Research Article

DOI :10.26650/JECS2021-931822   IUP :10.26650/JECS2021-931822    Full Text (PDF)

The Effect of Trust, Commitment, Knowledge Acquisition, and Dissemination on Relationship Satisfaction: Research into the Turkish Yacht Manufacturing Sector

Cenk TufanÖzlem Yaşar Uğurlu

In this research, the authors have investigated the relationship between trust and commitment, two of the essential elements of relational capital, along with knowledge acquisition and dissemination, as the basis for the organizational learning process and relationship satisfaction. For this purpose, the authors sent a questionnaire by mail to the managers (Technical Manager, Project Manager, Production Manager, and Shipyard Manager) associated with the corporate activities of the 66 members of the “Turkish Shipbuilders’ Association.” A total of 262 responses were obtained from the questionnaires. To test the research hypotheses, the authors applied structural equation modeling to the variables. Ultimately, the analysis supported all of the research hypotheses. Consequently, the authors observed that mutual trust between corporate partners positively affects the commitment to cooperation. The study concluded that the trust between the partners and the commitment to cooperation positively affect the organizational learning process. Moreover, knowledge acquisition from partners positively impacts disseminating this knowledge within the organization. Furthermore, the dissemination of knowledge within the organization positively affects collaborative relationship satisfaction.

DOI :10.26650/JECS2021-931822   IUP :10.26650/JECS2021-931822    Full Text (PDF)

İş Birliklerinde Güven, Bağlılık, Bilgi Edinimi ve Yayılımının İş birliği Memnuniyetine Etkisi: Türkiye Yat İmalat Sektöründe Bir Araştırma

Cenk TufanÖzlem Yaşar Uğurlu

Bu araştırmada iş birliği içinde bulunan işletmelerin geliştirdikleri ilişkisel sermayenin en önemli unsurlarından olan güven ve bağlılık değişkenleri, örgütsel öğrenme süreci boyutlarından bilgi edinimi ve yayılımı ile iş birliği memnuniyeti arasındaki ilişkiler araştırılmaktadır. Araştırmanın kapsamını Türkiye yat imalat sektöründe faaliyette bulunan, yerli ve yabancı ortakları ile iş birliği içinde olan işletmeler oluşturmaktadır. Bu amaçla Türkiye’ de Gemi İnşa Sanayicileri Birliği’ne (GİSBİR) üye 66 firmanın iş birliği faaliyetleri ile ilişkili yöneticilerine (teknik müdür, proje müdürü, üretim müdürü ve tersane müdürü) mail yolu ile anket gönderilmiştir. Gönderilen anketlerden 262 adet geri dönüş elde edilmiştir. Araştırma hipotezlerini test etmek amacıyla değişkenlere yapısal eşitlik modellemesi uygulanmış ve analiz sonucunda tüm araştırma hipotezleri desteklenmiştir. Sonuç olarak iş birliği tarafları arasında karşılıklı güvenin iş birliğine olan bağlılık üzerinde pozitif etkisi olduğu görülmüştür. İş birliği tarafları arasındaki güven ile iş birliğine olan bağlılığın örgütsel öğrenme süreci üzerinde pozitif yönde bir etkiye sahip olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Ayrıca, örgütsel öğrenme süreci içerisinde ortaklardan bilgi ediniminin örgüt içerisindeki bu bilginin yayılımı üzerinde; bilginin örgüt içinde yayılımının da işbirlikçi ilişki memnuniyeti üzerine olumlu bir etki gösterdiği saptanmıştır.


Under the influence of globalization, the world has become a huge marketplace where fast and overwhelming competition constantly occurs. This situation has changed the mutual relations of business enterprises with one another. Accordingly, forming strategic alliances to minimize the threat of competition has become a commonly preferred growth strategy. Furthermore, strategic alliances have become a common tool for expanding the sphere of influence of businesses. Firms can use the resources and capabilities of each business in the alliance to improve their innovation skills and develop sustainable performance (Robertson and Gatignon, 1998, p. 515). For this reason, the strategic management and alliance literature generally argue that learning and creating knowledge are important factors in establishing international strategic alliances and contribute significantly to alliance outcomes (Nielsen, 2007; Liu et al., 2010; Liu and Zhang, 2014; Nippa and Reuer, 2019; Liu and Lui, 2020).

Strategic alliances also include developing and managing relational capital in an alliance. Relational capital consists of the positive and beneficial sociopsychological aspects of the alliance. Therefore, partners in both national and international strategic alliances should invest in relational capital in addition to any required financial capital investment (Cullen et al., 2000, p. 224). Relational capital also refers to the degree of trust, commitment, respect, and friendship that partners create toward each other due to close interaction (Nahapiet and Ghoshal, 1998, p. 259). The trust exists at interpersonal, organizational, interorganizational, and even international levels. It plays a critical role in achieving the success of interorganizational trust and alliances, qualifying it as a vital contact point in cooperative relations.

Commitment is an important concept related to measuring loyalty and predicting the frequency of future business and is a future orientation reflecting the desire of the parties to maintain a relationship that they consider valuable (Zhang and Wang, 2018, p. 6). In this same context, commitment can be defined as the relationship-specific investment that each partner makes to make the alliance successful (Chaturvedi and Gaur, 2009, p. 179). The term commitment ultimately includes the partner’s intention, expectation, and willingness to invest resources in the continuity of the relationship (Bayat et al., 2014, p. 4105).

Alliances permit all partners to combine resources owned by the different businesses to take advantage of new business opportunities and their potential benefits. Knowledge is a keystone in the alliance and resource-based view literature and strategically is seen as the most important source of competitive advantage (Grant and Baden-Fuller, 2004, p. 64; Raguž et al., 2017, p. 540; Liao et al., 2017, p. 1436). In this context, organizational learning is the key to benefiting from collaborative activities for firms aiming to learn through alliances (Namada, 2018: 86). Organizational learning is generally defined as acquiring and disseminating knowledge that promotes behavioral change or sensitivity to learning that directly affects organizational outcomes (Evangelista et al., 2001, p. 734). 

The literature defines relationship satisfaction as an overall positive assessment of a business’s working relationship with another firm (Frazier et al., 1989, p. 57). Relationship satisfaction is a positive emotional condition arising from how the expectations of a firm’s working relationship with another firm are met (Robson and Katsikeas, 2005, p. 405). Robson and Katsikeas (2005) stated that the strategy implemented by the top management will shape the satisfaction of relations if it is directed to the valuable resources of alliance and access to knowledge.

In this study, the authors investigated the relationships between trust and commitment variables, which are the most important elements of relational capital, as well as knowledge acquisition and dissemination as organizational learning process dimensions and relationship satisfaction as an aspect of collaboration outcome. For this purpose, the investigators sent a questionnaire by mail to various managers of 66 companies (Technical Manager, Project Manager, Production Manager, and Shipyard Manager) who are members of the “Turkish Shipbuilders’ Association” (GISBIR). The authors obtained 262 responses from the questionnaires.

According to the results of the path analysis, mutual trust between the alliance partners positively impacts the commitment to the alliance. The study also concluded that the trust between the partners and the commitment to the alliance have a positive effect on the organizational learning process. Besides, the acquisition of knowledge from the partners within the organizational learning process positively affects the dissemination of this same knowledge within the organization. Finally, the knowledge acquired from the partners and the dissemination of this knowledge within the organization also creates a positive effect on relationship satisfaction.

This study contributes to the strategic alliance literature by expanding the framework for organizational learning and relationship satisfaction in alliances. This work is also important as it explores and explains new aspects of relationship satisfaction. Thus, the paper provides an innovative analysis mainly through the use of subjective indicators in evaluating alliance outcomes, which provides new insights for developing an operationally successful alliance performance. 

PDF View


  • Agarwal, U. A., & Narayana, S. A. (2020). Impact of relational communication on buyer-supplier relationship satisfaction: role of trust and commitment. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 6(1), 134—171. DOI:10.1108/BIJ-05-2019-0220 google scholar
  • Allameh, S. M., & Abbas, S. K. (2010). The relationship between knowledge management practices and innovation level in organizations: case study of subcompanies of selected corporations in the city of Esfahan. Journal of Business Case Studies, 6(1), 89—98. DOI: 10.19030/jbcs. v6i1.861 google scholar
  • Argyris, C., & Schön, D. (1978). Organizational learning: a theory of action perspective. Reading, MA, U.S.A: Addison-Wesley. google scholar
  • Aydın, M. ve Aydın, T.Y. (2019). Is Turkey really a global competitor in yacht building industry?. The Online Journal of Science and Technology, 9(2), 200—208. google scholar
  • Aydoğan, E. ve Şensözlü, Ş. (2015). İşletmelerin stratejik yöneliminin stratejik iş birliği sürecindeki rolü üzerine bir araştırma: Simit Sarayı A.Ş. ve Rella Gıda A.Ş. örneği. Gazi Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Dergisi, 17(2), 57—75. google scholar
  • Barney, J., Ketchen, D. J., Jr., & Wright, M. (2011). The future of resource-based theory: revitalisation or decline?. Journal of Management, 37(5), 1299—1315.DOI:10.1177/0149206310391805 google scholar
  • Bayat, R., Rizaee, G. A., & Haidari, M. (2014). The ımpact of relational capital on commitment and loyalty. International Journal of Management and Humanity Sciences. 4, 4104—4113. google scholar
  • Boatbuilder Türkiye (2011). Türk yat ve tekne sektörü 2010 raporu. Erişim adresi: http://www.boatbuilderturkiye. com/yayin/281/turk-yat-ve-tekne-endustrisi-2010-raporu_8673.html#.YHAJ1egzbIW google scholar
  • Brunetto, Y., & Farr-Wharton, R. (2007). The moderating role of trust in sme owner/managers’ decisionmaking about collaboration. Journal of Small Business Management, 45(3), 362—387. DOI:10.1111/j.1540-627X.2007.00218.x google scholar
  • Chandler, A. (1962). Strategy and structure. Cambridge, MA, U.S.A: M.I.T. Press. google scholar
  • Chaturvedi, S., & Gaur, A. S. (2009). A dynamic model of trust and commitment development in strategic alliances. IIMB Management Review, 21, 173—88. DOI:10.2139/ssrn.1115963 google scholar
  • Chen, C. (2004). The effects of knowledge attribute, alliance characteristics, and absorptive capacity on knowledge transfer performance. R&D Management, 34(3), 311—321. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-9310.2004.00341.x google scholar
  • Chen, T. Y., Liu, H. H., & Hsieh, W. L. (2009). The influence of partner characteristics and relationship capital on the performance of international strategic alliances. Journal of Relationship Marketing, 8(3), 231—252. DOI: 10.1080/15332660902991148 google scholar
  • Chou, T. C., Chang, P. L., Tsai, C.- T., & Cheng, Y. P. (2005). Internal learning climate, knowledge management process and perceived knowledge management satisfaction. Journal of Information Science, 31 (4), 283-295. DOI: 10.1177/0165551505054171 google scholar
  • Christoffersen, J., Plenborg, T., & Robson, M. J. (2014). Measures of strategic alliance performance, classified and assessed. International Business Review, 23(3), 479—489. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2013.07.001 google scholar
  • Cohen, W. M., & Levinthal, D. A. (1990). Absorptive capacity: a new perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(1), 128—152. google scholar
  • Cullen, J. B., Johnson, J. L., & Sakano, T. (2000). Success through commitment and trust: the soft side of strategic alliance management. Journal of World Business, 35(3), 223—240. DOI: 10.1016/S1090-9516(00)00036-5 google scholar
  • Cummings, T. G., & Whorley, C. G. (2009). Organizational development and change. Mason, South-Western: Cengage Learning. google scholar
  • Cuypers, I. R. P., Ertuğ, G., Cantwell. J., Zaheer, A., & Kilduff, M. (2020). Making connections: social networks in international business. Journal ofInternational Business Studies, 51, 714—736. DOI:10.1057/s41267-020-00319-9 google scholar
  • Darroch, J. (2005). Knowledge management, innovation and firm performance. Journal ofKnowledge Management, 9(3), 101—115. DOI:10.1108/13673270510602809 google scholar
  • Das, T. K., & Teng, Bing-Sheng. (1998). Between trust and control: developing confidence in partner cooperation in alliances. Academy ofManagement Review, 23, 491—512. google scholar
  • De Clercq, D., & Sapienza, H. J. (2006). Effects of relational capital and commitment on venture capitalists’ perception of portfolio company performance. Journal ofBusiness Venturing, 21(3), 326-347. DOI: 10.1016/j. jbusvent.2005.04.00 google scholar
  • Dillman, D. A. (2007). Mail and ınternet surveys: the tailored design method. Hoboken, U.S.A: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. google scholar
  • Dussauge, P., Bernard, G., & Will, M. (2004). Asymmetric performance: The market share impact of scale and link alliances in the global auto industry. Strategic Management Journal, 25(7), 701-711 google scholar
  • Dyer, J. H., & Hatch, N. W. (2006). Relation-specific capabilities and barriers to knowledge transfers: creating advantage through network relationships. Strategic Management Journal, 27, 701-719. DOI:10.1002/smj.543 google scholar
  • Eiriz, V., Gonçalves, M., & Areias, J. S. (2017). Inter-organizational learning within an institutional knowledge network: a case study in the textile and clothing industry. European journal of Innovation Management, 20(2), 230—249. DOI: 10.1108/EJIM-11-2015-0117 google scholar
  • Evangelista, R., Imammarino, S., Mastrostefano, V., & Silvani, A. (2001). Measuring the regional dimension of innovation: lessons from the Italian innovation survey. Technovation, 21(11), 733—745. DOI: 10.1016/S0166-4972(00)00084-5 google scholar
  • Franco, M. (2011). Performance in strategic alliances: an analysis of objective and subjective measures. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 3(1), 84—100. DOI: 10.1504/IJEV.2011.037859 google scholar
  • Frazier, G. L., Gill, J. D., & Kale, S. H. (1989). Dealer dependence levels and reciprocal actions in a channel of distribution in a developing country. The Journal ofMarketing, 23(2), 50—69. DOI:10.1177/002224298905300105 google scholar
  • Grant, R. M., & Baden-Fuller, C. (2004). A knowledge accessing theory of strategic alliances. Journal of Management Studies, 41(1), 61—84. DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00421.x google scholar
  • Gold, A. H., Malhotra, A., & Segars, A. H. (2001). Knowledge management: an organizational capabilities perspective. Journal ofManagement Information Systems, 18(1): 185-214. google scholar
  • Guinot, J., Chiva, R., & Mallen,F. (2013). Organizational trust and performance: is organizational learning capability a missing link. Journal ofManagement & Organization, 19, 559—582 doi:10.1017/jmo.2014.3 google scholar
  • Hair, J. F. Jr., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis, Seventh Ed., New Jersey, U.S.A: Prentice-Hall International Inc. google scholar
  • Hansen, M. T., Mors, M. L., & Lovas, B. (2005). Knowledge sharing in organizations: multiple networks, multiple phases. Academy ofManagement Journal, 48(5), 776—793. DOI:10.5465/AMJ.2005.18803922 google scholar
  • Ho, M. H., Ghauri, P., & Larimo, J.A. (2018). Institutional distance and knowledge acquisition in ınternational buyer-supplier relationships: the moderating role of trust. Asia Pacific Journal ofManagement, 35, 427—447. DOI:10.1007/s10490-017-9523-2 google scholar
  • Ho, M. H., Ghauri, P., & Kafouros, M. (2019). Knowledge acquisition in international strategic alliances: the role of knowledge ambiguity. Management International Review, 59, 439—463. DOI:10.1007/s11575-019-00383-w google scholar
  • Hoe, S. L., & McShane, S. (2010). Structural and informal knowledge acquisition and dissemination in organisational learning: an exploratory analysis. The Learning Organization, 17(4), 364—386. DOI:10.1108/09696471011043117 google scholar
  • Hsiao, Y. C., Chen, C. J., & Chang, S. C. (2011). Knowledge management capacity and organizational performance: thesocialinteractionview.InternationalJournal ofManpower, 32(5/6),645—660.DOI:10.1108/01437721111158242 google scholar
  • Huber, G. P. (1991). Organizational learning: the contributing processes and the literatures. Organization Science, 2(1), 88—115. DOI:10.1287/orsc.2.1.88. google scholar
  • Huff, L., & Kelley, L. (2003). Levels of organizational trust in individualist versus collectivist societies: a seven nation study. Organization Science, 14(1), 81—90. google scholar
  • Inkpen, A. C. (2000). Learning through joint ventures: a framework of knowledge acquisition. Journal of Management Studies, 37(7), 1019—1043.DOI:10.1111/1467-6486.00215 google scholar
  • Inkpen, A. C., & Curral, S. (2004). The coevolution of trust, control, and learning in joint ventures. Organization Science, 15(5), 586—599. DOI:10.1287/orsc.1040.0079 google scholar
  • Jafari, S. M., & Suppiah, M. (2015). The effect of knowledge management practices on employees’ innovative performance. The International Journal of Management Science and Information Technology, 16, 82—93. google scholar
  • Janowicz-Panjaitan, M., & Noorderhaven, N. G. (2009). Trust, calculation, and ınterorganizational learning of tacit knowledge: an organizational roles perspective. Organization Studies, 30(10), 1021—1044. DOI:10.1177/0170840609337933 google scholar
  • Jime'nez-Jime'nez, D., & Cegarra-Navarro, J.G. (2007). The performance effect of organizational learning and market orientation. IndustrialMarketingManagement, 36(6), 694—708. DOI: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2006.02.008 google scholar
  • Kale, P., Dyer, J. H., & Singh, H. (2001). Value creation and success in strategic alliances: alliancing skills and the role of alliance structure and systems. Eurepean Management Journal, 19(5), 463—71. DOI:10.1016/S0263-2373(01)00062-7 google scholar
  • Kale, P., Dyer, J. H., & Singh, H. (2002). Alliance capability, stock market response, and longterm alliance success: the role of the alliance function. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 747—67. DOI:10.1002/smj.248 google scholar
  • Kale, P., & Singh, H. (2009). Managing strategic alliances: what do we know now, and where do we go from here? Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(3), 45—62. DOI: 10.1108/sd.2010.05626bad.004 google scholar
  • Kwon, I. G., & Suh, T. (2004). Trust, commitment and relationships in supply chain management: a path analysis. Supply Chain Management, 10(1), 26—33. DOI:10.1108/13598540510578351 google scholar
  • Lai, J., Lui, S. S., & Tsang, E. W. K. (2016). Intrafirm knowledge transfer and employee ınnovative behavior: the role of total and balanced knowledge flows. Product Development & Management Association, 3(1), 90—103.DOI: 10.1111/jpim.12262 google scholar
  • Lambe, C. J., Spekman, E. R., & Hunt, D. S. (2002). Alliance competence, resources, and alliance success: conceptualization, measurement, and initial test. Journal of The Academy of Marketing Science, 30(2), 141—158.DOI:10.1177/03079459994399 google scholar
  • Lavie, D. (2006). The competitive advantage of interconnected firms: an extension of the resource-based view. Academy of Management Review, 31(3), 638—658. DOI:10.5465/APBPP.2002.7516490 google scholar
  • Lee, S., Chang, S-N., Liu, Y. C., & Yang, J. (2007). The effect of knowledge protection, knowledge ambiguity, and relational capital on alliance performance. Knowledge and Process Management, 14(1), 58—69. DOI:10.1002/ kpm.270 google scholar
  • L’huillery, S., & Pfister, E. (2009). R&D cooperation and failures in ınnovation projects: empirical evidence from french cısdata. Research Policy, 38, 45—57.DOI: 10.1016/j.respol.2008.09.002 google scholar
  • Li, S., & Lin, B. (2006). Accessing ınformation sharing and ınformation quality in supply chain management. Decision Support Systems, 42(3), 1641—1656. DOI: 10.1016/j.dss.2006.02.011 google scholar
  • Li, Y., Wei, Z., & Liu, Y. (2010). Strategic orientations, knowledge acquisition, and firm performance: the perspective of the vendor in cross-border outsourcing. Journal of Management Studies, 47(8), 1457—1482. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-6486.2010.00949.x google scholar
  • Liao, S. H., Chen, C. C., Hu, D. C., Chung, Y. C., & Yang, M. J. (2017). Developing a sustainable competitive advantage: absorptive capacity, knowledge transfer and organizational learning. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 42(6), 1431—1450. DOI:10.1007/s10961-016-9532-1 google scholar
  • Liu (Eunice), C. L., Ghauri, P. N., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2010). Understanding the ımpact of relational capital and organizational learning on alliance outcomes. Journal of World Business, 45(3), 237—249. DOI: 10.1016/j. jwb.2009.09.005 google scholar
  • Liu (Eunice), C. L., & Zhang, Y. (2014). Learning in international strategic alliances: a qualitative study of indigenous technological firms in Taiwan”, International Business Review, 23(4), 718—730. DOI: 10.1016/j. ibusrev.2013.11.001 google scholar
  • Liu, Z. (2015). Trust between organizations: a review of current research and recommendation for the future. Review of Contemporary Business Research, 4(1), 40—48. DOI: 10.15640/rcbr.v4n1a5 google scholar
  • Liu (Eunice), C. L., & Lui, S. (2020). Comparing the impact of alliance learning activities on alliance performance across small and large firms. Knowledge Management Research & Practice, 18(2), 188—198. DOI: 10.1080/14778238.2019.1673674 google scholar
  • Lo, F. Y., Stepicheva, A., & Peng, T.-J. A. (2016). Relational capital, strategic alliances and learning: in-depth analysis of Chinese-Russian cases in Taiwan. Chinese Management Studies, 10(1), 155—183. DOI: 10.1108/ CMS-04-2015-0090. google scholar
  • Maltz, E., & Kohli, A. K. (1996). Market intelligence dissemination across functional boundaries. Journal of Marketing Research, 33, 47—56. google scholar
  • Marshall, S., Nguyen, V., & Bryant, S. (2005). A dynamic model of trust development and knowledge sharing in strategic alliances. Journal of General Management, 31 (1) 41— 57. DOI: 10.1177/002224379603300105 google scholar
  • Mayer, R. C., Davis, J. H., & Schoorman, F. D. (1995). An integrative model of organizational trust. Academy of Management Review, 20(3), 709—734. google scholar
  • Miles, R. H., & Cameron K.S. (1982). Coffin nails and corporate strategies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, U.S.A: Prentice-Hall. google scholar
  • Miocevic, D. (2016). The antecedents of relational capital in key exporter-importer relationships. International Marketing Review, 33(2), 196—218.DOL10.1108/IMR-02-2015-0022 google scholar
  • Mohr, J., & R. Spekman (1994). Characteristics of partnership success. Strategic Management Journal, 15(2), 135—152. DOI:10.1002/smj.4250150205 google scholar
  • Mom, T. J. M., Van Neerijnen, P., Reinmoeller, P., & Verwaal, E. (2015). Relational capital and individual exploration: unravelling the influence of goal alignment and knowledge acquisition. Organization Studies, 36 (6), 809—829. DOI:10.1177/0170840615580009 google scholar
  • Morgan, M. R., & Hunt, S. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of Marketing, 58, 20—38. DOI:10.2307/1252308 google scholar
  • Mu, J., Thomas, E., Peng, G., & Di Benedetto, A. (2017). Strategic orientation and new product development performance: the role of networking capability and networking ability. Industrial Marketing Management, 64(1), 187—201. DOI: 10.1016/J.INDMARMAN.2016.09.007 google scholar
  • Nahapiet J., & Ghoshal S. (1998). Social capital, intellectual capital, and the organizational advantage. Academy of ManagementReview, 23 (2), 242-266. DOI:10.2307/259373 google scholar
  • Namada, J.M. (2018). Organizational learning and competitive advantage. In. N. Antonio (Ed.), Knowledge Management for Contemporary Business Environments. (pp. 86—104). IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-3725-0.ch006 google scholar
  • Nielsen, B.B. (2007). Determining ınternational strategic alliance performance: a multidimensional approach. International Business Review, 16, 337—361. DOI: 10.1016/j.ibusrev.2007.02.004 google scholar
  • Nippa, M., & Reuer, J.J. (2019). On the future of ınternational joint venture research. Journal of International Business Studies, 50, 555—597. DOI: 10.1057/s41267-019-00212-0 google scholar
  • Nonaka, I., & Takeuchi, H. (1995). The knowledge-creating company. New York, U.S.A.: Oxford University Press. google scholar
  • Norman, P. M. (2004). Knowledge acquisition, knowledge loss, and satisfaction in high technology alliances. Journal of Business Research, 57(6), 610—619. DOI:10.1016/S0148-2963(02)00395-8. google scholar
  • Paparoidamis, N. G., Katsikeas, C. S., & Chumpitaz, R. (2019). The role of supplier performance in building customer trust and loyalty: a cross-country examination. Industrial Marketing Management. 78, 183—197. DOI: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2017.02.005 google scholar
  • Peronard, J. P., & Brix, J. (2019). Organizing for inter-organizational learning in service networks. The Learning Organization, 26(3), 276—288. DOI: 10.1108/TLO-08-2018-0137 google scholar
  • Perry, M. L., Sengupta, S., & Krapfel, R. (2004). Effectiveness of horizontal strategic alliances in technologically uncertain environments: are trust and commitment enough? Journal of Business Research, 57(9), 951—956. DOI: 10.1016/s0148-2963(02)00501-5 google scholar
  • Raguz, I. V., Zekân, B. S., & Peronja, I. (2017). Knowledge as a source of competitive advantage in knowledge based companies. DIEM: Dubrovnik International Economic Meeting, 3(1), 533—544. google scholar
  • Ritala, P., & Ellonen, H. (2010). Competitive advantage in ınterfirm cooperation: old and new explanations. Competitiveness Review, 20(5), 367—383. DOI: 10.1108/10595421011080751 google scholar
  • Robertson, T. S., & Gatignon, H. (1998). Technology development mode: a transaction cost conceptualization. Strategic Management Journal, 19, 515—531. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199806)19:6<515: AID-SMJ960>3.0.CO;2-F google scholar
  • Robson, M. J., & Katsikeas, C. S. (2005). International strategic alliance relationship within the foreign investment decision process. International Marketing Review, 22(4), 399—419. DOI:10.1108/02651330510608433 google scholar
  • Rzepka, A. (2017). Inter-organizational relations as a one of sources of competitive advantage of contemporary enterprises in the era of globalization. Procedia Engineering, 174, 161—170. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2017.01.195 google scholar
  • Sambasivan, M., Loke, S.-P., Zainal, A. M., & Yee, C. L. (2011). Impact of interdependence between supply chain partners on strategic alliance outcomes: role of relational capital as a mediating construct. Management Decision, 49(4), 548—569. DOI:10.1108/00251741111126486 google scholar
  • Sanchez, J. Â. L., Vijande, M. L. S., & Gutierrez, J. A. T. (2011). The effects of manufacturer’s organizational learning on distributor satisfaction and loyalty in industrial markets. Industrial Marketing Management, 40(4), 624—635. DOI: 10.1016/j.indmarman.2010.12.003 google scholar
  • Saruhan, Ş. C. ve Özdemirci, A. (2011). Bilim, felsefe ve metodoloji. İstanbul, Türkiye: Beta Yayınları. google scholar
  • Saxton, T. (1997). The effects of partner and relationship characteristics on alliance outcomes. Academy of Management Journal, 40(2), 443-461. DOI: 10.5465/256890 google scholar
  • Schermelleh-Engel, K., Moosbrugger, H., & Müller, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23-74. google scholar
  • Schoorman, D. F., Mayer, R. C., & Davis, J. H. (2007). An integrative model of organizational trust: past, present, and future. Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 344-354. DOI:10.5465/AMR.2007.24348410 google scholar
  • Senge, P.M. (2006). The fifth discipline: the art and practice of the learning organization. NY., U.S.A.: Doubleday. google scholar
  • Sherwood, A.L., & Covin, J.G. (2008). Knowledge acquisition in university-industry alliances: an empirical ınvestigation from a learning theory perspective. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 25(2), 162-179. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-5885.2008.00292.x google scholar
  • Spekman, R. E. (1988). Strategic supplier selection: understanding long-term buyer relationships. Business Horizons, 31(4), 75-81. DOI: 10.1016/0007-6813(88)90072-9 google scholar
  • Swift, P. E., & Hwang, A. (2013). The impact of affective and cognitive trust on knowledge sharing and organizational learning. The Learning Organization, 20(1), 20-37. DOI:10.1108/09696471311288500 google scholar
  • Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.), Boston, U.S.A.: Allyn and Bacon. google scholar
  • Ticaret Bakanlığı (2020). Gemi sektör raporu. Erişim adresi: Gemi_%C4%B0n%C5%9Fa_%20Sanayii.pdf google scholar
  • Uzzi, B., & Lancaster, R. (2003). Relational embeddedness and learning: the case of bank loan managers and their clients. Management Science, 49(4), 383-399. DOI: 10.1287/mnsc.49.4.383.14427 google scholar
  • Villenaa, V. H., Revillaa, E., & Choi, T. Y. (2011). The dark side of buyer-supplier relationships: a social capital perspective. Journal of Operations Management, 29, 561-576. DOI: 10.1016/j.jom.2010.09.001 google scholar
  • Vorakulpipat, C., & Rezgui, Y. (2008). An evolutionary and interpretative perspective to knowledge management. Journal of Knowledge Management, 12(3), 17-34. DOI:10.1108/13673270810875831 google scholar
  • Walter, J., Lechner, C., & Kellermanns, F. W. (2007). Knowledge transfer between and within alliance partners: private versus collective benefits of social capital. Journal of Business Research, 60(7): 698-710 google scholar
  • Wu, M., Weng, Y., & Huang, I. (2012). A study of supply chain partnerships based on the commitment-trust theory. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 24(4), 690-707. DOI:10.1108/13555851211259098 google scholar
  • Yaşlıoğlu, M. M. (2017). Sosyal bilimlerde faktör analizi ve geçerlilik: keşfedici ve doğrulayıcı faktör analizlerinin kullanılması. İstanbul Üniversitesi İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 46, özel sayı, 74-85. pub/iuisletme/issue/32177/357061 google scholar
  • Yoo, S. J., Sawyer, O., & Tan, W.L. (2016). The mediating effect of absorptive capacity and relational capital in alliance learning of smes. Journal of Small Business Management, 54(1), 234-255. DOI:10.1111/jsbm.12299 google scholar
  • Yu, C., Zhang, Z., Lin, C., & Wu, Y. J. (2017). Knowledge creation process and sustainable competitive advantage: the role of technological ınnovation capabilities. Sustainability, 9, 2-16. DOI:10.3390/su9122280 google scholar
  • Zhang, L., & Wang. J. (2018). Research on the relationship between relational capital and relational rent. Cogent Economics & Finance, 6(1), 1-18. DOI: 10.1080/23322039.2018.1431091 google scholar
  • Zhang, L., & Yu, W. (2019). Effects of the interactive use of performance measurement systems on job performance: mediation effect of organizational learning. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 3059. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.03059 google scholar
  • Zineldin, M., & Vasicheva, V. (2016). Marriage versus strategic alliance: soft and hard dissatisfaction and failure factors. International Journal of Strategic Business Alliances, 5 (1), 22-33. DOI:10.1504/IJSBA.2016.078250 google scholar


Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format



Tufan, C., & Yaşar Uğurlu, Ö. (2022). The Effect of Trust, Commitment, Knowledge Acquisition, and Dissemination on Relationship Satisfaction: Research into the Turkish Yacht Manufacturing Sector. Journal of Economy Culture and Society, 0(65), 351-374.


Tufan C, Yaşar Uğurlu Ö. The Effect of Trust, Commitment, Knowledge Acquisition, and Dissemination on Relationship Satisfaction: Research into the Turkish Yacht Manufacturing Sector. Journal of Economy Culture and Society. 2022;0(65):351-374.


Tufan, C.; Yaşar Uğurlu, Ö. The Effect of Trust, Commitment, Knowledge Acquisition, and Dissemination on Relationship Satisfaction: Research into the Turkish Yacht Manufacturing Sector. Journal of Economy Culture and Society, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 65, p. 351-374, 2022.

Chicago: Author-Date Style

Tufan, Cenk, and Özlem Yaşar Uğurlu. 2022. “The Effect of Trust, Commitment, Knowledge Acquisition, and Dissemination on Relationship Satisfaction: Research into the Turkish Yacht Manufacturing Sector.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0, no. 65: 351-374.

Chicago: Humanities Style

Tufan, Cenk, and Özlem Yaşar Uğurlu. The Effect of Trust, Commitment, Knowledge Acquisition, and Dissemination on Relationship Satisfaction: Research into the Turkish Yacht Manufacturing Sector.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0, no. 65 (Oct. 2022): 351-374.

Harvard: Australian Style

Tufan, C & Yaşar Uğurlu, Ö 2022, 'The Effect of Trust, Commitment, Knowledge Acquisition, and Dissemination on Relationship Satisfaction: Research into the Turkish Yacht Manufacturing Sector', Journal of Economy Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 65, pp. 351-374, viewed 5 Oct. 2022,

Harvard: Author-Date Style

Tufan, C. and Yaşar Uğurlu, Ö. (2022) ‘The Effect of Trust, Commitment, Knowledge Acquisition, and Dissemination on Relationship Satisfaction: Research into the Turkish Yacht Manufacturing Sector’, Journal of Economy Culture and Society, 0(65), pp. 351-374. (5 Oct. 2022).


Tufan, Cenk, and Özlem Yaşar Uğurlu. The Effect of Trust, Commitment, Knowledge Acquisition, and Dissemination on Relationship Satisfaction: Research into the Turkish Yacht Manufacturing Sector.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 65, 2022, pp. 351-374. [Database Container],


Tufan C, Yaşar Uğurlu Ö. The Effect of Trust, Commitment, Knowledge Acquisition, and Dissemination on Relationship Satisfaction: Research into the Turkish Yacht Manufacturing Sector. Journal of Economy Culture and Society [Internet]. 5 Oct. 2022 [cited 5 Oct. 2022];0(65):351-374. Available from: doi: 10.26650/JECS2021-931822


Tufan, Cenk - Yaşar Uğurlu, Özlem. The Effect of Trust, Commitment, Knowledge Acquisition, and Dissemination on Relationship Satisfaction: Research into the Turkish Yacht Manufacturing Sector”. Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0/65 (Oct. 2022): 351-374.


Published Online18.04.2022


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.