Examining Individuals’ Attitudes Toward Electronic Money in the Framework of the Technology Acceptance ModelAyşen Bakkaloğlu, Yavuz Toraman
Technological developments manifest themselves in economic activities as well as in all areas of life. The ever-increasing marginal cost of time necessitates the rapid completion of economic activities, as with many other issues. Understanding consumers’ attitudes toward e-money is greatly important for being able to understand the behaviors exhibited during today’s economic activities because almost every area of life has become digital now, and many transactions have started being carried out by methods other than physical money. This study aims to examine the status of e-money applications in Turkey, individuals’ attitudes toward e-money there, and their approaches to using it within the framework of the technology acceptance model (TAM). Within the framework of the research, a survey study has been carried out with the participation of 165 people residing in Istanbul who have a master’s degree education level or higher, who are knowledgeable about e-money, and who work in companies operating in the finance sector. The data obtained from the surveys revealed results by respectively completing reliability and validity analyses and by applying correlation and path analyses, forming hypotheses, and conducting R² analyses. The study results have determined the perceived ease-of-use regarding e-money applications, especially within the framework of TAM, to positively affect individuals’ perceptions regarding its benefits and their intentions to use it. Perceived benefit is also another factor that was found to affect individuals’ intentions to use e-money.
Bireylerin Elektronik Para Tutumlarının Teknoloji Kabul Modeli Çerçevesinde İncelenmesiAyşen Bakkaloğlu, Yavuz Toraman
Gelişen teknoloji, hayatın her alanında olduğu gibi ekonomik faaliyetlerde de kendini göstermektedir. Zamanın artan marjinal maliyeti, birçok konuda olduğu gibi ekonomik faaliyetlerin de hızlı bir şekilde tamamlanmasını gerekli kılmaktadır. Tüketicilerin günümüzde iktisadi faaliyetler sırasında sergiledikleri davranışlarının anlaşılmasında elektronik para konusundaki tutumlarının da anlaşılması büyük önem arz etmektedir. Çalışmamızda, Türkiye’de elektronik para uygulamalarının bireyler nezdindeki durumunun, elektronik parayla ilgili tutumlarının ve bireylerin elektronik para kullanımına ilişkin yaklaşımlarının Teknoloji Kabul Modeli (TKM) çerçevesinde incelenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmanın örneklemi İstanbul’da yaşayan yüksek lisans ve üstü eğitim düzeyine sahip, e-para konusunda bilgili ve finans sektöründe faaliyet gösteren şirketlerde çalışan 165 bireydir. Çalışma korelasyon analizi, yol analizi, hipotez testleri ve R² analizleri uygulanarak, kurulan hipotezlerin desteklendiği görülmüştür. Çalışma sonucunda elde edilen bulgularda TKM çerçevesinde e-para uygulamalarına ilişkin algılanan kullanım kolaylığının, bireylerin elde edecekleri fayda algılarını ve kullanma niyetlerini pozitif bir şekilde etkilediği tespit edilmiştir. Bireylerin kullanma niyetlerini etkileyen bir diğer faktör algıladıkları fayda olarak belirlenmiştir.
In today’s world, as in all areas of life, technological developments have caused significant changes in economic activities. The ever-increasing marginal cost of time necessitates that economic activities be completed quickly, as with many other issues. As a result, studies on electronic money have been carried out regarding how to complete, record, and monitor monetary movements more quickly and the use of e-money becoming widespread.
A great deal of research on e-money has been conducted regarding how various e-money systems work. A significant number of articles have also focused on privacy and security issues related to e-money use. Apart from these, studies have also focused on the effect of e-money on the monetary system. More specifically, related studies have focused on whether e-money poses a threat to central banks’ ability to control the value of national currencies through traditional monetary policies and on the introduction of e-money for the future of central banks and monetary policy effectiveness as a whole.
The technology acceptance model (TAM), which forms the basis of the study, is frequently used to examine the factors that affect the adoption of new technology. TAM was used in its first stage to examine the factors that affect the acceptance of a particular technology by people in a particular place or region. For example, learning the factors that affect the acceptance of users when computers are used for the first time in businesses is extremely important because a prolonged adaptation process will disrupt business processes and increase costs.
TAM is composed of the variables of perceived usefulness (PU), perceived ease-of-use (PEU), attitude (A), and intention to use (IU) and aims to examine the factors that affect user’s behavior intention (UBI) regarding the related technology. During the process, different researchers arranged the model, included exogenous variables suitable for the conditions of the time and the purpose of the research, and repeated the study.
In addition to TAM, the research aims to understand the acceptance of e-money use in the market in addition to the cash currencies that are used and that have dematerialized in the digitalized world.
In line with this purpose, a survey has been conducted with the participation of 165 individuals residing in Istanbul who have a master’s degree education level or higher, who are knowledgeable about e-money, and who work in companies operating in the finance sector. In the research process, data were collected in February 2022. The data analysis used the package statistics program Smart PLS and the variance-based structural equation model (SEM), a second-generation multivariate statistical analysis technique.
The study results show mobile applications to have had a great impact on the selection of user-friendly interface software and e-money applications. Users declared choosing applications that are easy to use, understandable, user-friendly, accurate, and fast; that offer options; and that are safe to use and easy to benefit from. In addition, the results show that users who feel confident with mobile applications will recommend them to those in their surroundings, and will expand the use of mobile applications both in their social lives and in their work. Those who use mobile e-money applications developed for e-money are understood to be able to improve their user attitudes toward mobile application use through the determinations they make regarding the application’s perceived ease of use. Meanwhile, the variables determined within the scope of the study and the hypotheses of the established model are seen to have been verified.
In addition, e-money mobile application users are understood to continue using mobile applications they consider to be beneficial, with their attitudes being focused on the benefits. When e-money application owners evaluate the benefits perceived by a mobile application’s other users, they may conclude an increase to have occurred regarding the intention to use a mobile application.
In addition to the present study, the use of e-money is concluded to be currently possible using the technical devices people widely possess, and the creation of e-money applications can be used by wider masses due to the economic, functional, and protective features e-money provides that can be considered competitive compared to other currencies.