Research Article


DOI :10.26650/JECS2021-912701   IUP :10.26650/JECS2021-912701    Full Text (PDF)

Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Ethnocentrism Scale

Asena AlbayrakÖzkan Tütüncü

Ethnocentrism is the evaluation of different cultures in various societies according to the preconceptions of one’s own culture and with one’s own culture at the center. It has some distinct features compared to tourism, since one of the main motivations of tourism is to know different cultures. The purpose of this study was to adapt “the ethnocentrism scale,” which was developed by Neuliep and McCroskey, into Turkish and to test the validity and reliability analysis of the scale. The study was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire and distributed to 422 residents of Alaçatı, Izmir (Turkiye). As a result of Robust Diagonally Weighted Least Squares (RDWLS) analysis, it was concluded that the adapted ethnocentrism scale was three-dimensional rather than onedimensional as in its original structure. None of the items were excluded from the study. Results showed that scale is valid and reliable with some limitations for the Turkish version. The ethnocentrism scale was found in the literature for the first time in three dimensions, and the names of the dimensions were determined for the first time in this study.

JEL Classification : D31 , D10 , D33 , D12

PDF View

References

  • Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, K., Levinson, D., & Sanford, R. N. (1950). The Authoritarian Personality. New York: Harper & Brothers. google scholar
  • Alkan, C. (2015). Sürdürülebilir turizm: Alaçatı destinasyonuna yönelik bir uygulama. Journal of Yasar University, 10(40), 6692-6710. google scholar
  • Antonsich, M. (2020). Everyday nation in times of rising nationalism. Sociology, 54(6), 1230-1237. google scholar
  • Bieber, F. (2018). Is nationalism on the rise? Assessing global trends. Ethnopolitics, 17(5), 519-540. google scholar
  • Bizumic, B. (2015). Ethnocentrism. Vocabulary for the Study of Religion (Vol. 1), 533-539. Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Academic Publishers. google scholar
  • Cattell, R. B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 245-76. google scholar
  • Demir, S., & Üstün, E. (2017). An analysis of intercultural sensitivity and ethnocentrism levels of teacher candidates. İnönü University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 18(3), 01- 11. Doi:10.17679/inuefd.354129 google scholar
  • Doğan, H. Z. (2004). Socio-cultural basics of tourism. (2. Ed.) Ankara, Turkey: Detay Publishers. (In Turkish). google scholar
  • Duckitt, J. H. (2010). Historical overview. (Edited by: John F. Dovidio, Miles Hewstone, Peter Glick and Victoria M. Esses), The SAGE Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping and Discrimination, 29-44. London, UK: Sage. google scholar
  • Foubert, L. (2018). Men and women tourists’ desire to see the world: ‘Curiosity’ and ‘A longing to learn’ as (self-) fashioning motifs (first-fifth centuries C.E.). Journal of Tourism History, 10(1), 5-20. google scholar
  • Finney, S. J., & DiStefano, C. (2006). Nonnormal and categorical data in structural equation modeling. In G. R. Hancock & R. O. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: A second course, 269-314. Greenwich, CT: Information Age. google scholar
  • Flora, D. B., & Curran, P. J. (2004). An empirical evaluation of alternative methods of estimation for confirmatory factor analysis with ordinal data. Psychological Methods, 9, 466-491. google scholar
  • Grant, P. R. (1992). Ethnocentrism between group of unequal power in response to perceived threat to social identity and valued resources. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 24, 348-370. google scholar
  • Grant, P. R. (1993). Ethnocentrism in response to a threat to social identity. In J. W. Neuliep (Ed.), replication research in the social sciences. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 8, 143-154. google scholar
  • Grant, P. R., & Brown, R. (1995). From ethnocentrism to collective protest: responses to relative deprivation and threat to social identity. Social Psychology Quarterly, 58, 195-211. google scholar
  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Barry, J. B., & Rolf, E. A. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspective (7. Ed.). London, UK: Pearson Prentice Hall. google scholar
  • Hammond, R. A., & Axelrod, R. (2006). The evolution of ethnocentrism. Journal Of Conflict Resolution, 50(6), 926-936. google scholar
  • Harman, H. H. (1962). Modern factor analysis (2. Ed.). Chicago, USA: University of Chicago Press. google scholar
  • Hendrickson, A. E., & White, P. O. (1964). PROMAX: A quick method for rotation to oblique simple structure. British Journal of Statistical Psychology, 17, 65-70. google scholar
  • Hofstede, G. (1991). Culture and organizations: Software of the mind. London, UK: McGraw-Hill. google scholar
  • Horn, J. L. (1965). A rationale and test for the number of factors in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 30,179-85. google scholar
  • Kelley, T. L. (1935). Essential traits of mental life. Harvard Studies in Education (Vol. 26). Cambridge, USA: Harvard University Press. google scholar
  • Kiers, H. A. L. (1994). Simplimax: oblique rotation to an optimal target with simple structure. Psychometrika, 59, 567-579. google scholar
  • Kock, F., Josiassen, A., Assaf, A. G., Karpen, I., & Farrelly, F. (2019). Tourism ethnocentrism and its effects on tourist and resident behavior. Journal of Travel Research: 1-13. google scholar
  • Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30, 607-610. google scholar
  • LeVine, R. A., & Campbell, D. T. (1972). Ethnocentrism. New York: John Wiley. google scholar
  • Logan, S., Steel, Z., & Hunt, C. (2016). Intercultural willingness to communicate within health services: Investigating anxiety, uncertainty, ethnocentrism and help seeking behaviour. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 54, 77-86. google scholar
  • Lorenzo-Seva, U. (1999). Promin: A method for oblique factor rotation. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 34, 347-365. google scholar
  • Lorenzo-Seva U., & Ferrando P. J. (2019a). Factor. Ver. 10.9.02. [Windows]. Tarragona, Spain: Rovira i Virgili University. google scholar
  • Lorenzo-Seva U., & Ferrando P. J. (2019b). Robust promin: A method for diagonally weighted factor rotation. Liberabit, 25(1), 99-106. Retrieved from: https:/ /doi.org/10.24265/liberabit.2019.v25n1.08 google scholar
  • Mardia, K V. (1970). Measures of multivariate skewness and kurtosis with applications. Biometrika, 57, 519-30. google scholar
  • Michailova, S., Piekkari, R., Storgaard M., & Tienari, J. (2017). Rethinking ethnocentrism in international business research. Global Strategy Journal, 7(4), 335-353. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1002/gsj.1159 google scholar
  • Mortazavi Ganji Ketab, S., Pahlevan Sharif, S., Mehrabi, D., & Binti Abdul Rahman, N. A. (2019). Effects of ethnocentrism and online interethnic interactions on interethnic bridging social capital among university students: The moderating role of ethnicity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 71, 48-59. google scholar
  • Muthen B., & Kaplan D. A (1985). Comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non-normal Likert variables. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 38, 171-89. google scholar
  • Muthen, B. & Kaplan D. (1992). A comparison of some methodologies for the factor analysis of non-normal Likert variables: A note on the size of the model. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 45, 19-30. google scholar
  • Myers, M. B. (2015). Ethnocentrism: A literature overview and directions for future research. Proceedings of the 1995 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference: 202-207. google scholar
  • Nagel, J. (1994). Constructing ethnicity: Creating and recreating ethnic identity and culture. Social Problems. 41(1), 152-176. google scholar
  • Nameni, A. (2020). Research into ethnocentrism and intercultural willingness to communicate of Iraqi and Iranian medical students in Iran. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 49(1), 65-85. google scholar
  • Neuliep, J. W., & McCroskey, J. C. (1997). The development of a U.S. and generalized ethnocentrism scale. Communication Research Reports, 14(4), 385-398. google scholar
  • Neuliep, J. W., Chaudoir, M., & McCroskey, J. C. (2001). A cross-cultural comparison of ethnocentrism among Japanese and United States college students. Communication Research Reports, 18, 137-146. google scholar
  • Neuliep, J. W., Hintz, S. M., & McCroskey, J. C. (2005). The influence of ethnocentrism in organizational contexts: Perceptions on interviewee and managerial attractiveness, credibility, and effectiveness. Communication Quarterly, 53(1), 41-56. google scholar
  • Neuliep, J. W., & McCroskey, J. C. (2013). Ethnocentrism scale. Measurement Instrument Database for the Social Science. Retrieved from: https://www.jamescmccroskey.com/measures/ethnocentrism_scale.htm google scholar
  • Norman, G. R., & Streiner, D.L. (1994). Biostatistics: The Bare Essentials. St. Louis MO: Mosby. google scholar
  • Nunnally, J. C. (1967). Psychometric theory. New York, USA: McGraw-Hill. google scholar
  • Sumner, W. G. (1906). Folkways. Boston, USA: Ginn. google scholar
  • Swartz, M. J. (1961). Negative ethnocentrism. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 5(1), 75-81. google scholar
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston, USA: Pearson. google scholar
  • Taylor, D. M., & Jaggi, V. (1974). Ethnocentrism and casual attribution in a South Indian context. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 5, 162-171. google scholar
  • Ten Berge, J. M. F., & Kiers, H. A. L. (1991). A numerical approach to the exact and the approximate minimum rank of a covariance matrix. Psychometrika, 56, 309-315. google scholar
  • Tung, V., King, B. E. M., & Tse, S. (2019). The tourist stereotype model: positive and negative dimensions. Journal of Travel Research, 59(1), 37-51. google scholar
  • UNESCO (1995). The declaration of principles on tolerance. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/ images/0015/001518/151830eo.pdf 9 May 2020. google scholar
  • Üstün, E. (2011). The factors affecting the intercultural sensitivity and ethnocentrism levels of teacher candidates. Unpublished Master Thesis. Yıldız Teknik University. (In Turkish). google scholar
  • Verkuyten, M., Yogeeswaran, K., & Adelman, L. (2019). Intergroup toleration and its implications for culturally diverse societies. Social Issues Policy Review, 13(1), 5-35. google scholar
  • Wigley III, C. J. (2011). Cronbach’s alpha versus components of variance approach (COVA): Dispelling three myths about alpha and suggesting an alternative reliability statistic for communication trait research. Communication Research Reports, 28(3), 281-286. google scholar
  • Yu, C., & Muthen, B. (2002). Evaluation of model fit indices for latent variable models with categorical and continuous outcomes. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, April. New Orleans, L.A. google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Albayrak, A., & Tütüncü, Ö. (2022). Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Ethnocentrism Scale. Journal of Economy Culture and Society, 0(65), 47-59. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-912701


AMA

Albayrak A, Tütüncü Ö. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Ethnocentrism Scale. Journal of Economy Culture and Society. 2022;0(65):47-59. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-912701


ABNT

Albayrak, A.; Tütüncü, Ö. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Ethnocentrism Scale. Journal of Economy Culture and Society, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 65, p. 47-59, 2022.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Albayrak, Asena, and Özkan Tütüncü. 2022. “Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Ethnocentrism Scale.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0, no. 65: 47-59. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-912701


Chicago: Humanities Style

Albayrak, Asena, and Özkan Tütüncü. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Ethnocentrism Scale.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0, no. 65 (Jun. 2022): 47-59. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-912701


Harvard: Australian Style

Albayrak, A & Tütüncü, Ö 2022, 'Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Ethnocentrism Scale', Journal of Economy Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 65, pp. 47-59, viewed 26 Jun. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-912701


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Albayrak, A. and Tütüncü, Ö. (2022) ‘Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Ethnocentrism Scale’, Journal of Economy Culture and Society, 0(65), pp. 47-59. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-912701 (26 Jun. 2022).


MLA

Albayrak, Asena, and Özkan Tütüncü. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Ethnocentrism Scale.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 65, 2022, pp. 47-59. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-912701


Vancouver

Albayrak A, Tütüncü Ö. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Ethnocentrism Scale. Journal of Economy Culture and Society [Internet]. 26 Jun. 2022 [cited 26 Jun. 2022];0(65):47-59. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-912701 doi: 10.26650/JECS2021-912701


ISNAD

Albayrak, Asena - Tütüncü, Özkan. Evaluation of the Psychometric Properties of the Ethnocentrism Scale”. Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0/65 (Jun. 2022): 47-59. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-912701



TIMELINE


Submitted10.04.2021
Accepted01.03.2022
Published Online13.05.2022

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.