeled (a, b, c, etc.) to indicate figure subunits. Thick and thin arrows, arrowheads, stars, asterisks, and similar marks can be used on the images to support figure legends. Like the rest of the submission, the figures too should be blind. Any information within the images that may indicate an individual or institution should be blinded. The minimum resolution of each submitted figure should be 300 DPI. To prevent delays in the evaluation process, all submitted figures should be clear in resolution and large in size (minimum dimensions: 100 × 100 mm). Figure legends should be listed at the end of the main document.

All acronyms and abbreviations used in the manuscript should be defined at first use, both in the abstract and in the main text. The abbreviation should be provided in parentheses following the definition.

When a drug, product, hardware, or software program is mentioned within the main text, product information, including the name of the product, the producer of the product, and city and the country of the company (including the state if in USA), should be provided in parentheses in the following format: “Discovery St PET/CT scanner (General Electric, Milwaukee, WI, USA)”

All references, tables, and figures should be referred to within the main text, and they should be numbered consecutively in the order they are referred to within the main text.

Limitations, drawbacks, and the shortcomings of original articles should be mentioned in the Discussion section before the conclusion paragraph.


When submitting a revised version of a paper, the author(s) must submit a detailed “Response to the reviewers” that states point by point how each issue raised by the reviewers has been covered and where it can be found (each reviewer’s comment, followed by the author’s reply) as well as an annotated copy of the main document. Revised manuscripts must be submitted within 20 days from the date of the decision letter. If the revised version of the manuscript is not submitted within the allocated time, the revision option may be canceled. If the submitting author(s) believe that additional time is required, they should request this extension before the initial 20-day period is over.

Accepted manuscripts are copy-edited for grammar, punctuation, and format. Once the publication process of a manuscript is completed, it is published online on the journal’s webpage as an ahead-of-print publication before it is included in its scheduled issue. A PDF proof of the accepted manuscript is sent to the corresponding author(s) and their publication approval is requested within 2 days of their receipt of the proof.

While citing publications, preference should be given to the latest, most up-to-date publications. If an ahead-of-print publication is cited, the DOI number should be provided. Authors are responsible for the accuracy of references. Journal titles should be abbreviated in accordance with the journal abbreviations in Index Medicus/ MEDLINE/PubMed. When there are six or fewer authors, all authors should be listed. If there are seven or more authors, the first six authors should be listed followed by “et al.” In the main text of the manuscript, references should be cited using Arabic numbers in parentheses. The reference styles for different types of publications are presented in the following examples.

Journal Article: Blasco V, Colavolpe JC, Antonini F, Zieleskiewicz L, Nafati C, Albanèse J, et al. Long-term out come in kidneyrecipients from do norstreated with hydroxyethylstarch 130/0.4 and hydroxyethylstarch 200/0.6. Br J Anaesth 2015;115(5):797-8.

Book Section: Suh KN, Keystone JS. Malaria and babesiosis. Gorbach SL, Barlett JG, Blacklow NR, editors. Infectious Diseases. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams; 2004.p.2290-308.

Books with a Single Author: Sweetman SC. Martindale the Complete Drug Reference. 34th ed. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2005.

Editor(s) as Author: Huizing EH, de Groot JAM, editors. Functional reconstructive nasal surgery. Stuttgart-New York: Thieme; 2003.

Conference Proceedings: Bengisson S. Sothemin BG. Enforcement of data protection, privacy and security in medical informatics. In: Lun KC, Degoulet P, Piemme TE, Rienhoff O, editors. MEDINFO 92. Proceedings of the 7th World Congress on Medical Informatics; 1992 Sept 6-10; Geneva, Switzerland. Amsterdam: North-Holland; 1992. pp.1561-5.

Scientific or Technical Report: Cusick M, Chew EY, Hoogwerf B, Agrón E, Wu L, Lindley A, et al. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Research Group. Risk factors for renal replacement therapy in the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS), Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study KidneyInt: 2004. Report No: 26.

Thesis: Yılmaz B. Ankara Üniversitesindeki Öğrencilerin Beslenme Durumları, Fiziksel Aktivitelerive Beden Kitle İndeksleri Kan Lipidleri Arasındaki Ilişkiler. H.Ü. SağlıkBilimleriEnstitüsü, DoktoraTezi. 2007.

Manuscripts Published in Electronic Format: Morse SS. Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis (serial online) 1995 Jan-Mar (cited 1996 June 5): 1(1): (24 screens). Available from: URL: http:/ www.cdc.gov/ncidodlElD/cid.htm.

  • Cover letter to the editor
    • The category of the manuscript
    • Confirming that “the paper is not under consideration for publication in another journal”.
    • Including disclosure of any commercial or financial involvement.
    • Confirming that the statistical design of the research article is reviewed.
    • Confirming that last control for fluent English was done.
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    • Confirming that the references cited in the text and listed in the references section are in line with NLM.
  • Copyright Agreement Form
  • Author Form
  • Permission of previous published material if used in the present manuscript
  • Acknowledgement of the study “in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration.
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  • Title page
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  • Acknowledgement (if exists)
  • Main Manuscript Document
    • The title of the manuscript both in Turkish and in English
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    • Key words: 3 - 6 words both in Turkish and in English
    • Main article sections
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INFORMATION


ISSN1302-9940
E-ISSN1308-8491
PeriodTriannually

METRICS


15
52
479
479

CONTACT


Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatrics / E-mail: child@istanbul.edu.tr

Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.