News Media Literacy Scale: Validity and Reliabilityİsmail Ayşad Güdekli, Seçil Deren Van Het Hof, Mehmet Taha Eser, Mehmet Sebih Oruç
The concept of news media literacy is aimed at understanding how and why individuals interact with the news media, how individuals make sense of what they consume, and how individuals are affected by their news consumption. News media literacy represents a skeptical tendency, promoting a critical attitude toward the production and distribution of news content. The study group of the research comprised 499 participants. Exploratory factor analysis indicated that the factor loads of items in the scale vary between 0.54 and 0.82, the scale consists of two sub-dimensions, 9 items in total—the total variance explained by the dimensions is 40%. Confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the fit indices (Chi-square/df: 4.70; RMSEA: 0.084; SRMR: 0.064; TLI: 0.87; CFI: 0.91; GFI: 0.95; AGFI: 0.91) were found within acceptable limits. The Cronbach’s Alpha and McDonald’s Omega values for the sub-dimensions and the whole of the scale vary between 0.83 and 0.86. Simultaneously, it was concluded that content validity and convergence validity were provided within the scope of the research. As a result, the analyses conducted within the scope of the research show that the News Media Literacy Scale is a valid and reliable measurement tool.
Haber Medyası Okuryazarlığı Ölçeği: Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışmasıİsmail Ayşad Güdekli, Seçil Deren Van Het Hof, Mehmet Taha Eser, Mehmet Sebih Oruç
Haber medyası okuryazarlığı kavramı, bireylerin haber medyasıyla nasıl ve neden etkileşime girdiğini, bireylerin tükettikleri şeyleri nasıl anlamlandırdıklarını ve bireylerin kendi haber tüketiminden nasıl etkilendiğini anlamaya yöneliktir. Haber medyası okuryazarlığı, şüpheci bir eğilimi temsil etmektedir ve haber içeriğinin yanı sıra üretime ve dağıtıma karşı eleştirel bir tavrı teşvik etmekle ilgili bir kavramdır. Haber medyası okuryazarlığının ölçülmesi bu noktalar göz önünde bulundurulduğunda oldukça önemlidir. Bu bağlamda mevcut araştırma kapsamında Haber Medyası Okuryazarlığı Ölçeği geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 499 katılımcı oluşturmaktadır. Açıklayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda faktör yükleri 0.54 ile 0.82 arasında değişmekte olan ve 2 alt boyutta yer alan toplamda 10 madde olduğu gözlemlenmiştir. Maddelerin açıkladığı toplam varyans yaklaşık olarak %40’tır. Geçerkleştirilen ilk doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda ölçme aracından bir madde çıkarılmıştır. Gerçekleştirilen ikinci doğrulayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda uyum/uyumsuzluk indeksleri (Ki-kare/serbestlik değeri: 2.46; RMSEA: 0.084; SRMR: 0.064; TLI: 0.87; CFI: 0.91; GFI: 0.95 ve AGFI: 0.91) kabul edilebilir sınırlar içinde bulunmuştur. Ölçeğin alt boyutları ve tümüne ilişkin Cronbach Alfa ve McDonald’ın Omega değerleri 0.83 ile 0.86 arasında değişiklik göstermektedir. Aynı zamanda araştırma kapsamında kapsam geçerliği ve yakınsama geçerliğinin sağlandığı sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Sonuç olarak araştırma kapsamında gerçekleştirilen analizler, iki alt boyut ve toplamda dokuz maddeden oluşan haber medyası okuryazarlığı ölçeğinin geçerli ve güvenilir bir ölçme aracı olduğunu göstermektedir.
Although the spread of misinformation is not a new problem, it has gained new importance due to the role of social media being seen as the primary source of news gradually by more people. The speed with which disinformation spreads on social media cannot be readily compensated for or halted. This situation is even more surprising in light of the current global epidemic. Under these circumstances, the ability to restrict the propagation of false messages and conspiracy theories, as well as the dissemination of accurate information to the public, becomes a top responsibility. Çerçi et al. (2020) found that 75.4% of the participants were informed about social media in their studies, where they investigated the use of social media as a means of information during the Covid-19 outbreak. “What is the most common source of information you use to get information about the Covid-19 outbreak?” In the answers given to the question, 32.5% of the participants stated television, 28% stated social media, and 22% stated the Minister of Health. These current conditions point to the need to study news media literacy separately from media literacy.
News media literacy is about understanding how and why people interact with news media, how they make sense of what they consume, and how individuals are affected by their news consumption (Maksl et al., 2015; Vraga and Tully, 2016). It is about promoting a skeptical disposition and a critical attitude toward its production and distribution as well as news content. Based on past conceptualizations and research, this study aims to create a News Media Literacy Scale. There is evidence of news media literacy in terms of news access, consumption, and appraisal. This behavior is determined by self-efficacy and critical performance. It is thought that the “News Media Literacy Scale” developed within the scope of the research will make a significant contribution to the literature. The fact that the research was conducted under the Covid-19 pandemic context adds to the importance of measuring news media literacy.
First, exploratory factor analysis was performed within the scope of the study to determine the construct validity of the scale. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis, a measurement instrument with two sub-dimensions and items with sub-dimensions explaining 40% of the total variance was developed. Following the exploratory factor analysis, the confirmatory factor analysis, which is the second stage in terms of concept validity, was performed. As a result of the confirmatory factor analysis performed, the fit indices (Chi-square/freedom value: 4.70; RMSEA: 0.086; SRMR: 0.064; TLI: 0.86; CFI: 0.90; GFI: 0.94; AGFI: 0.90) were found within acceptable limits. Two sub-dimensions consisting of 9 items in total, which were formed by exploratory factor analysis, were confirmed. At the same time, the CGI ≥ CGO criterion was verified in terms of determining the content validity using the Lawshe method and it was concluded that the content validity of the scale was statistically significant.
After determining the structure and scope validity, Cronbach’s Alpha and McDonald’s Omega values were calculated to obtain information about the level of purity of measurement results from random errors. The number of items on the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient scale has an effect on its structure. In scales with few items, Cronbach’s alpha may produce lower values than the genuine dependability value (Osburn, 2000). As a result, it is advised that the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient from reliability estimates for scales with few elements not be used (Deng and Chan, 2017). For this purpose, calculations were made with the McDonald Omega coefficient, which is not affected by the number of items, to reveal the true reliability value of the relevant dimensions. When the Cronbach’s alpha values, which indicate the reliability in terms of internal consistency regarding the sub-dimensions of the scale and the whole, were examined, it was found that these values were 0.86 for the self-efficacy dimension, 0.85 for the critical performance dimension, and 0.83 for the whole scale; McDonald’s Omega coefficient is approximately 0.85 for the self-efficacy dimension; it was determined that it was approximately 0.83 for the critical performance dimension and 0.83 for the whole scale. According to these results, it was concluded that the measurement tool developed within the scope of the research is reliable.
Finally, the correlation coefficients between the latent variables and the square roots of the AVE values were analyzed, and it was determined that convergence validity had been attained. As a result, the News Media Literacy Scale was introduced into the literature, with valid and trustworthy assessment results.