Poetry on the Issue of Creating the Holy Qur’anAhmet Onur
By our reference to the question of the creation of the Qur’an, we mean that verbal term that expresses the debate over whether, in fact, the Qur’an was created or not. This debate arose, especially among the Muʽtazila theological sect, which emerged at the beginning of the second century AH. The question arose in the space approximately under the influence of reason and its dominance, and the impulse of influence from philosophy and theology, the principles of the Muʽtazila led to many serious violations in the Islamic faith. One of the prominent issues in the thought of this sect was the issue of the creation of the Qur’an, wherein they argue that the Holy Qur’an was created the same as other creatures. Analyzing from this thought, they deny that the Qur’an is the word of God that He spoke. This issue intensified and many scholars were persecuted in the era of al-Ma’mun, al-Muʽtasim and al-Wathiq, with the support of the Muʽtazilite judge Ahmed bin Abi Duad. Past and present studies have dealt with the issue of the creation of the Qur’an, but they have not addressed the poetry accompanying it. Accordingly, this paper has tried to trace the origins of this poetry. We have considered the corresponding poetry and the poetry contrary to it. The most prominent poets in the first group were Al-Saheb bin Abbad and Al-Hussein bin Abdul Salam; As for the second group, we stopped at Ali bin al-Jahm, who praised al-Mu’tasim and al-Wathiq with only a few of his poems and ended with poems that had nothing to do with the creation of the Qur’an. Until Al-Mutawakkil assumed the caliphate, he anticipated a victory for the Sunnis. For this reason, he praised the caliph for his role in addressing this issue. Finally, we research the poems of al-Buhturi and those of some religious groups and other poetry that relates to this subject.
Halku’l-Kur’ân Meselesi Konusunda Söylenen ŞiirlerAhmet Onur
Halku’l-Kur’ân Meselesi ile, Kur’an’ın yaratılmış olup olmadığı konusundaki tartışmaları ifade eden kelâm terimini kastedilmektedir. Bu tartışma, bilhassa Hicri 2. asrın başlarında ortaya çıkan Muʽtezile mezhebiyle, yaklaşık olarak aklın tahkim ve takdiminin etkisinde, felsefe ve kelamdan etkilenme dürtüsü ile ortaya çıkmıştır. Muʽtezile görüşleri, İslam inancında birçok ciddi tahribata yol açmış ve bu mezhebin düşüncesinde öne çıkanlar Kur’ân’ın yaratılmışlığı konusu ile O’nun konuştuğunun Allah kelâmı olduğunu inkâr edenlerle ilgili meselelerdir. Bu mesele, Muʽtezile’den olan kâdî Ahmed b. Ebî Du’âd’ın desteğiyle el-Me’mun, el-Muʽtasım ve el-Vâsık devrinde âlimler imtihan edilinceye kadar yoğunlaştı. Geçmişte ve günümüzde yapılan çalışmalarda, Kur’an’ın yaratılmışlığı konusu araştırılmış fakat Kur’ân’ın yaratılmışlığı ile ilgili konuları ele alan şiirler incelenmemiştir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışma bu şiirlerin izini sürmeye çalışmıştır. Kur’ân’ın yaratılmışlığı konusuyla ilgili şiirler ve buna karşı görüş bildiren şiirleri ele alınmıştır. İlk olarak El-Sâhib b. Abbâd ve el-Hüseyin b. Abdusselâm, Kur’ân’ın yaratılmışlığını ele alan şiirlerine yer verilmiştir. Ardından Kur’ân’ın yaratılmışlığına pek değinmeyen ve El-Muʽtasım ile El-Vâsık’ı çok az öven Ali b. el-Cehm ve şiirleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca el-Buhturî’nin bazı kasideleri ve konuyla ilgili şiirlerine değinilmiştir.
الش ّ عر الدائر حول مسألة خلق القرآن الكريمAhmet Onur
ملخص َل الذي دار حول ما إذا كان القرآن ِ َ ر عن الجد ُعبّ ُ َ قص ّ د بمسألة خلق القرآن ذاك المصطلح الكالمي الذي ي ي ّاني ِ ْرقة المعتزلة الكالميّة التي ظهرت في بداية القرن الث ً ّ ا أم ال. وقد برز هذا الجدل بخاصة مع ف مخلوق ّر بالفلسفة وعلم الكالم، وقد أدّت أصولهم إلى ّأث ٍ من الت ًا بتأثير من تحكيم العقل وتقديمه وبدفع ّ الهجري تقريب مخالفات كثيرة وخطيرة في العقيدة اإلسالميّة، وكانت مسألة خلق القرآن من المسائل البارزة في فكر هذه ِ الف ْر ّ قة، حيث يذهبون إلى أن ْ القرآن الكريم مخلوق كغيره من المخلوقات، وينفون أن يكون كالم الله الذي ُحن فيها العلماء في عهد المأمون والمعتصم والواثق بدفع من ّم به. وقد اشتدّ أمر هذه المسألة حتى امت تكل ّ القاضي المعتزلي أحمد بن أبي دُ َؤاد. ّ ّ ها لم تتناول الشعر المرافق لها، فحاول هذا ًا مسألة خلق القرآن، ولكن وقد تناولت الدّ ً راسات قديما وحديث البحث تتبّ ّ ع هذا الش ّ عر، فوقفنا عند الش ّ عر الموافق والش ّ عر المخالف لها، وكان أبرز الش ّ عراء في القسم األول َّ الص َ احب بن عبّ ّ اد والحسين بن عبد السالم ّ ؛ أم ّ ا في القسم الثاني فقد وقفنا عند علي َ بن الجهم الذي لم يمدح ّ ّ ى المتوكل الخالفة رأى فيه المعتصم والواثق إال قلي ًل وبأشعار ال عالقة لها بخلق القرآن، حتى إذا تول ّصدّ ّ ي لهذه المسألة، كما تناولنا هنا أشعار البحتري وبعض ً نصر ّ ا ألهل السنة فانطلق يمدحه لدوره في الت ّصل بهذا الموضوع. المنظومات الدّينيّة وغيرها من األشعار التي تت
This paper considers what was said among scholars past and present about poetry concerning the issue of the creation of the Qur’an, which was the polestar of the Mu’tazila theological sect, first among the sects that embraced this theological concept. The concept achieved predominance among them when they became powerfully close to the ruling authorities. They convinced the three caliphs, Al-Ma’mun, Al-Muʽtasim, and al-Wathiq, to embrace it and defend it and to persecute those who refuse to embrace and defend it. Debates have been held, the aim of which is to respond to the second position, particularly to that thought as it developed under intimidation through torture and murder. The Muʽtazilite Ahmad bin Abi Duad played the primary role in this state-sponsored persecution, and it continued for fifteen years between 218-232 AH. The persecution finally ended when Al-Mutawakkil assumed the caliphate.
If the books of the Muʽtazila scholars mentioned the names of poets because of what happened in their poetry, that is, when it indicated their embrace of Muʽtazila dogma, or because they praised the leaders of the Muʽtazilites, especially Ahmed bin Abi Duad, some of them nonetheless cannot be counted among them.
For the Muʽtazilites required belief in all five principles, It is not permissible to to share only one or more principles with the Muʽtazilite. Therefore, one cannot say that Abu Tammam was one of the Muʽtazilites, even if he praised Ibn Abi Duad in thirteen places in his poetry. His praises were often an effort to receive a reward, and the judge Ahmad bin Abi Duad’s doctrine was only mentioned once.
Likewise, Daʽbil’s poems do not indicate that he espoused Muʽtazila beliefs, while Ibn Al-Murtada mentioned some evidence to prove his praise of Ahl al-Bayt without saying he was a Muʽtazila or not. If the Shiite regions tended toward Muʽtazila generally, this does not mean that they were identical. Daʽbil satirized Ibn Abi Duad, as well as the three caliphs in charge of the ordeal, but his poems do not proceed from a contradiction of the thought of the Muʽtazila or endorse belief in the creation of the Qur’an,. Rather his poetry is interpreted through its Shiiteness or by its nature, concentrating on the original satire. Da’bil was not particularly sincere in his Shi’ism. In the same manner that he preferred money over the suit that Ali al-Rida gave him, he also opposed the Shiite poem by al-Kumayt in the Qahtanites of his people. Further, he also satirizeed Adnanis, the people of al-Kumayt.
As for the most prominent Mu’tazila poets who mentioned the creation of the Qur’an, between Al-Saheb Ibn Abbad and the poet Al-Jamal, Saheb has the priority; He was not motivated by the thought of the Mu’tazilites and now did he claim that the Qur’an was created in praise of the Mu’tazilites to compete for their gifts. Rather, he was himself from the elite of society and a minister with authority. He had councils that included scholars and writers. Al-Saheb himself lavished gifts on the poets. Al-Saheb was a Shiite and Muʽtazilite at the same time. We find in his poetry many manifestations of both his Shiite and Muʽtazili beliefs. In the line of poetry that contradicts the belief in the creation of the Qur’an, Ali ibn al-Jahm and al-Buhturi were the most prominent poets during the time of adversity. Ali’s poetry is superior to the poetry of al-Buhturi. Ali’s poetry springs from his sincere belief in this issue, and he often dealt with supporting the Sunnah and eliminating adversity in his praises of Al-Mutawakkil. Even if he were not sincere in this poetry, he found other ways to praise the caliph sincerely. Ali also wrote poems praising al-Wathiq and al-Muʽtasim, but he did not discuss what they might have said about the creation of the Qur’an, and he did not praise them for that. As soon as Al-Mutawakkil assumed the caliphate, he saw hope for the religion’s victory.
The research also declined to consider certain religious texts that organized the belief, and they are many. These texts do not adhere to the Rajaz meter, but we find many other seas; such as the long sea, the simple, the complete, the abundant, and others. We see this school of poetry as a single place for talking about the creation of the Qur’an. One of the most famous and longest was the poem “The Healing Sufficient” by Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziah. This poem reached 5842 verses in the Kamil meter. The poet spoke in more than four hundred poetic verses about the issue of the creation of the Qurʼan among different sects, disproving the suspicions of its naysayers and defending the belief of the Sunnites. This poem deserves an independent consideration in its own research.
At the conclusion of the research, we drew attention to the possibility of expanding the study of the poetry related to the issue of the creation of the Qur’an. The issue has been studied in both the past and present in intellectual and doctrinal prose studies, but it has not singled out – so far as we know - the poetry that surrounds it. The research can and should also be expanded to include the Ash’ari systems and others. There is no doubt also that there are many poems that recited in praise of Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal, one of the most prominent of those persecuted in the ordeal, denying the belief that the Qur’an was created. It is also possible to search and study these poems.