Family-to-Work Facilitation, Sex, and Gender: A Sample of University EmployeesSelda Coşkuner Aktaş, Birgül Çiçek
Challenging the assumption that work and family are incompatible, a growing number of studies have focused on the positive relationships between these two roles. The exploratory study described in this paper aimed to examine whether family characteristics (i.e., taking responsibility for childcare, child-related issues, and household chores) are associated with family-to-work facilitation (FWF). Using data from two major state universities in Ankara (n = 447), we examined the family-to-work-facilitation of full-time employees (both male and female) with children. The findings of the study indicate that women experience FWF more than men, considering all the independent variables. Moreover, FWF (including time and psychology-based FWF) was higher for women than that of men. The relationship between FWF and taking responsibility for childcare, children, and household chores was found to be statistically significant by sex. The time and psychology-based FWF of women who stated that “their husbands were largely responsible” for childcare and child-related matters were higher than those of men. Furthermore, the psychology-based FWF of women who stated that “they and their husbands were equally responsible” for childcare and child-related matters were higher than that of males who gave the same answer. The women who hired help for household tasks had more FWF and psychological-based FWF than men. The findings are discussed within the framework of sex, gender, and the limited related literature, and directions for future research are suggested.
Aile-İş Kolaylaştırması, Cinsiyet ve Toplumsal Cinsiyet: Üniversite Çalışanları ÖrneğiSelda Coşkuner Aktaş, Birgül Çiçek
İş ve aile ilişkisini inceleyen çalışmalarda bu iki alanın birbirine müdahalesini kabul eden çalışmalar ağırlık taşımasına rağmen, iş ve ailenin birbirine olumlu etkilerinin incelendiği çalışmalar da literatürde yer edinmeyi başarmıştır. Bu çalışma, çalışan ebeveynlerin, çocukların bakımı ve çocuklarla ilgili konular ile ev içi faaliyetlerde sorumluluk alma durumlarının aile-iş kolaylaştırması üzerindeki etkisinin cinsiyet ve toplumsal cinsiyet bağlamında incelenmesi amacını taşımaktadır. Ankara’da iki büyük devlet üniversitesinde çalışan, evli ve çocuk sahibi olan personel (n=447) ile yürütülen çalışmada tüm değişkenler açısından kadınların aile-iş kolaylaştırmasını erkeklerden daha fazla yaşadıklarını göstermiştir. Çalışmanın sonuçlarına göre kadınların aile-iş kolaylaştırması ile zaman esaslı ve psikolojik esaslı aile-iş kolaylaştırması, erkeklerden daha yüksektir. Bireylerin çocuk bakımı ve çocuklarla ilgili konularda ve ev içi faaliyetlerde sorumluluk alma durumu ile aile-iş kolaylaştırması arasındaki ilişki cinsiyete göre farklılaşmaktadır. Çocuk bakımı ve çocuklarla ilgili konularda büyük ölçüde eşinin sorumlu olduğunu belirten kadınların zaman esaslı aile-iş kolaylaştırması ile eşiyle hemen hemen eşit olarak sorumlu olduğunu belirten kadınların psikolojik esaslı aile-iş kolaylaştırması, erkeklerden daha yüksektir. Ev içi faaliyetlerden büyük ölçüde yardımcının sorumlu olduğunu belirten kadınların aile-iş kolaylaştırması ile psikolojik esaslı aile-iş kolaylaştırması, erkeklere göre daha yüksek bulunmuştur. Elde edilen bulgular cinsiyet, toplumsal cinsiyet ve sınırlı literatür çerçevesinde tartışılmış ve önerilerde bulunulmuştur.
lthough the notion of conflict between work and family pervades the literature, researchers have recently begun to accept the positive or beneficial aspects of combining work and family roles (Beute-ll & Schneer, 2014). In other words, although conflicts are likely when employees try to strike a balance between family and work commitments, it is also possible that their involvement in their families and work roles will bring positive results to their lives (Grzywacz & Bass, 2003). Facilitation occurs when engaging with one area of life brings benefits that improve the functioning of another (Wayne, Musis-ca, & Fleeson, 2004, p. 109). Participation in the home (or work) becomes easy thanks to the experienc-es, skills, and opportunities gained and developed at work (or at home) through work and family facil-itation (Frone, 2003). Individuals may experience different types of facilitation in parallel with differ-ent types of conflict: time, energy, and psychological-based facilitation. Time-based facilitation occurs when the time devoted to one role encourages or facilitates the effective management and use of the time devoted to another role. Energy-based facilitation occurs when the energy obtained in one role makes it easier to meet the needs of another role. Finally, psychological facilitation refers to the ability to place issues related to one role in perspective through another role, making it easier to fulfill the requirements of the first role (van Steenbergen, Ellemers, & Moojaart, 2007). In this study, the idea that the family facilitates one’s work life is examined. The antecedents of fam-ily-to-work facilitation (FWF) include taking responsibility for childcare, child-related issues, and house-hold chores. In this context, this study differs from previous ones because the antecedents related to the effect of FWF have been examined within the framework of “sharing of responsibilities” at home. The simple random sampling method was used in this study, in which the effects of taking respon-sibility for childcare, child-related issues, and household chores on FWF were evaluated in terms of both sex and gender. The sample consists of a total of 447 university staff who were both married and had children. The data were collected through a questionnaire consisting of two sections. The first section contains questions regarding demographic information (sex, age, educational status, spouse’s employment status, and the number and age of children), childcare, child-related issues, and household chores. In the second section, the work and family relationship scale developed by van Stenbergen et al. (2007) was employed, particularly the FWF items. These items consist of nine statements with three dimensions (time, energy, and psychology-based FWF). The data for this research were evaluated using the SPSS 21 program. Demographic and descrip-tive information about the participants is presented via descriptive statistics such as frequency, percent-age, average, and standard deviation. To test the hypotheses, two-sample t-test were conducted. The results obtained from the analyses were evaluated at a 95% confidence interval and α = 0.05 signifi-cance level. In the study, most of the participants were male with a master’s/doctorate degree, and they predom-inantly worked as full-time administrative employees. In addition, the average age of the participants was determined as Χ = 40.2 ± 7.2, the number of children was Χ = 1.8 ± 0.5, and the average age of the youngest child was Χ = 7.5 ± 5.2. According to the results of the study, women’s FWF, as well as their time- and psychology-based FWF, was higher than that of men. The relationship between taking responsibility for childcare and child-related issues and FWF, as well as the relationship between taking responsibility for household chores and FWF, differed by gender. The time-based FWF of people whose spouses were largely re-sponsible for childcare and child-related issues was higher for women than men. Furthermore, the psychology-based FWF of those who felt almost equal to their spouses in childcare and child-related issues was higher for women than men. Finally, the FWF and psychology-based FWF with hired help at home were higher for women than men. In the paper, the findings are discussed within the frame-work of sex, gender, and the limited related literature, and directions for future research are suggested.