Validity and Reliability Study of Safety Climate ScaleSalih Dursun, Oğuz Başol, Belemir Şengül
Occupational accidents are accepted as one of the important problems that areas of today’s working life experienced due to significant economic, social, and psychological losses. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the role of safety climate in preventing occupational accidents. A safe climate is the holistic perception shared by employees about the work environment. This research aims to adapt the safety climate scale developed by Hahn and Murphy into the Turkish language. A total of 191 metal industry employees participated in the research. Based on the confirmatory factor analysis results, the scale consists of six items and single factor safety climate scale (Chi-square/df: 2.23; RMSEA: 0.08; NFI: 0.98; NNFI: 0.98; CFI: 0.99; GFI: 0.97; and AGFI: 0.92). The internal consistency of the scale was calculated as 0.857 and item-total correlations ranged between 0.519 and 0.612. As a result, it was concluded that safety climate scale is valid and reliable for Turkish society.
Güvenlik İklimi Ölçeğinin Türkçe Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik ÇalışmasıSalih Dursun, Oğuz Başol, Belemir Şengül
İş kazaları, yol açmış olduğu önemli ekonomik, sosyal ve psikolojik kayıplar nedeniyle günümüz çalışma hayatının önemli sorun alanlarından biri olarak kabul edilmektedir. Son yıllarda iş kazalarının önlenmesinde güvenlik ikliminin rolüne yönelik artan bir ilginin olduğu görülmektedir. Bu bağlamda güvenlik iklimi, çalışanların çalışma çevresi hakkında paylaşmış oldukları bütüncül algılarıdır. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Hahn ve Murphy (2008) tarafında geliştirilen 6 madde ve tek boyuttan oluşan güvenlik iklimi ölçeğinin geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmasını yapmak ve Türkçe literatüre katkı sağlamaktır. Çalışmanın örneklemini metal sanayiinde çalışan 191 çalışan oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma verilerinin analizinde SPSS 22 ve LISREL 8.71 programları kullanılmıştır. Yapılan analiz sonucunda, ölçekte bulunan maddelerin faktör yükleri 0,649 ile 0,836 arasında değiştiği ve açıklanan toplam varyansın %58,90 olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Gerçekleştirilen doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonuçlarına göre, güvenlik iklimi ölçeği (Ki-kare/serbestlik değeri: 2,23; RMSEA: 0.08; NFI: 0.98; NNFI: 0.98; CFI: 0.99; GFI: 0.97 ve AGFI: 0.92) orijinal ölçekte olduğu gibi 6 madde ve tek boyuttan oluşmaktadır. Ölçeğin içsel tutarlığı 0,857 olarak hesaplanmıştır ve madde-toplam korelasyonlarının 0,519 ile 0,612 arasında değiştiği görülmüştür. Elde edilen bulgular, çalışanların güvenlik iklimi algılarını değerlendirmede güvenlik iklimi ölçeğinin geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçüm aracı olduğunu göstermektedir.
The International Labor Organization (ILO) estimates that approximately 2.3 million employees around the world are exposed to work-related accidents or diseases every year. Worldwide, there are around 340 million occupational accidents and 160 million victims of work-related illnesses every year. In recent years, there has been a rapid increase in the number of studies aimed at the causes and preventions of occupational accidents. The unsafe behaviors of employees are emphasized as the primary cause of occupational accidents and it is estimated that 60%–80% of the occupational accidents are caused by unsafe behaviors of the employees (Choudhry & Fang, 2008, p. 567; Huang et al., 2018, p. 109).
There is an increasing interest in the role of safety climate in the prevention of work-related accidents and injuries (Hahn & Murphy, 2008, p. 1047). Safety climate is widely recognized as an important organizational factor in ensuring workplace safety. Studies dealing with the relationship between safety climate and outcome variables showed that safety climate is related to safety behavior of employees (Glendon & Litherland, 2001; Cooper & Philips, 2004; Sadullah & Kanten, 2009; Lu & Yang, 2011; Tholen et al., 2013; Lyu et al., 2018), safety outcome, and safety performance (Griffin & Neal, 2000; Clarke, 2006; Wu et al., 2008; Singer et al., 2009; Probst & Estrada, 2010; Beus et al., 2010).
This research aims to adapt safety climate scale developed by Hahn and Murphy in 2008 into the Turkish language. The research was conducted voluntarily with a total of 191 people working in the metal industry employees in Trabzon, Turkey. Two sections in the questionnaire were used in this research. The first part aims to determine the demographic characteristics of the participants (gender, marital status, educational age, and work experience). The second part consists of six-item scale and a single factor safety climate scale, which was developed by Hahn and Murphy (2008). Five-point Likert-type assessment (1: strongly disagree; 5: strongly agree), and SPSS 22, LISREL 8.71 programs were used for data analysis.
According to the results, all participants were male, 67% were married and 53.9% had a primary or secondary school education. The ages of the participants ranged between 21 and 54, and the mean age was 35 ± 8.12. The duration of the experience of the participants ranged from 1 to 15 years, and the average experience duration was 5 ± 3.60 years.
The data set was found to be suitable for explanatory factor analysis (KMO: 0.839; Bartlett’s p: 0.00). The results of exploratory factor analysis (the extraction method was principal component analysis, the rotation method was varimax with Kaiser Normalization), the six-item scale with factor loads ranging from 0.649 to 0.836 were collected in a single factor with 58.90% of the total variance. In this case, the items on the scale matched the factor structure in the original study.
The results of confirmatory factor analysis showed that all paths between items were significant (t > 1.96) and the standardized factor loadings of all items were > 0.5. Based on the examination of the goodness of fit statistics (Chi-square/freedom value: 2.23; RMSEA: 0.08; NFI: 0.98; NNFI: 0.98; CFI: 0.99; GFI: 0.97 and AGFI: 0.92), all values are above the acceptable goodness of fit statistics; thus, it is appropriate to say that the scale is validated with a single factor. Therefore, it can be said that the scale for safety climate scale is valid.
Cronbach’s Alpha was used for the reliability of safety climate scale. As a result, the value of the scale was 0.857. These values indicated that the scale is reliable.
This study shows that the internal consistency coefficient does not decrease significantly if any of the items in the scale are deleted. Therefore, the six-item scale was found to have a high level of reliability. Furthermore, item-total correlations were > 0.30 (ranged from 0.519–0.612).