Research Article


DOI :10.26650/JECS2021-1033478   IUP :10.26650/JECS2021-1033478    Full Text (PDF)

Social Capital Measurement in Turkiye: Creating an Index by Province

Abdulmuttalip PilatinHasan Ayaydın

The aim of the study is to create a social capital index on the basis of 81 provinces covering the years between 2007-2018 in Turkiye. While creating the social capital index, the method of creating the social capital index obtained from 2 networks and 2 norm variables, which was also used in previous studies, was applied. While the number of foundations and associations on a provincial basis was used as network variables, the rate of voting in parliamentary elections and the rate of response to WVS surveys were used as norm variables. In order to perform principal component analysis, the collected data was entered into the SPSS 23 package program, and the relevant analysis was performed. For this purpose, principal component analysis was applied for the years 2007, 2011, and 2018, when parliamentary general elections were held, and the first component that emerged was taken as an indicator of social capital index. Since social capital does not change in a short period of time for countries, regions, and cities, the index values for the years between 2007, 2011 and 2018 were created with the linear interpolation method using the data, as applied in similar studies. Positive ones among the index values created on the basis of provinces indicate a high level of social capital, while negative values indicate a low level of social capital. When the social capital index values of 2007 and 2018 are examined, it is observed that the social capital levels of the provinces have increased over the years, although there has not been much change in the index values on a provincial basis over the years.


PDF View

References

  • Adam, F., & Roncevic, B. (2003). Social capital: Recent debates and research trends. Social Science Information, 42, 155-183. google scholar
  • Akar, T., & Ay, A. (2018). The effect of social capital and innovation on economic growth. Journal of Economy Culture and Society, 58, 105-126. google scholar
  • Akçomak S. İ., & Weel, B. (2009). Social capital, innovation and growth: Evidence from Europe. European Economic Review, 53, 544-567. google scholar
  • Alesina, A., & La Ferrara, E. (2000). Participation in heterogeneous communities. Q. J.Econ. 115, 847-904. google scholar
  • Baker, W. (1990). Market networks and corporate behaviour. American Journal of Sociology, 96, 589-625. google scholar
  • Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17, 99-120. google scholar
  • Bayramoğlu, Z., & Bozdemir, M. (2020). Kırsal alanda sosyal sermaye oluşumunun sürdürülebilir kalkınmaya etkisi. Turkish Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research (TURKAGER), 1(1), 179-189. google scholar
  • Bj0rnskov, C. (2007). Determinants of generalized trust: A cross-country comparison. Public Choice, 130(1-2), 1-21. google scholar
  • Bourdieu, P. (1986). The forms of capital. In Richardson, J.G. (Ed.). Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education, 241-258. New York, USA: Greenwood Press. google scholar
  • Burt, S. R. (1992). Structural holes: The social structure of competition. England: Harvard University Press. google scholar
  • Burt, S. R. (2005). Brokerage and closure. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. google scholar
  • Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2007). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı; istatistik, araştırma deseni SPSS uygulamaları ve yorum. (8. Press) Ankara: Baran Ofset. google scholar
  • Cohen, D., & L. Prusak (2001). In good company, how social capital makes organizations work. Boston, USA: Harvard Business School Press google scholar
  • Coleman, J. S. (1990). Foundations of social theory. Cambridge Mass., USA: Harvard University Press. google scholar
  • Dasgupta, P. (2000). Economic progress and the idea of social capital, in Dasgupta, P. and Serageldin, I. (eds.), Social capital: A multifaceted perspective, The World Bank: Washington, D.C. google scholar
  • Davaadorj, Z. (2019). Does social capital affect dividend policy? Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, 22, 116-128. google scholar
  • Delhey, J., & Newton, K. (2005). Predicting cross-national levels of social trust: Global pattern or Nordic exceptionalism? European Sociological Review, 21(4), 311-327. google scholar
  • Directorate of Associations (DGM) (2021, June 16). Members of associations. Retrieved from https://www. siviltoplum.gov.tr/dernek-sayilari google scholar
  • Dobler, C. (2011). The impact of formal and informal institutions on economic growth: A case study on the MENA region. Frankfurt, Germany: Peter Lang AG. google scholar
  • Farr, J. (2004). Social capital: A conceptual history. Political Theory, 32(1), 6-33. google scholar
  • Field, J. (2006). Sosyal Sermaye. Çev: Bahar Bilgen ve Bayram Şen, İstanbul: İstanbul Bilgi Üniversitesi Yayınları. google scholar
  • Field, J. (2008). Social capital. Second Colition, Rounlantge Taylor & Francis Group, London and New York. google scholar
  • Fountain, J. E. (1997). Social capital: A key enabler of innovation in science and technology, in L.M. Branscomb and J. Keller, eds., Investing I Innovation: Toward a Consensus Strategy for Federal Technology Policy, MIT Press Cambridge Mass. google scholar
  • Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The social virtues and the creation of prosperity. New York: Free Press. google scholar
  • Fukuyama, F. (2001). Social capital, civil society and development, Third World Quarterly, 22(1), 7-20. google scholar
  • General Directorate of Foundations (2021, May, 12). Retrieved from https://www.vgm.gov.tr/vakif-sorgulama/ vakif-sorgulama?Page=1 google scholar
  • Glanville, J. L., & Bienenstock, E. J. (2009). A typology for understanding the connections among different forms of social capital, American behavioral scientist, 52(11), 1507-1530. google scholar
  • Gönç Şavran, T. (2018). The Relation between social capital and health: What do empirical studies show? Journal of Economy Culture and Society, 57, 53-91. google scholar
  • Granovetter, M. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78, 1360-1380. google scholar
  • Grootaert, C. (1997). The determinants of poverty in Cote d>Ivoire in the 1980s, Journal of African Economics, 6(2), 169-196. google scholar
  • Grootaert, C. (1999). Social capital, household welfare and poverty in Indonesia. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, 2148, 1-79. google scholar
  • Grootaert, C., & Van Bastelaer, T. (2001). Understanding and measuring social capital: A synthesis offindings and recommendations from the social capital initiative. Directions in Development. Social Capital Initiative Working Paper No: 24, World Bank, Washington DC. google scholar
  • Grootaert, C., & Van Bastelaer, T. (2002a). Introduction and overview. In The Role ofSocial Capital in Development, 1-7. Melbourne: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Grootaert, C., & Van Bastelaer, T. (2002b). The Role of social capital in development: An empirical assessment. New York: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Grootaert, C., Narayan, D., Jones, V. N., & Woolcock, M. (2004). Measuring social capital an ıntegrated questionnaire, No:18. Washington D.C., U.S.A: World Bank working paper. google scholar
  • Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2004). The role of social capital in financial development. The American Economic Review, 94(3), 526-556. google scholar
  • Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2008). Trusting the stock market. Journal ofFinance, 63, 2557-2600. google scholar
  • Guiso, L., Sapienza, P., & Zingales, L. (2000). The Role ofsocial capital in financial development. NBER Working Paper No. 7563. google scholar
  • Guriev, S., & Melnikov, N. (2016). War, inflation, and social capital. American Economic Review: Papers & Proceedings, 106(5), 230-235. google scholar
  • Hanifan, L. (1916). The rural school community center. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 67, 130-138. google scholar
  • Helliwell, J. F., & Putnam, R. D. (2004). The social context ofwell-being. Phil Trans R. Soc Lon. B., 359, 1435-1446. google scholar
  • Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. google scholar
  • Huang, K., & Shang, C. (2019). Leverage, debt maturity, and social capital, Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, 54(C), 26-46. google scholar
  • Jackson, B. B. (2004). Multivariate Data Analysis: An Introduction, Illinois, Richard, D. Irwin, Inc. google scholar
  • Jacobs, J. (1961). The death and life ofgreat American cities. New York: Random House. google scholar
  • Jha, A., & Chen, Y., (2015). Audit fees and social capital. Acc. Rev., 90, 611-639. google scholar
  • Jin, J. Y., Kanagaretnam , K., Lobo, G. J., & Mathieu, R. (2017). Social capital and bank stability. Journal of Financial Stability, 32, 99-114. google scholar
  • Jin, J.Y., Kanagaretnam, K., Liu, Y., & Liu, N. (2019). Banks’ loan growth, loan quality, and social capital. Journal ofBehavioral and Experimental Finance, 21, 83-10. google scholar
  • Kaufmann, W, Hooghiemstra, R., & Feeney, M. K. (2018). Formal institutions, informal institutions, and red tape: A comparative study. Public Admin, 96, 386-403. https://doi.org/10.1111/padm. 12397. google scholar
  • Knack, S. (2003). Groups, growth and trust: Cross-country evidence on the Olson and Putnam hypothesis. Public Choice, 117(3-4), 341-355. google scholar
  • Knack, S., & Keefer, P. (1997). Does social capital have an economic payoff: A cross-country investigation. Quarterly Journal ofEconomics, 112(4), 1251-1288. google scholar
  • Knoke, D. (1999). Organizational networks and corporate social capital. In ‘Corporate Social Capital and Liability’. (Ed. SM Gabbay) pp. 17-42. google scholar
  • Kumlin, S., & Rothstein, B. (2005). Making and breaking social capital: the impact of welfare state institutions. Comparative Political Studies, 38(4), 339-365. google scholar
  • La Porta, R., Lopez de Silanes, F., Shleifer, A., & Vishny, R. W. (1997). Trust in large organisations. American Economic Review, Papers and Proceedings, 87, 333-8. google scholar
  • Li, L., Ucar, E., & Yavas, A. (2020). Social capital and mortgage delinquency. J Real Estate Finan Econ, https://doi. org/10.1007/s11146-020-09775-4. google scholar
  • Lin, N. (2001). Social capital: A theory ofsocial structure and action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Lowndes, V. (1996). Varieties of new institutionalism: A critical appraisal. PublicAdministration, 74, 181-197. google scholar
  • MacGillivray, A., & Walker, P. (2000). Local social capital: Making it work on the ground. Pp. 197-211 in Social Capital: Critical Perspectives, edited by Tom Schuller. Oxford: Oxford University Press. google scholar
  • Marshall, A. (1890). Principles of economics. Eighth Edition. New York: Palgrave Macmillan Press. google scholar
  • Marx, K. (1990). Capital I. St. Ives: Penguin. google scholar
  • Mill, J. S. (1909). Principles of Political Economy with some of their Applications to Social Philosophy, Ashley, W.J. (Eds), (pp. 1861-1909). London, England: Longmans, Green and Corporation. google scholar
  • Narayan, D., & L. Pritchett. (1999). Cents and sociability: household income and social capital in rural Tanzania. Economic Development and Cultural Change, 47(4), 871-897. google scholar
  • North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. New York: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • OECD, (2001). The well-being of nations: The role of human and social capital. Paris: Centre for Educational Research and Innovation: Education and Skills. https://doi.org/10.1787/9789264189515-en google scholar
  • Öztopcu, A., (2018). Bölgesel sosyal sermaye ve bölgesel gelişmişlik düzeyinin kalkınma üzerindeki etkileri. Verimlilik Dergisi, 3, 89-113. google scholar
  • Paldam, M., & Svendsen, G.T. (2000). An essay on social capital: Looking for fire behind the smoke. European Journal of Political Economy, 16, 339-366. google scholar
  • Pejovich, S. (1999). The effects of the interaction of formal and informal institutions on social stability and economic development. Journal of Markets and Morality, 2, 164-181. google scholar
  • Pinto, P. R., (2012). Social capital as a capacity for collective action. (pp. 53-69) in Assessing Social Capital: Concept, Policy and Practice. Cambridge Scholars Press. google scholar
  • Portes, A. (1998). Social capital: Its origins and the application in modern sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 24(1), 1-25. google scholar
  • Portes, A., & Landolt P. (1996). The downside of social capital. The American Prospect 26, 18-23. google scholar
  • Portes, A., & Sensenbrenner, J. (1993). Embeddedness and immigration: Notes on the social determinants of economic action. American Journal of Sociology, 98, 1320-1350. google scholar
  • Putnam, R. D. (1993). Making democracy work. Civic Traditions in Modern Italy Princeton: USA: Princeton University Press. google scholar
  • Putnam, R. D. (1995). Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital. Journal of Democracy, 6(1), 65-78. google scholar
  • Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone. The collapse and revival of American community. New York, USA: Simon & Schuster. google scholar
  • Putnam, R. D. (2007). E pluribus unum: Diversity and community in the twenty-first century. The 2006 Johan Skytte prize lecture. Scandinavian Political Studies, 30(2), 137-174. google scholar
  • Routledge, B. R., & von Amsberg, J. (2003). Social capital and growth. Journal of Monetary Economics, 50, 167193. google scholar
  • Rupasingha, A, Goetz, S. J., & Freshwater, D. (2006). The production of social capital in US counties. Journal of Socio-Economics, 35, 83-101. google scholar
  • Rupasingha, A., & Goetz, S. J. (2008). US County-level social capital data, 1990—2005. The Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, Penn State University, University Park, PA. google scholar
  • Sabatini, F. (2006). The empirics of social capital and economic development: a critical perspective, Retrieved from www.socialcapitalgateway.org/Sabatini google scholar
  • Serageldin, I., & Grootaert, C. (2000). Defining social capital: An integrating view. İçinde: Dasgupta, P. and Serageldin, I., Eds., Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective, World Bank, Washington DC, 40-59. google scholar
  • Sipahi, B. Yurtkoru, S., & Çinko, M. (2008). Sosyal Bilimlerde SPSS’ le Veri Analizi, 2. Baskı, İstanbul, Kahraman Ofset Matbaası. google scholar
  • Smith, A. (1776). (1723-1790). An inquiry into the nature and causes of the Wealth of Nations. London, England: W. Strahan and T. Cadell. google scholar
  • Smith, S. S., & Kulynych, J. (2002). It may be social, but why is it capital? The social construction of social capital and the politics of language. Politics & Society 30, 149-186. google scholar
  • Subramanian, S. V., Kim D. J., & Kawachi, I. (2002). Social trust and self-rated health in US communities: a multilevel analysis. Journal of Urban Health, 79, 21-34. google scholar
  • Şen, H., Çemrek, F., & Özaydın, Ö. (2006). Türkiye>deki illerin sosyo-ekonomik gelişmişlik düzeylerinin belirlenmesi. Sosyal ve Ekonomik Araştırmalar Dergisi, 11, 155-171. google scholar
  • Terzioğlu, M. K. (2021). Social Discount Rate and the Cost of Climate Change Risk in Turkiye (pp. 165-178). google scholar
  • Çalıyurt, K. T. (eds.), New Approaches to CSR, Sustainability and Accountability, Volume II: Springer. google scholar
  • Tüylüoğlu, Ş. (2006). Sosyal sermaye, iktisadi performans ve kalkınma: Bir yazın taraması. Akdeniz Üniversitesi İİBF Dergisi, 12, 14-60. google scholar
  • Tüysüz, N. (2011). Sosyal Sermayenin Ekonomik Gelişme Açısından Önemi ve Sosyal Sermaye Endeksinin Hesaplanması. Kalkınma Bakanlığı Yayın No: 2827. google scholar
  • Uphoff, N. (2000). Understanding social capital: learning from the analysis and experience of participation. Dasgupta, P. and Serageldin, I. (eds.), Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective, Washington, D.C.: World Bank. google scholar
  • Uslaner, E. M. (2002). The moral foundations of trust. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. google scholar
  • Vatansever, F. and Doğalı, G. (16-18, May 2011). Comparison of Classical Interpolation Methods and Artificial Neural Network Approaches. 6th International Advanced Technologies Symposium (IATS’11), Elazığ, Turkiye. google scholar
  • Wahab, M. A. (2017, January). Interpolation and extrapolation. In Proc. Topics Syst. Eng. Winter Term (Vol. 17, pp. 1-6). google scholar
  • Wang, P., Chen, X., Gong, J., & Jacques-Tiura, A. J. (2014). Reliability and validity of the personal social capital scale 16 and Personal Social Capital Scale 8: Two Short Instruments for Survey Studies. Social Indicators Research, 119(2), 46-84. google scholar
  • Whiteley, P. F. (1997). Economic growth and social capital. London, England. Political Economy Research Centre: Sheffield Press. google scholar
  • Winter, I. (2000a). Major themes and debates in the social capital literature: The Australian connection. Pp. 17-42 in Social capital and public policy in Australia, edited by Ian Winter. Melbourne: National Library of Australia. google scholar
  • Winter, I. (2000b). Family life and social capital: towards a theorised understanding. Working Paper No. 21, Australian Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne. http://aifs32/ institute/pubs/winter4.html google scholar
  • Woolcock, M. (1998). Social capital and economic development: Toward a theoretical synthesis and policy framework. Theory and Society, 27, 151-208. google scholar
  • Woolcock, M., & Narayan, D. (2000). Social capital: Implications for development theory, research, and policy. The World Bank Research Observer 15, 225-249. google scholar
  • World Bank (1998). The Initiative On Defining, Monitoring And Measuring Social Capital. Social Capital Initiative Working Paper No. 1. google scholar
  • World Bank (2021, August, 9). What is social capital? Retrieved from http://go.worldbank.org/K4LUMW43B0. google scholar
  • World Values Survey (2021, March, 15). 1981-1984 and 1990-1993 (ICPSR 6160). Ann Arbor, Mich.: Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research. google scholar
  • WVS (2021, May, 24). Retrieved from https://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/WVSContents.jsp google scholar
  • Supreme Election Board (YSK). (2021, May, 14). Election Participation Rates. Retrieved from https://www.ysk.gov. tr/tr/milletvekili-genel-secim-arsivi/2644 google scholar

Citations

Copy and paste a formatted citation or use one of the options to export in your chosen format


EXPORT



APA

Pilatin, A., & Ayaydın, H. (2019). Social Capital Measurement in Turkiye: Creating an Index by Province. Journal of Economy Culture and Society, 0(0), -. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-1033478


AMA

Pilatin A, Ayaydın H. Social Capital Measurement in Turkiye: Creating an Index by Province. Journal of Economy Culture and Society. 2019;0(0):-. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-1033478


ABNT

Pilatin, A.; Ayaydın, H. Social Capital Measurement in Turkiye: Creating an Index by Province. Journal of Economy Culture and Society, [Publisher Location], v. 0, n. 0, p. -, 2019.


Chicago: Author-Date Style

Pilatin, Abdulmuttalip, and Hasan Ayaydın. 2019. “Social Capital Measurement in Turkiye: Creating an Index by Province.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0, no. 0: -. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-1033478


Chicago: Humanities Style

Pilatin, Abdulmuttalip, and Hasan Ayaydın. Social Capital Measurement in Turkiye: Creating an Index by Province.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0, no. 0 (Dec. 2022): -. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-1033478


Harvard: Australian Style

Pilatin, A & Ayaydın, H 2019, 'Social Capital Measurement in Turkiye: Creating an Index by Province', Journal of Economy Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 0, pp. -, viewed 7 Dec. 2022, https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-1033478


Harvard: Author-Date Style

Pilatin, A. and Ayaydın, H. (2019) ‘Social Capital Measurement in Turkiye: Creating an Index by Province’, Journal of Economy Culture and Society, 0(0), pp. -. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-1033478 (7 Dec. 2022).


MLA

Pilatin, Abdulmuttalip, and Hasan Ayaydın. Social Capital Measurement in Turkiye: Creating an Index by Province.” Journal of Economy Culture and Society, vol. 0, no. 0, 2019, pp. -. [Database Container], https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-1033478


Vancouver

Pilatin A, Ayaydın H. Social Capital Measurement in Turkiye: Creating an Index by Province. Journal of Economy Culture and Society [Internet]. 7 Dec. 2022 [cited 7 Dec. 2022];0(0):-. Available from: https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-1033478 doi: 10.26650/JECS2021-1033478


ISNAD

Pilatin, Abdulmuttalip - Ayaydın, Hasan. Social Capital Measurement in Turkiye: Creating an Index by Province”. Journal of Economy Culture and Society 0/0 (Dec. 2022): -. https://doi.org/10.26650/JECS2021-1033478



TIMELINE


Submitted07.12.2021
Accepted27.01.2022
Published Online11.05.2022

LICENCE


Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC)

This license lets others remix, tweak, and build upon your work non-commercially, and although their new works must also acknowledge you and be non-commercial, they don’t have to license their derivative works on the same terms.


SHARE




Istanbul University Press aims to contribute to the dissemination of ever growing scientific knowledge through publication of high quality scientific journals and books in accordance with the international publishing standards and ethics. Istanbul University Press follows an open access, non-commercial, scholarly publishing.