Research Article


DOI :10.26650/JECS.2019-0124   IUP :10.26650/JECS.2019-0124    Full Text (PDF)

The Everyday Life Experiences and Coping Processes of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Germany

Fatma Güzin Ağca Varoğlu

Negative attitudes against migrants of Turkish origin in Germany strain relations within society and constitute the underlying reasons for the increase of everyday discrimination. Migration due to academic concerns makes up one of the many migration waves between Turkey and Germany. In this study semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 participants, who were considered as highly skilled immigrants both due to their migration for postgraduate studies and their possession of a particular social-cultural capital, evaluating their everyday experiences and coping processes in this regard using the content analysis from a range of qualitative research methods. PhD students differ with their specific purposes and conditions of migration from other migrant generations representing the largest minority in Germany. Yet, despite this distinction, their everyday experiences and stereotypes show similarities with the members of the minority society. However, they differentiate from their respective minority group with regard to their coping processes. The main questions this article deals with are the experiences of these actors, the tactics they have developed through their perceived stereotypes and the process of belonging that is manifested in this regard.

DOI :10.26650/JECS.2019-0124   IUP :10.26650/JECS.2019-0124    Full Text (PDF)

Almanya’da Yüksek Nitelikli Göçmenlerin Gündelik Hayat Deneyimleri ve Baş Etme Süreçleri

Fatma Güzin Ağca Varoğlu

Almanya’da Türkiye kökenli göçmenlere yönelik olumsuz tutumlar, toplumda kurulan ilişkileri zedelemekte ve yükselen gündelik hayat ayrımcılığının temelini teşkil etmektedir. Türkiye-Almanya arası göç dalgalarından birini de akademik kaygılarla göç eden doktora öğrencileri oluşturmaktadır. Çalışma kapsamında, Berlin’e doktora eğitimleri için gitmiş ve sahip oldukları sosyal-kültürel sermaye ile yüksek nitelikli göçmen statüsünde kabul edilebilecek 10 katılımcı ile yarı yapılandırılmış mülakat yapılarak, öğrencilerin gündelik hayat deneyimleri ve bu doğrultuda geçirdikleri baş etme süreçleri nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden içerik analizi ile değerlendirilmiştir. Bu doktora öğrencileri, kendilerine özgü göç amaç ve koşulları ile Almanya’nın en büyük azınlığını oluşturan diğer göçmen kuşaklardan farklılaşmaktadırlar. Bütün bu farklılaşmaya rağmen gündelik hayat deneyimlerinin, algıladıkları kalıp yargıların azınlık toplumunun üyeleri ile benzerlikler gösterdiği gözlemlenmektedir. Öte yandan baş etme süreçleri göz önüne alınırsa onlardan ayrışmaktadırlar. Bu aktörlerin deneyimleri, algıladıkları kalıp yargılarla geliştirdikleri taktikleri ve bu bağlamda kendisini gösteren aidiyet süreçleri makalenin ana sorunsalını oluşturmaktadır.


EXTENDED ABSTRACT


The primary purpose of the study is to research the tactical attributes adopted by PhD students due to their negative everyday life experiences in Germany and their connection with the belonging processes using Tajfel & Turner’s Social Identity Theory and De Certeau’s tactic conceptualization. In this context, the outcomes of the article are categorized under two topics, namely everyday life experiences, and coping processes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 students who were asked questions about their intergroup relations, stereotypes, and their developed coping processes in this regard. The study intends to shed light on group interactions of highly skilled Turkish immigrants in their everyday lives, who are barely paid attention to in migration studies in Germany.

Within the scope of the research, the participants were asked to list attributes which they thought members of the majority society would express about Turkish minorities. In this context, the students’ perceived stereotypes suggest that the generations of Turkish origin in Germany are conservative, aggressive, and patriarchal. The students also felt to a high degree the same negative image towards themselves as about migrant generations in Germany in their own experiences. Having migrated solely for educational purposes and unaware of such dominant stereotypes in Germany, these students expressed a great disappointment and shock due to the negative image that was being attributed to them.  

Participants also noted that they had difficulties in several milestones of everyday life such as extending their residence permits, finding houses and socialization due to discriminatory behaviours. It is obvious that such experiences resulting in changes in the belonging process led the students to experience a psychologically negative well-being, a situation I designate here as the Clark-Kent-Syndrome. The Clark-Kent-Syndrome is a concept designating the effects of discrediting special qualifications and socio-cultural capitals of skilled immigrants by the majority society. Although they migrated to Germany as “bright students“ and “persona grata”, they eventually weakened and failed to use their superpowers against stereotypes, just like Superman exposed to kryptonite. In particular, in the early days when they had a poor command of the German language, unlike any other ‘western’ international student, my interviewees, under the dense influence of negative stereotypes, took upon themselves the criticism over migrant generations avoiding learning German. In this context, a lack of language proficiency categorizes students into a low-status group, as a tool for labelling. 

The students adopted certain tactics to overcome the negative experiences of their everyday lives. Participants observed a decrease in their negative experiences to the extent that they proved to fail to meet the stereotypes and think that they are able to reinstate, even partially, their high status with the tactics they had developed. Such tactics can be addressed under two topics, namely individual mobility and sub-grouping in association with the belonging processes. 

The frequently uttered “you are an exeption” attitude towards the participants, has been taken up by them as a discourse. They emphasize their differences from other migrant generations through impression management in a performative way. They refer to Istanbul, a global city, or their ability to speak Turkish the Istanbul way as showing their socialization in Turkey, and choose to speak English to secure their presence as international students, and demonstrate their socio-cultural capitals to make their privileged position distinctive. Thus, they adopt sub-typification as a tactic to reinstate their positive distinctiveness. These are all examples of the individual mobility tactic, manifested by the emphasis on ‘I am distinct’.

In such conflict situations, where the in-group makes up a “lower status group”, students are neither identified with their in-groups nor are they assimilated by developing belongingness with an out-group. Instead, they internalize sub-typification that highlights in-group differences and choose sub-grouping. Accordingly, they opt to compare themselves with in-group members. At this point, a sort of “we”, i.e. the sub-group constituted of highly skilled immigrants, who came from and had a socialization processes in Turkey, emerges. In contrary to findings suggesting that German-Turks have developed tactics to become introverted, to gravitate to their own consumption, information and socialization environments, it has been revealed that the students in this research abstain from the aforementioned “immigrant” tactics with their own distinctive tactics. It is interesting that a specific tactic developed by an immigrant group is taken out of the range of application by other members of the same group, again in a tactical manner. This belonging-based tactic enables positive distinctiveness for students, while in their social environment, it gives rise to a kind of ambiguity based upon the level of acquaintance. The tactics that are repeatedly developed in line with dominant strategies in everyday interactions do not only manifest in successive processes but also in concurrent and intersecting cases and social environments.


PDF View

References

  • Abadan Unat, N. (2007). Türk dış göçünün aşamaları: 1950li yıllardan 2000li yıllara. A. Kaya ve B. Şahin (Ed.), Kökler ve Yollar: Türkiye’de Göç Süreçleri kitabı içinde, (s. 1–19). İstanbul: Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları. google scholar
  • Alam, O., (2012). ‘Islam is a blackfella religion, whatchya trying to prove?’: Race in the lives of white Muslim converts in Australia. La Trobe Journal, 89, 124–139. google scholar
  • Amir-Moazami S. (2007). Politisierte Religion. Der Kopftuchstreit in Deutschland und Frankreich. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag. google scholar
  • Aydin, Y. (2010). Der Diskurs um die Abwanderung Hochqualifizierter türkischer Herkunft in die Türkei. HWWI Policy Paper. 3(9). Baltes, B. B., & Rudolph, C. W. (2010). Examining the effect of negative Turkish stereotypes on evaluative workplace outcomes in Germany. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25(2), 148–158. Retrieved from https://doi. org/10.1108/02683941011019357 google scholar
  • Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The location of culture. London: Routledge. google scholar
  • Bilecen-Süoğlu, B. (2012). Trends in student mobility from Turkey to Germany. Perceptions, 12(2), 61–84. google scholar
  • Breuer, F. (2003). Subjekthaftigkeit der sozial-/wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnistätigkeit und ihre Reflexion: Epistemologische Fenster, methodische Umsetzungen. Forum: Qualitative Sozialforschung, 4(2). google scholar
  • Canbulat, M., Ültanır, E., Ültanır, G., Griese, H., Schulte ve Sievers, I. (2008). Almanya’da yaşayan Türk üniversite öğrencilerinin sosyo-kültürel yetilerinin bazı değişkenler açısından incelenmesi. Sosyoloji Konferansları, 37, 19–35. Erişim Adresi: https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/download/article-file/100881 google scholar
  • De Certeau, M. (2008). Gündelik hayatın keşfi I, (L. Arslan Özcan, Çev.). Ankara: Dost Kitabevi Yayınları. google scholar
  • Deniz, Ç. A., Hüldür, A. B. ve Ekinci, Y. (2016). Göç, strateji ve taktik: Suriyeli sığınmacıların gündelik hayat deneyimleri. The Journal of International Social Research. 9(42). 1077–1087. Erişim Adresi: DOI: 10.17719/ jisr.20164216217 google scholar
  • Diehl, C., Fischer-Neumann, M., & Mühlau, P. (2016). Between ethnic options and ethnic boundaries – Recent Polish and Turkish migrants’ identification with Germany. Ethnicities, 16(2), 236–260. Retrieved from https:// doi.org/10.1177/1468796815616156 google scholar
  • El-Tayeb, F. (2008). “The birth of a European public”: Migration, postnationality, and race in the uniting of Europe. American Quarterly, 60(3), 649–670. Retrieved from Doi:10.1353/aq.0.0024 . google scholar
  • Ellingson, L. L. (1998). “Then you know how I feel”: Empathy, identification, and reflexivity in fieldwork. Qualitative Inquiry, 4(4), 492–514. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/107780049800400405 google scholar
  • European Migration Network (2013). Immigration of international students to the EU: EMN Synthesis Report. Directorate General Home Affairs, European Commission. Retrieved from https://emn.ie/publications/ immigration-of-international-students-to-the-eu-emn-synthesis-report/ google scholar
  • Esgin, A. (2016). Sosyolojik soruşturmalar: Gündelik olanın analizinden kesitler. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi. google scholar
  • Esgin, A. (2018). Gündelik hayat sosyolojisi: Tarihsel süreç ve temel İlkeler. A. Esgin& G. Çeğin (Ed.), Gündelik hayat Sosyolojisi temalar, sorunsallar ve güzergâhlar kitabı içinde (s. 13–35). Ankara: Phoenix Yayınevi. google scholar
  • Goffman, E. (2009). Günlük yaşamda benliğin sunumu, (B. Cezar, Çev.). Ankara: Metis Yayınları. google scholar
  • Gokalp Yılmaz, G. (2013). Tactics in daily life practices and different forms of resistance: The case of Turks in Germany. The Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 82. 66–73. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1016/j. sbspro.2013.06.226 google scholar
  • Göle, N. (2010). İç içe girişler: İslam ve Avrupa, (A. Berkay, Çev.). Ankara: Metis Yayınları. google scholar
  • Göle, N. (2015). Gündelik yaşamda Müslümanlar: Avrupa kamusal alanındaki İslam ihtilafları üzerine bir araştırma, (Z. Cunillera, Çev.). Ankara: Metis Yayınları. google scholar
  • Güven, U. (2018). Kültür, gündelik hayat ve teatrallik ilişkisi açısından performans antropolojisi. Antropoloji, 36, 103–123. Erişim Adresi: DOI: 10.1501/antro_0000000361 google scholar
  • Hartmann, J. (2016). Do second-generation Turkish migrants in Germany assimilate into the middle class? Ethnicities, 16(3), 368–392. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796814548234 google scholar
  • Hewstone, M. (1994). Revision and change of stereotypic beliefs: In search of the elusive subtyping model, European Review of Social Psychology, 5(1), 69–109. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1080/14792779543000020 google scholar
  • Hewstone. M., Macrae, C., Griffiths, R., Milne A. B., & Brown, R. (1994). Cognitive models of stereotype change: 5. Measurement, development and consequences of subtyping. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, 505–526. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1994.1024 google scholar
  • Horneffer. B., & Krenner D. (2013). Hochqualifizierte in Deutschland: Erhebung zu Karriereverläufen und internationaler Mobilität von Hochqualifizierten. Wiesbaden: Statistisches Bundesamt. Erreichbar in https:// www.destatis.de/DE/Themen/Gesellschaft-Umwelt/Bildung-Forschung-Kultur/Hochschulen/Publikationen/ Downloads-Hochschulen/hochqualifizierte-deutschland-5217205139004.pdf?__blob=publicationFile google scholar
  • Jouili, S. J. (2009). Negotiating secular boundaries: Pious micro-practices of Muslim women in French and German public spheres. Social Anthropology, 17(4) 455–470. Retrieved from https://doi:10.1111/j.1469-8676.2009.00082.x google scholar
  • Kahraman, B., & Knoblich, G. (2000). Strechen statt Sprechen: Valenz und automatische Aktivierbarkeit von Stereotypen über Türken in Deutschland. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie, 2, 29–41. google scholar
  • Kaya, A. (2001). Sicher in Kreuzberg : constructing diasporas; Turkish hip-hop youth in Berlin. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag. google scholar
  • Kaya, A. (2002). Aesthetics of diaspora: Contemporary minstrels in Turkish Berlin, Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 28(1), 43–62. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1080/13691830120103921 google scholar
  • Kızılay, Ş. E. (2011). Küreselleşme, Madun Kamusallığı ve Taktikler: Afyon Çavuşbaş Mahallesi Örneği. İdealkent. 3, 94–129. google scholar
  • Kristen, C., & Granato, N. (2007). The educational attainment of the second generation in Germany: Social origins and ethnic inequality. Ethnicities, 7(3), 343–366. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796807080233 google scholar
  • Kümbetoğlu, Belkıs. (2019). Sosyolojide ve Antropolojide Niteliksel Yöntem ve Araştırma. İstanbul: Bağlam Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Lamnek, S. (2005). Qualitative Sozialforschung Band 2, Weinheim, Beltz: Psychologie Verlags Union, (s. 35–124). google scholar
  • Lippmann, W. (1998 [1922]). Public opinion, New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers (pp. 79–130). google scholar
  • Maurer, K. L., & Park, B., & Rothbart, M. (1995). Subtyping versus subgrouping processes in stereotype representation, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(5), 812–824. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1207/ S15327957PSPR0501_4 google scholar
  • Moffitt, U., Juang, L. P., & Syed, M. (2019). “We don’t do that in Germany!” A critical race theory examination of Turkish heritage young adults’ school experiences. Ethnicities, 19(5), 830–857. Retrieved from https://doi. org/10.1177/1468796818788596 google scholar
  • Park, B., & Rothbart, M. (1992). Role of meaningful subgroups in explaining differences in perceived variability for in-groups and out-groups, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63(4), 553–567. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1037//0022-3514.63.4.553 google scholar
  • Park, B., Wolsko, C., & Judd, C. M. (2001). Measurement of subtyping in stereotype change, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 325–332. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1006/jesp.2000.1460 google scholar
  • Reimers, S. L. (2018). Migration, Bildung und Familie: Ethnografische Annäherung an den Alltag dreier Generationen zwischen türkischem Dorf und Neuköllner Kiez. Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag. google scholar
  • Richards, Z., & Hewstone, M. (2001). Subtyping and subgrouping: Processes for the prevention and promotion of stereotype change, Personality and Social Pychology Review, 5(1), 52–73. Retrieved from https://doi. org/10.1207/S15327957PSPR0501_4 google scholar
  • Sabuktay, A. (2008). Kızılay’da gündelik hayat ve yönetim, Mülkiye Dergisi, 32 (261), 161–173. google scholar
  • Salt, J. (1997). International movements of the highly skilled. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers. No: 3. google scholar
  • Schiffauer. W. (2003). Kulturelle Zuschreibungen und Fremdethnisierungen. In M. Frölich& A. Messerschmidt& J. Walther (Eds.), Migration als biografische und expressive Ressource: Beiträge zur kulturellen Produktion in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft, (S.151–158). Frankfurt am Main: Brandes& Apsel Verlag. google scholar
  • Schiffauer, W. (2004a). Vom Exil- zum Diaspora-Islam. Muslimische Identitäten in Europa. Soziale Welt - Zeitschrift für sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung und Praxis, 55(4), 347–368. Erreichbar in DOI: 10.2307/40878470 google scholar
  • Schiffauer, W. (2004b). Cosmopolitans are cosmopolitans: On the relevance of local identification in globalizing society. In. J. Friedman& S. Randeria (Eds.). Worlds on the move: Globalization, migration, and cultural security ,91–103. London: Tauris. google scholar
  • Schiffauer, W. (2006). Enemies within the gates- The debate about the citizenship of Muslims in Germany. In T. Modood & A. Triandafyllidou & R. Zapata Barrero (Eds.), Multiculturalism, Muslims and citizenship: A European approach, 94–117. London: Routledge. google scholar
  • Schiffauer, W. (2007). Der unheimliche Muslim- Staatsbürgerschaft und zivilgesellschaftliche Ängste. In L. Tezcan& M. Wohlrab-Sahr (Eds.), Konfliktfeld Islam in Europa, (S. 111–134). Baden-Baden: Nomos-Verlag. google scholar
  • Schiffauer, W. (2008). Parallelgesellschaften: Wie viel Wertekonsens braucht unsere Gesellschaft? Für eine kluge Politik der Differenz . Bielefeld: Transcript Verlag. google scholar
  • Schiffauer, W. (2013). The logics of toleration: Outline for a comparative approach to the study of tolerance. In J. Dobbernack & T. Modood (Eds.), Tolerance, intolerance and respect: hard to accept?, (S. 103–127). London: Palgrave Macmillan. google scholar
  • Schiffauer, W., Uçan, M., Schwalgin S., & Kurt, N. (2015). Schule, Moschee, Elternhaus: Eine ethnologische Intervention. Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag. google scholar
  • She, Q. ve Wotherspoon, T. (2013). International student mobility and highly skilled migration: a comparative study of Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Springer Plus. 2, 132. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1186/21931801-2-132 google scholar
  • Spielhaus, R. (2006). Religion und Identität Vom deutschen Versuch, “Ausländer” zu “Muslimen” zu machen. Internationale Politik, 3, 28–37. google scholar
  • Şahin Kütük, B. (2015). Türkiye’den Batı Avrupa’ya işçi göçünün sosyolojik çalışmalara yansımaları. Sosyoloji Konferansları, 52(2), 609-654. Erişim Adresi: DOI: 10.18368/IU/sk.19012 google scholar
  • Tajfel, H. (1974). Social identity and intergroup behaviour. Social Science Information. 13, 65–92. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1177/053901847401300204 google scholar
  • Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. (1979). An integrative theory of intergroup conflict, In: W.G. Austin ans S. Warchel (Ed.), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole, 33–47. google scholar
  • Tezcan, M. (1999). Çokkültürlülük masalı: Çokkültürlü toplumlarda Türk işçi çocuklarının eğitimi sorunu (Almanya ve Hollanda örneği). Eğitim ve Bilim, 14(114), 57–63. google scholar
  • Turner, V. (1982). Liminal to liminoid, in play, flow, ritual: An essay in comparative symbology. In V. Turner, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play, 20–60. New York: Performing Arts Journal Publications. google scholar
  • Türkmen, G. (2019). “But you don’t look Turkish!”: The changing face of Turkish immigration to Germany. Reset Dialogues. Yardım, M. (2016). İç grup (biz) ve dış grup (onlar) bağlamında Fransız intelligentsia örneği. Sosyoloji Konferansları, 54(2), 333–350. google scholar
  • Yörükoğlu, C. ve Kara, G. (2017). Almanya’da yaşayan yüksek nitelikli Türk göçmenler-Beyin göçünün yeterince farkında mıyız?. İktisat ve Toplum. Sayı: 80. google scholar
  • Yıldırım, A., & Şimşek, H. (2005). Sosyal bilimlerde nitel araştırma yöntemleri. Ankara: Seçkin Yayıncılık. google scholar
  • Yılmaz Sener, M. (2019) Perceived discrimination as a major factor behind return migration? The return of Turkish qualified migrants from the USA and Germany. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 45(15), 2801–2819. Retrieved from DOI: 10.1080/1369183X.2018.1524292 google scholar
  • Yılmaz Şener, M. ve Türgen, G. (2018). Kesin dönüş mü, yoksa tekrar göç etme hazırlığı mı? Nitelikli Türk göçmenlerin Almanya ve Amerika’dan geriye göçü. Sosyoloji Araştırmaları Dergisi, 21(1). google scholar
  • Mülakatlar Ali, Berlin- Kreuzberg, Haziran 2011 google scholar
  • Aslı, Berlin- Kreuzberg, Haziran 2011 google scholar
  • Burak, Berlin- Dahlem, Haziran 2011 google scholar
  • Gülşah, Berlin- Kreuzberg, Haziran 2011 google scholar
  • Kerem, Berlin- Potsdamer Platz, Haziran 2011 google scholar
  • Melike, Berlin- Dahlem, Temmuz 2011 google scholar
  • Neşe, Berlin- Kreuzberg, Temmuz 2011 google scholar
  • Olgun, Berlin- Neukölln, Haziran 2011 google scholar
  • Özlem, Berlin- Dahlem, Temmuz 2011 google scholar
  • Sabiha, Berlin- Kreuzberg, Haziran 2011 google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Ağca Varoğlu, F.G. (2020). The Everyday Life Experiences and Coping Processes of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Germany. Journal of Economy, Culture and Society, 0(62), 23-46. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS.2019-0124


AMA

Ağca Varoğlu F G. The Everyday Life Experiences and Coping Processes of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Germany. Journal of Economy, Culture and Society. 2020;0(62):23-46. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS.2019-0124


ABNT

Ağca Varoğlu, F.G. The Everyday Life Experiences and Coping Processes of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Germany. Journal of Economy, Culture and Society, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 62, p. 23-46, 2020.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Ağca Varoğlu, Fatma Güzin,. 2020. “The Everyday Life Experiences and Coping Processes of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Germany.” Journal of Economy, Culture and Society 0, no. 62: 23-46. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS.2019-0124


Chicago: Humanities Style

Ağca Varoğlu, Fatma Güzin,. The Everyday Life Experiences and Coping Processes of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Germany.” Journal of Economy, Culture and Society 0, no. 62 (Jun. 2021): 23-46. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS.2019-0124


Harvard: Australian Style

Ağca Varoğlu, FG 2020, 'The Everyday Life Experiences and Coping Processes of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Germany', Journal of Economy, Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 62, pp. 23-46, viewed 23 Jun. 2021, https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS.2019-0124


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Ağca Varoğlu, F.G. (2020) ‘The Everyday Life Experiences and Coping Processes of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Germany’, Journal of Economy, Culture and Society, 0(62), pp. 23-46. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS.2019-0124 (23 Jun. 2021).


MLA

Ağca Varoğlu, Fatma Güzin,. The Everyday Life Experiences and Coping Processes of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Germany.” Journal of Economy, Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 62, 2020, pp. 23-46. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS.2019-0124


Vancouver

Ağca Varoğlu FG. The Everyday Life Experiences and Coping Processes of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Germany. Journal of Economy, Culture and Society [Internet]. 23 Jun. 2021 [cited 23 Jun. 2021];0(62):23-46. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS.2019-0124 doi: 10.26650/JECS.2019-0124


ISNAD

Ağca Varoğlu, FatmaGüzin. The Everyday Life Experiences and Coping Processes of Highly Skilled Immigrants in Germany”. Journal of Economy, Culture and Society 0/62 (Jun. 2021): 23-46. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS.2019-0124



TIMELINE


Submitted23.12.2019
Accepted11.04.2020
Published Online23.04.2020

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.